Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5649

Search results for: surface finish

5649 Experimental Study and Neural Network Modeling in Prediction of Surface Roughness on Dry Turning Using Two Different Cutting Tool Nose Radii

Authors: Deba Kumar Sarma, Sanjib Kr. Rajbongshi

Abstract:

Surface finish is an important product quality in machining. At first, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the cutting tool nose radius (considering 1mm and 0.65mm) in prediction of surface finish with process parameters of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. For all possible cutting conditions, full factorial design was considered as two levels four parameters. Commercial Mild Steel bar and High Speed Steel (HSS) material were considered as work-piece and cutting tool material respectively. In order to obtain functional relationship between process parameters and surface roughness, neural network was used which was found to be capable for the prediction of surface roughness within a reasonable degree of accuracy. It was observed that tool nose radius of 1mm provides better surface finish in comparison to 0.65 mm. Also, it was observed that feed rate has a significant influence on surface finish.

Keywords: full factorial design, neural network, nose radius, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
5648 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh

Abstract:

Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
5647 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media

Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam

Abstract:

Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 574
5646 Validation and Interpretation about Precedence Diagram for Start to Finish Relationship by Graph Theory

Authors: Naoki Ohshima, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Four types of dependencies, which are 'Finish-to-start', 'Finish-to-finish', 'Start-to-start' and 'Start-to-finish (S-F)' as logical relationship are modeled based on the definition by 'the predecessor activity is defined as an activity to come before a dependent activity in a schedule' in PMBOK. However, it is found a self-contradiction in the precedence diagram for S-F relationship by PMBOK. In this paper, author would like to validate logical relationship of S-F by Graph Theory and propose a new interpretation of the precedence diagram for S-F relationship.

Keywords: project time management, sequence activity, start-to-finish relationship, precedence diagram, PMBOK

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
5645 Surface Roughness Formed during Hybrid Turning of Inconel Alloy

Authors: Pawel Twardowski, Tadeusz Chwalczuk, Szymon Wojciechowski

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a material characterized by the unique mechanical properties, high temperature strength, high thermal conductivity and the corrosion resistance. However, these features affect the low machinability of this material, which is usually manifested by the intense tool wear and low surface finish. Therefore, this paper is focused on the evaluation of surface roughness during hybrid machining of Inconel 718. The primary aim of the study was to determine the relations between the vibrations generated during hybrid turning and the formed surface roughness. Moreover, the comparison of tested machining techniques in terms of vibrations, tool wear and surface roughness has been made. The conducted tests included the face turning of Inconel 718 with laser assistance in the range of variable cutting speeds. The surface roughness was inspected with the application of stylus profile meter and accelerations of vibrations were measured with the use of three-component piezoelectric accelerometer. The carried out research shows that application of laser assisted machining can contribute to the reduction of surface roughness and cutting vibrations, in comparison to conventional turning. Moreover, the obtained results enable the selection of effective cutting speed allowing the improvement of surface finish and cutting dynamics.

Keywords: hybrid machining, nickel alloys, surface roughness, turning, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
5644 Optimization of Wire EDM Parameters for Fabrication of Micro Channels

Authors: Gurinder Singh Brar, Sarbjeet Singh, Harry Garg

Abstract:

Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is thermal machining process capable of machining very hard electrically conductive material irrespective of their hardness. WEDM is being widely used to machine micro-scale parts with the high dimensional accuracy and surface finish. The objective of this paper is to optimize the process parameters of wire EDM to fabricate the microchannels and to calculate the surface finish and material removal rate of microchannels fabricated using wire EDM. The material used is aluminum 6061 alloy. The experiments were performed using CNC wire cut electric discharge machine. The effect of various parameters of WEDM like pulse on time (TON) with the levels (100, 150, 200), pulse off time (TOFF) with the levels (25, 35, 45) and current (IP) with the levels (105, 110, 115) were investigated to study the effect on output parameter i.e. Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR). Each experiment was conducted under different conditions of a pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current. For material removal rate, TON and Ip were the most significant process parameter. MRR increases with the increase in TON and Ip and decreases with the increase in TOFF. For surface roughness, TON and Ip have the maximum effect and TOFF was found out to be less effective.

Keywords: microchannels, Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM), Metal Removal Rate (MRR), surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
5643 Enhancement of Material Removal Rate of Complex Featured Surfaces in Vibratory Finishing

Authors: Kunal Ahluwalia, Ampara Aramcharoen, Chan Wai Luen, Swee Hock Yeo

Abstract:

The different process engineering applications of vibratory finishing technology have led to its versatile use in the development of aviation components. The most noteworthy applications of vibratory finishing include deburring and imparting the required surface finish. In this paper, vibratory finishing has been used to study its effectiveness in removal of laser shock peened (LSP) layers from Titanium workpieces. A vibratory trough operating at a frequency of 25 Hz, amplitude 3.5 mm and titanium specimens (Ti-6Al-4V, Grade 5) of dimensions 50 x 50 x 10 mm³ were utilized for the experiments. A vibrating fixture operating at 200 Hz was used to provide vibration to the test piece and was immersed in the vibratory trough. It was evident that there is an increase in efficiency of removal of the complex featured layer and smoother surface finish with the introduction of the vibrating fixture in the vibratory finishing setup as compared to the conventional vibratory finishing setup wherein the fixture is not vibrating.

Keywords: laser shock peening, material removal, surface roughness, vibrating fixture, vibratory finishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
5642 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers

Abstract:

Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
5641 Experimental Optimization in Diamond Lapping of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

Authors: S. Gowri, K. Narayanasamy, R. Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

Plasma spraying, from the point of value engineering, is considered as a cost-effective technique to deposit high performance ceramic coatings on ferrous substrates for use in the aero,automobile,electronics and semiconductor industries. High-performance ceramics such as Alumina, Zirconia, and titania-based ceramics have become a key part of turbine blades,automotive cylinder liners,microelectronic and semiconductor components due to their ability to insulate and distribute heat. However, as the industries continue to advance, improved methods are needed to increase both the flexibility and speed of ceramic processing in these applications. The ceramics mentioned were individually coated on structural steel substrate with NiCr bond coat of 50-70 micron thickness with the final thickness in the range of 150 to 200 microns. Optimal spray parameters were selected based on bond strength and porosity. The 'optimal' processed specimens were super finished by lapping using diamond and green SiC abrasives. Interesting results could be observed as follows: The green SiC could improve the surface finish of lapped surfaces almost as that by diamond in case of alumina and titania based ceramics but the diamond abrasives could improve the surface finish of PSZ better than that by green SiC. The conventional random scratches could be absent in alumina and titania ceramics but in PS those marks were found to be less. However, the flatness accuracy could be improved unto 60 to 85%. The surface finish and geometrical accuracy were measured and modeled. The abrasives in the midrange of their particle size could improve the surface quality faster and better than the particles of size in low and high ranges. From the experimental investigations after lapping process, the optimal lapping time, abrasive size, lapping pressure etc could be evaluated.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma spraying, ceramics, lapping, surface qulaity, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
5640 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh

Abstract:

Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: strontium, surface roughness, chip, morphology, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
5639 Taguchi-Based Surface Roughness Optimization for Slotted and Tapered Cylindrical Products in Milling and Turning Operations

Authors: Vineeth G. Kuriakose, Joseph C. Chen, Ye Li

Abstract:

The research follows a systematic approach to optimize the parameters for parts machined by turning and milling processes. The quality characteristic chosen is surface roughness since the surface finish plays an important role for parts that require surface contact. A tapered cylindrical surface is designed as a test specimen for the research. The material chosen for machining is aluminum alloy 6061 due to its wide variety of industrial and engineering applications. HAAS VF-2 TR computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining center is used for milling and HAAS ST-20 CNC machine is used for turning in this research. Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the surface roughness of the machined parts. The L9 Orthogonal Array is designed for four controllable factors with three different levels each, resulting in 18 experimental runs. Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio is calculated for achieving the specific target value of 75 ± 15 µin. The controllable parameters chosen for turning process are feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow and finish cut and for milling process are feed rate, spindle speed, step over and coolant flow. The uncontrollable factors are tool geometry for turning process and tool material for milling process. Hypothesis testing is conducted to study the significance of different uncontrollable factors on the surface roughnesses. The optimal parameter settings were identified from the Taguchi analysis and the process capability Cp and the process capability index Cpk were improved from 1.76 and 0.02 to 3.70 and 2.10 respectively for turning process and from 0.87 and 0.19 to 3.85 and 2.70 respectively for the milling process. The surface roughnesses were improved from 60.17 µin to 68.50 µin, reducing the defect rate from 52.39% to 0% for the turning process and from 93.18 µin to 79.49 µin, reducing the defect rate from 71.23% to 0% for the milling process. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design analysis to improve the surface roughness.

Keywords: surface roughness, Taguchi parameter design, CNC turning, CNC milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
5638 Fiber Release from Fabrics with Various Weave Parameters and Finishing Treatments during Washing and Their Marine Biodegradation

Authors: Seoyoun Kim, Chunghee Park

Abstract:

Microplastics have recently become an issue due to their potentially harmful effects on the marine environment and the human body. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of fiber emissions during the home laundering with the fabric parameters such as yarn density, warp/weft density, and weave structure. Also, the effect of finishing treatments such as reactive dyeing, water-repellent finish, peach skin finish on fiber emissions was evaluated. Furthermore, we studied the biodegradability of fibers in the marine environment compared to those in soil burial and the impact of finishing treatment on the biodegradability. Biodegradability was evaluated by measuring BOD values and tensile strength reduction. The results showed that more fibers were released in the thicker yarn, lower weave density. Also, a weave structure which has less compactness, released more fibers. Peach skin finish with microfibers exposed on the surface caused more fiber release, whereas water-repellent finish reduced the fiber emission. In addition, the biodegradability of the fabrics submerged in the marine environment were lower compared with those buried in the soil. Also, the water-repellent fabric was less biodegradable than the untreated one. Further research is suggested considering the fabrics with various chemical components or geometry and their fouling behavior in the marine environment.

Keywords: biodegradation, fibers, microplastic, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
5637 Influence of 3D Printing Parameters on Surface Finish of Ceramic Hip Prostheses Fixed by Means of Osteointegration

Authors: Irene Buj-Corral, Ali Bagheri, Alejandro Dominguez-Fernandez

Abstract:

In recent years, use of ceramic prostheses as an implant in some parts of body has become common. In the present study, research has focused on replacement of the acetabulum bone, which is a part of the pelvis bone. Metallic prostheses have shown some problems such as release of metal ions into patient's blood. In addition, fracture of liners and squeezing between surface of femoral head and inner surface of acetabulum have been reported. Ceramic prostheses have the advantage of low debris and high strength, although they are more difficult to be manufactured than metallic ones. Specifically, new designs try to attempt an acetabulum in which the outer surface will be porous for proliferation of cells and fixation of the prostheses by means of osteointegration, while inner surface must be smooth enough to assure that the movement between femoral head and inner surface will be carried out with on feasibility. In the present study, 3D printing technologies are used for manufacturing ceramic prostheses. In Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process, 3D printed plastic prostheses are obtained by means of melting of a plastic filament and subsequent deposition on a glass surface. A similar process is applied to ceramics in which ceramic powders need to be mixed with a liquid polymer before depositing them. After 3D printing, parts are subjected to a sintering process in an oven so that they can achieve final strength. In the present paper, influence of printing parameters on surface roughness 3D printed ceramic parts are presented. Three parameter full factorial design of experiments was used. Selected variables were layer height, infill and nozzle diameter. Responses were average roughness Ra and mean roughness depth Rz. Regression analysis was applied to responses in order to obtain mathematical models for responses. Results showed that surface roughness depends mainly on layer height and nozzle diameter employed, while infill was found not to be significant. In order to get low surface roughness, low layer height and low infill should be selected. As a conclusion, layer height and infill are important parameters for obtaining good surface finish in ceramic 3D printed prostheses. However, use of too low infill could lead to prostheses with low mechanical strength. Such prostheses could not be able to bear the static and dynamic charges to which they are subjected once they are implanted in the body. This issue will be addressed in further research.

Keywords: ceramic, hip prostheses, surface roughness, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
5636 Effects of Milling Process Parameters on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness When Finishing Ti6al4v Produced by Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali Al-Samhan

Abstract:

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, which uses computer-controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with a variety of materials. However, the quality of the surface finish in EBM process has limitations to meeting the performance requirements of additively manufactured components. The aim of this study is to investigate the cutting forces induced during milling Ti6Al4V produced by EBM as well as the surface quality of the milled surfaces. The effects of cutting speed and radial depth of cut on the cutting forces, surface roughness, and surface morphology were investigated. The results indicated that the cutting speed was found to be proportional to the resultant cutting force at any cutting conditions while the surface roughness improved significantly with the increase in cutting speed and radial depth of cut.

Keywords: electron beam melting, additive manufacturing, Ti6Al4V, surface morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
5635 Effect of Weave on Cotton Fabric to Improve the Durable Press Finish Rating

Authors: Mayur Kudale, Priyanka Panchal

Abstract:

Cellulose fibres, mainly cotton, are the most important kind of fibre used for manufacturing shirting fabric. However, to overcome its main disadvantage, that is it gets wrinkled after washing, is to use special kind of finish which is resin finish. This finish provides a resistance against shrinkage along with improved wet and dry wrinkle recovery to cellulosic textiles. The Durable Press (DP) finish uses a mechanism of cross-linking with polymers or resin to inhibit the easy movement of the cellulose chains. The purpose of these experimentations on the weave is to observe and compare the variations in properties after DP finish without adverse effect on strength of the fabric. In this work, we have prepared three types of fabric weaves viz. Plain, Twill and Sateen with their construction parameters intact. To get the projected results, this work uses three types of variables viz. concentration of Resin, Temperature and Time. Resultant of these variables is only change in weave or construction on DP finish which further opens the possibilities of improvement of DP either of mentioned weaves. The combined effect of such various parametric resin finish methodology will give the best method to improve the DP. However, the DP finish can cause a side effect of reduction in elasticity and flexibility of cellulosic fibres. The natural cellulose could loss abrasion resistance along with tear and tensile strength by applying DP finish. In this work, it is taken care that the tear strength of fabric will not drop below certain limit otherwise the fabric will tear down easily. In this work, it is found that there is a significant drop in tearing and tensile strength with the improvement of DP finish. Later on, it is also found that the twill weave has more percentage drop in tearing strength as compared to plain and sateen weave. There is major kind of observations obtained after this work. First, the mixing of cotton should be done properly to achieve the higher DP rating in plain weave. Second, the careful combination of warp, weft and fabric construction must be decided to avoid the high drop in tear and tensile strength in a twill weave. Third, the sateen weave has a good sheen and DP rating hence it can be used in shirting of gents and ladies dress materials. This concludes that to achieve higher DP ratings, use plain weave construction than twill and sateen because it has the lowest tear and tensile strength drop.

Keywords: concentration of resin, cross-linking, durable press (DP) finish, sheen, tear and tensile strength, weave

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5634 Optimization of Surface Finish in Milling Operation Using Live Tooling via Taguchi Method

Authors: Harish Kumar Ponnappan, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to optimize the surface roughness of a milling operation on AISI 1018 steel using live tooling on a HAAS ST-20 lathe. In this study, Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the milling process by investigating the effect of different machining parameters on surface roughness. The L9 orthogonal array is designed with four controllable factors with three different levels each and an uncontrollable factor, resulting in 18 experimental runs. The optimal parameters determined from Taguchi analysis were feed rate – 76.2 mm/min, spindle speed 1150 rpm, depth of cut – 0.762 mm and 2-flute TiN coated high-speed steel as tool material. The process capability Cp and process capability index Cpk values were improved from 0.62 and -0.44 to 1.39 and 1.24 respectively. The average surface roughness values from the confirmation runs were 1.30 µ, decreasing the defect rate from 87.72% to 0.01%. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design to optimize the surface roughness in a milling operation using live tooling.

Keywords: live tooling, surface roughness, taguchi analysis, CNC milling operation, CNC turning operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
5633 Role of Process Parameters on Pocket Milling with Abrasive Water Jet Machining Technique

Authors: T. V. K. Gupta, J. Ramkumar, Puneet Tandon, N. S. Vyas

Abstract:

Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM) is an unconventional machining process well known for machining hard to cut materials. The primary research focus on the process was for through cutting and a very limited literature is available on pocket milling using AWJM. The present work is an attempt to use this process for milling applications considering a set of various process parameters. Four different input parameters, which were considered by researchers for part separation, are selected for the above application i.e. abrasive size, flow rate, standoff distance, and traverse speed. Pockets of definite size are machined to investigate surface roughness, material removal rate, and pocket depth. Based on the data available through experiments on SS304 material, it is observed that higher traverse speeds gives a better finish because of reduction in the particle energy density and lower depth is also observed. Increase in the standoff distance and abrasive flow rate reduces the rate of material removal as the jet loses its focus and occurrence of collisions within the particles. ANOVA for individual output parameter has been studied to know the significant process parameters.

Keywords: abrasive flow rate, surface finish, abrasive size, standoff distance, traverse speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
5632 Application of Taguchi Techniques on Machining of A356/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Nano-Composite

Authors: Abdallah M. Abdelkawy, Tarek M. El Hossainya, I. El Mahallawib

Abstract:

Recently, significant achievements have been made in development and manufacturing of nano-dispersed metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs). They gain their importance due to their high strength to weight ratio. The machining problems of these new materials are less widely investigated, thus this work focuses on machining of them. Aluminum-Silicon (A356)/ MMNC dispersed with alumina (Al2O3) is important in many applications include engine blocks. The final finish process of this application depends heavily on machining. The most important machining parameter studied includes: cutting force and surface roughness. Experimental trails are performed on the number of special samples of MMNC (with different Al2O3%) where the relation between Al2O3% and cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth with cutting force and surface roughness were studied. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to define the significant factors on both cutting force and surface roughness and their level of confident. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to build a model relating cutting conditions and Al2O3% to the cutting force and surface roughness. The results have shown that feed and depth of cut have the major contribution on the cutting force and the surface roughness followed by cutting speed and nano-percent in MMNCs.

Keywords: machinability, cutting force, surface roughness, Ra, RSM, ANOVA, MMNCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
5631 Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Koshi Suzuki

Abstract:

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.

Keywords: construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
5630 Tribological Aspects of Advanced Roll Material in Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel

Authors: Mohammed Tahir, Jonas Lagergren

Abstract:

Vancron 40, a nitrided powder metallurgical tool Steel, is used in cold work applications where the predominant failure mechanisms are adhesive wear or galling. Typical applications of Vancron 40 are among others fine blanking, cold extrusion, deep drawing and cold work rolls for cluster mills. Vancron 40 positive results for cold work rolls for cluster mills and as a tool for some severe metal forming process makes it competitive compared to other type of work rolls that require higher precision, among others in cold rolling of thin stainless steel, which required high surface finish quality. In this project, three roll materials for cold rolling of stainless steel strip was examined, Vancron 40, Narva 12B (a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with tungsten) and Supra 3 (a Chromium-molybdenum tungsten-vanadium alloyed high speed steel). The purpose of this project was to study the depth profiles of the ironed stainless steel strips, emergence of galling and to study the lubrication performance used by steel industries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine scratch of the strip, galling and surface roughness of the roll materials under severe tribological conditions. The critical sliding length for onset of galling was estimated for stainless steel with four different lubricants. Laboratory experiments result of performance evaluation of resistance capability of rolls toward adhesive wear under severe conditions for low and high reductions. Vancron 40 in combination with cold rolling lubricant gave good surface quality, prevents galling of metal surfaces and good bearing capacity.

Keywords: Vancron 40, cold rolling, adhesive wear, galling, surface finish, lubricant, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
5629 Effects of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Vibration of the Milling Tool

Authors: Yung C. Lin, Kung D. Wu, Wei C. Shih, Jui P. Hung

Abstract:

High speed and high precision machining have become the most important technology in manufacturing industry. The surface roughness of high precision components is regarded as the important characteristics of the product quality. However, machining chatter could damage the machined surface and restricts the process efficiency. Therefore, selection of the appropriate cutting conditions is of importance to prevent the occurrence of chatter. In addition, vibration of the spindle tool also affects the surface quality, which implies the surface precision can be controlled by monitoring the vibration of the spindle tool. Based on this concept, this study was aimed to investigate the influence of the machining conditions on the surface roughness and the vibration of the spindle tool. To this end, a series of machining tests were conducted on aluminum alloy. In tests, the vibration of the spindle tool was measured by using the acceleration sensors. The surface roughness of the machined parts was examined using white light interferometer. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish the mathematical models for predicting surface finish and tool vibration, respectively. The correlation between the surface roughness and spindle tool vibration was also analyzed by ANOVA analysis. According to the machining tests, machined surface with or without chattering was marked on the lobes diagram as the verification of the machining conditions. Using multivariable regression analysis, the mathematical models for predicting the surface roughness and tool vibrations were developed based on the machining parameters, cutting depth (a), feed rate (f) and spindle speed (s). The predicted roughness is shown to agree well with the measured roughness, an average percentage of errors of 10%. The average percentage of errors of the tool vibrations between the measurements and the predictions of mathematical model is about 7.39%. In addition, the tool vibration under various machining conditions has been found to have a positive influence on the surface roughness (r=0.78). As a conclusion from current results, the mathematical models were successfully developed for the predictions of the surface roughness and vibration level of the spindle tool under different cutting condition, which can help to select appropriate cutting parameters and to monitor the machining conditions to achieve high surface quality in milling operation.

Keywords: machining parameters, machining stability, regression analysis, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
5628 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell

Abstract:

The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

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5627 The Effect of Bearing Surface Finish on the Engine's Lubrication System Performance

Authors: Kudakwashe Diana Nyamugure

Abstract:

Engine design has evolved to suit new industry standards of smaller compact designs that operate at high temperatures and even higher stress loads. Research has proven that the interaction of the bearing surface and the lubrication film is affected by the bearing's surface texture, geometry, and dimensional tolerances. The challenge now for the automotive manufacturing industry is to understand which processes can be applied on bearing surfaces to reduce the 65% energy loss in engines, 15% of which is caused by friction. This paper will discuss a post grinding process known as microfinishing which optimises the characteristics of a manufactured surface such as roughness, profile, and waviness. Microfinishing is becoming an increasing trend within the automotive industry and has so far been applied on high performance and mass production crank or cam bearing surfaces in bid of friction reduction and extended engine service life. In the near future, microfinishing will be applied to more engine components because of the stringent environmental regulations demands on fuel consumption, reliability, power, and service life of engine components.

Keywords: bearings, tribology, friction reduction, energy efficiency

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5626 Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process

Authors: Alluru Gopala Krishna, Thella Babu Rao

Abstract:

In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.

Keywords: CNT based nano cutting fluid, tool wear, turning, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5625 The Impact of Surface Roughness and PTFE/TiF3/FeF3 Additives in Plain ZDDP Oil on the Friction and Wear Behavior Using Thermal and Tribological Analysis under Extreme Pressure Condition

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme, Saeed Ghalambor

Abstract:

The use of titanium fluoride and iron fluoride (TiF3/FeF3) catalysts in combination with polutetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil is important for the study of engine tribocomponents and is increasingly a strategy to improve the formation of tribofilm and to provide low friction and excellent wear protection in reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil. The influence of surface roughness and the concentration of TiF3/FeF3/PTFE were investigated using bearing steel samples dipped in lubricant solution @100°C for two different heating time durations. This paper addresses the effects of water drop contact angle using different surface finishes after treating them with different lubricant combination. The calculated water drop contact angles were analyzed using Design of Experiment software (DOE) and it was determined that a 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness would provide an excellent TiF3/FeF3/PTFE coating for antiwear resistance as reflected in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the tribological testing under extreme pressure conditions. Both friction and wear performance depend greatly on the PTFE/and catalysts in plain ZDDP oil with 0.05% phosphorous and on the surface finish of bearing steel. The friction and wear reducing effects, which was observed in the tribological tests, indicated a better micro lubrication effect of the 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness treated at 100°C for 24 hours when compared to the 0.1 μm Ra surface roughness with the same treatment.

Keywords: scanning electron microscopy, ZDDP, catalysts, PTFE, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
5624 Surface Roughness of Al-Si/10% AlN MMC Material in Milling Operation Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, Izzati Osman, Z. A. Latiff, S. A .F. Syed Mohd

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites have demand for light-weight structural and functional materials. MMCs have been shown to offer improvements in strength, rigidity, temperature stability, wear resistance, reliability and control of physical properties such as density and coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby providing improved engineering performance in comparison to the un-reinforced matrix. Experiment were conducted at various cutting speed, feed rate and difference cutting tools according to Taguchi method using a standard orthogonal array L9. The volume of AlN reinforced particle was 10% in MMC. The milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition using uncoated carbide, TiN and TiCN tool insert. The parameters used were the cutting speed of (230,300,370 m/min) the federate used were (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm/tooth) while the depth of cut is constant (0.3 mm). The tool diameter is 20mm. From the project, the surface roughness mechanism was investigated in detail using Mitutoyo portable surface roughness measurements surftest SJ-310. This machining will be fabricated on MMC with 150mm length, 100mm width and 30mm thick. The results showed using S/N ratio, concluded that a combination of low cutting speed, medium feed rate and uncoated insert give a remarkable surface finish. From the ANOVA result showed the feed rate was major contributing factor (43.76%) following type of insert (40.89%).

Keywords: MMC, milling operation and surface roughness, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
5623 Comparative Assessment of MRR, TWR, and Surface Integrity in Rotary and Stationary Tool EDM for Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel

Authors: Anand Prakash Dwivedi, Sounak Kumar Choudhury

Abstract:

Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-established and one of the most primitive unconventional manufacturing processes, that is used world-wide for the machining of geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive materials which are extremely difficult to cut by any other conventional machining process. One of the major flaws, over all its advantages, is its very slow Material Removal Rate (MRR). In order to eradicate this slow machining rate, various researchers have proposed various methods like; providing rotational motion to the tool or work-piece or to both, mixing of conducting additives (such as SiC, Cr, Al, graphite etc) powders in the dielectric, providing vibrations to the tool or work-piece or to both etc. Present work is a comparative study of Rotational and Stationary Tool EDM, which deals with providing rotational motion to the copper tool for the machining of AISI D3 Tool Steel and the results have been compared with stationary tool EDM. It has been found that the tool rotation substantially increases the MRR up to 28%. The average surface finish increases around 9-10% by using the rotational tool EDM. The average tool wear increment is observed to be around 19% due to the tool rotation. Apart from this, the present work also focusses on the recast layer analysis, which are being re-deposited on the work-piece surface during the operation. The recast layer thickness is less in case of Rotational EDM and more for Stationary Tool EDM. Moreover, the cracking on the re-casted surface is also more for stationary tool EDM as compared with the rotational EDM.

Keywords: EDM, MRR, Ra, TWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
5622 Optimization of Process Parameters by Using Taguchi Method for Bainitic Steel Machining

Authors: Vinay Patil, Swapnil Kekade, Ashish Supare, Vinayak Pawar, Shital Jadhav, Rajkumar Singh

Abstract:

In recent days, bainitic steel is used in automobile and non-automobile sectors due to its high strength. Bainitic steel is difficult to machine because of its high hardness, hence in this paper machinability of bainitic steel is studied by using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) approach. Convectional turning experiments were done by using L16 orthogonal array for three input parameters viz. cutting speed, depth of cut and feed. The Taguchi method is applied to study the performance characteristics of machining parameters with surface roughness (Ra), cutting force and tool wear rate. By using Taguchi analysis, optimized process parameters for best surface finish and minimum cutting forces were analyzed.

Keywords: conventional turning, Taguchi method, S/N ratio, bainitic steel machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
5621 The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: J. Nisar, S. Halim

Abstract:

The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

Keywords: construction management, critical path method, project scheduling network, precedence diagram method

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
5620 Improvement in Tool Life Through Optimizing Cutting Parameters Using Cryogenic Media in Machining of Aerospace Alloy Steel

Authors: Waseem Tahir, Syed Hussain Imran Jaffery, Mohammad Azam

Abstract:

In this research work, liquid nitrogen gas (LN2) is used as a cryogenic media to optimize the cutting parameters for evaluation of tool flank wear width of Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404-WF 4215) while turning a high strength alloy steel. Robust design concept of Taguchi L9 (34) method is applied to determine the optimum conditions. The analysis is revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear. However, High Speed Machining is shown most significant as compare to cooling media on work piece surface roughness.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 441