Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: DC-DC converters

121 Parallel Operated Rotary Frequency Converters within a Ship Micro-Grid System

Authors: Hamdy Ahmed Ashour

Abstract:

This paper studies the parallel operation of rotary frequency converters which can be used within a ship micro-grid system and also to supply ships and equipment in a harbour during off-sail and maintenance periods with their suitable voltage and frequency requirements in order to overcome the possible associated problems of overloading on a single converter. The paper theoretically and experimentally investigated the operation of 3-ph induction motor / 3-ph synchronous generator based rotary converters set. Concept of operation and merits of such converters has been discussed. Overall dynamic simulation model of two parallel operated rotary converters has been developed. Active and reactive load sharing of the two converters has been analyzed. Experimental setup has been implemented for proof of concept and practical validation. Simulation and experimental results have been obtained and well correlated; showing how the rotary converters based setup can be manipulated to achieve different requirements of operating conditions.

Keywords: experimental, frequency-converters, load-sharing, marine-applications, simulation, synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
120 Sigma-Delta ADCs Converter a Study Case

Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra, Mauro Lopes de Freitas, Waldir Sabino da Silva Júnior

Abstract:

The Sigma-Delta A/D converters have been proposed as a practical application for A/D conversion at high rates because of its simplicity and robustness to imperfections in the circuit, also because the traditional converters are more difficult to implement in VLSI technology. These difficulties with conventional conversion methods need precise analog components in their filters and conversion circuits, and are more vulnerable to noise and interference. This paper aims to analyze the architecture, function and application of Analog-Digital converters (A/D) Sigma-Delta to overcome these difficulties, showing some simulations using the Simulink software and Multisim.

Keywords: analysis, oversampling modulator, A/D converters, sigma-delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
119 Fuzzy Logic Driven PID Controller for PWM Based Buck Converter

Authors: Bandreddy Anand Babu, Mandadi Srinivasa Rao, Chintala Pradeep Reddy

Abstract:

The main theme of this paper is to design fuzzy logic Proportional Integral Derivative controller for controlling of Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) based DCDC buck converter in continuous conduction mode of operation and comparing the results of FPID and ANFIS. Simulation is done to fuzzy the given input variables and membership functions of input values, creating the interference rules linking the input and output variables and after then defuzzfies the output variables. Fuzzy logic is simple for nonlinear models like buck converter. Fuzzy logic based PID controller technique is to control, nonlinear plants like buck converters in switching variables of power electronics. The characteristics of FPID are in terms of rise time, settling time, rise time, steady state errors for different inputs and load disturbances.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, PID controller, DC-DC buck converter, pulse width modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
118 Implementation and Design of Fuzzy Controller for High Performance Dc-Dc Boost Converters

Authors: A. Mansouri, F. Krim

Abstract:

This paper discusses the implementation and design of both linear PI and fuzzy controllers for DC-DC boost converters. Design of PI controllers is based on temporal response of closed-loop converters, while fuzzy controllers design is based on heuristic knowledge of boost converters. Linear controller implementation is quite straightforward relying on mathematical models, while fuzzy controller implementation employs one or more artificial intelligences techniques. Comparison between these boost controllers is made in design aspect. Experimental results show that the proposed fuzzy controller system is robust against input voltage and load resistance changing and in respect of start-up transient. Results indicate that fuzzy controller can achieve best control performance concerning faster transient response, steady-state response good stability and accuracy under different operating conditions. Fuzzy controller is more suitable to control boost converters.

Keywords: boost DC-DC converter, fuzzy, PI controllers, power electronics and control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
117 DC-to-DC Converters for Low-Voltage High-Power Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Abdar Ali, Rizwan Ullah, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the study of DC-to-DC converters, which are suitable for low-voltage high-power applications. The output voltages generated by renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cell stacks are generally low and required to be increased to high voltage levels. Development of DC-to-DC converters, which provide high step-up voltage conversion ratios with high efficiencies and low voltage stresses is one of the main issues in the development of renewable energy systems. A procedure for three converters-conventional DC-to-DC converter, interleaved boost converter, and isolated flyback based converter, is illustrated for a given set of specifications. The selection among the converters for the given application is based on the voltage conversion ratio, efficiency, and voltage stresses.

Keywords: flyback converter, interleaved boost, photovoltaic array, fuel cell, switch stress, voltage conversion ratio, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
116 High Speed Response Single-Inductor Dual-Output DC-DC Converter with Hysteretic Control

Authors: Y. Kobori, S. Tanaka, N. Tsukiji, N. Takai, H. Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes two kinds of new single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) DC-DC switching converters with ripple-based hysteretic control. First SIDO converters of type 1 utilize the triangular signal generated by the CR-circuit connected across the inductor. This triangular signal is used for generating the PWM signal instead of the saw-tooth signal used in the conventional converters. Second SIDO converters of type 2 utilize the triangular signal generated by the CR-circuit connected across the voltage error amplifier. This paper describes circuit topologies, Operation principles, simulation results and experimental results of the proposed SIDO converters. In simulation results of both type of SIDO converters, static output voltage ripples are less than 5mVpp and over/under shoots of the dynamic load regulations for the output current step are less than +/- 10mV. In experimental results of single output converter of type 2, static output voltage ripples are about 20mVpp. Output ripples of SIDO type 1 converter are about 80mVpp.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, switching converter, SIDO converter, hysteretic control, ripple-based control

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
115 Design and Study of a DC/DC Converter for High Power, 14.4 V and 300 A for Automotive Applications

Authors: Júlio Cesar Lopes de Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Gonçalves Treviso

Abstract:

The shortage of the automotive market in relation to options for sources of high power car audio systems, led to development of this work. Thus, we developed a source with stabilized voltage with 4320 W effective power. Designed to the voltage of 14.4 V and a choice of two currents: 30 A load option in battery banks and 300 A at full load. This source can also be considered as a source of general use dedicated commercial with a simple control circuit in analog form based on discrete components. The assembly of power circuit uses a methodology for higher power than the initially stipulated.

Keywords: DC-DC power converters, converters, power conversion, pulse width modulation converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
114 Performance Analysis of Transformerless DC-DC Boost Converter

Authors: Nidhi Vijay, A. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Many industrial applications require power from dc source. DC-DC boost converters are now being used all over the world for rapid transit system. Although these provide high efficiency, smooth control, fast response and regeneration, conventional DC-DC boost converters are unable to provide high step up voltage gain due to effect of power switches, rectifier diodes and equivalent series resistance of inductor and capacitor. This paper proposes new transformerless dc-dc converters to achieve high step up voltage gain as compared to the conventional converter without an extremely high duty ratio. Only one power stage is used in this converter. Steady-state analysis of voltage gain is discussed in brief. Finally, a comparative analysis is given in order to verify the results.

Keywords: MATLAB, DC-DC boost converter, voltage gain, voltage stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
113 Design and Control Algorithms for Power Electronic Converters for EV Applications

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian, Ben Horan, Aman Than Oo, Alex Stojcevski

Abstract:

The power electronic components within Electric Vehicles (EV) need to operate in several important modes. Some modes directly influence safety, while others influence vehicle performance. Given the variety of functions and operational modes required of the power electronics, it needs to meet efficiency requirements to minimize power losses. Another challenge in the control and construction of such systems is the ability to support bidirectional power flow. This paper considers the construction, operation, and feasibility of available converters for electric vehicles with feasible configurations of electrical buses and loads. This paper describes logic and control signals for the converters for different operations conditions based on the efficiency and energy usage bases.

Keywords: electric vehicles, electrical machines control, power electronics, powerflow regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
112 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
111 Digital Control Algorithm Based on Delta-Operator for High-Frequency DC-DC Switching Converters

Authors: Renkai Wang, Tingcun Wei

Abstract:

In this paper, a digital control algorithm based on delta-operator is presented for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters. The stability and the controlling accuracy of the DC-DC switching converters are improved by using the digital control algorithm based on delta-operator without increasing the hardware circuit scale. The design method of voltage compensator in delta-domain using PID (Proportion-Integration- Differentiation) control is given in this paper, and the simulation results based on Simulink platform are provided, which have verified the theoretical analysis results very well. It can be concluded that, the presented control algorithm based on delta-operator has better stability and controlling accuracy, and easier hardware implementation than the existed control algorithms based on z-operator, therefore it can be used for the voltage compensator design in high-frequency digitally- controlled DC-DC switching converters.

Keywords: digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, digital voltage compensator, delta-operator, finite word length, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
110 High Efficiency ZPS-PWM Dual-Output Converters with EMI Reduction Method

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a Pulse-WidthModulation (PWM) controlled Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters. This method can meet the industry demands for high efficiency due to ZVS and small size and low cost, thanks to single-inductor per multiple voltages. We show the single inductor single-output (SISO) ZVS buck converter with its operation and simulation and then the experimental results. Next proposed ZVS-PWM controlled SIDO converters are explained in the simulation. Finally we have proposed EMI reduction method with spread spectrum.

Keywords: DC-DC switching converter, zero-oltage switching control, single-inductor dual-output converter, EMI reduction, spread spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
109 Pragmatic Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Power Conditioning Device (DC-DC Converters) in a Simple Photovoltaics System

Authors: Asowata Osamede

Abstract:

Solar radiation provides the largest renewable energy potential on earth and photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of power conditioning devices with a focus on the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters (12 V, 24 V and 48 V) in a basic off grid PV system with a varying load profile. This would assist in harnessing more of the available solar energy. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0º N, with corresponding tilt angles. Preliminary results, which include data analysis showing the power loss in the system and efficiency, indicate that the 12V DC-DC converter coupled with the load profile had the highest efficiency for a latitude of 26º S throughout the year.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, DC-DC converters, tilt and orientation angles, direct solar radiation, load profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
108 An Analysis of the Performances of Various Buoys as the Floats of Wave Energy Converters

Authors: İlkay Özer Erselcan, Abdi Kükner, Gökhan Ceylan

Abstract:

The power generated by eight point absorber type wave energy converters each having a different buoy are calculated in order to investigate the performances of buoys in this study. The calculations are carried out by modeling three different sea states observed in two different locations in the Black Sea. The floats analyzed in this study have two basic geometries and four different draft/radius (d/r) ratios. The buoys possess the shapes of a semi-ellipsoid and a semi-elliptic paraboloid. Additionally, the draft/radius ratios range from 0.25 to 1 by an increment of 0.25. The radiation forces acting on the buoys due to the oscillatory motions of these bodies are evaluated by employing a 3D panel method along with a distribution of 3D pulsating sources in frequency domain. On the other hand, the wave forces acting on the buoys which are taken as the sum of Froude-Krylov forces and diffraction forces are calculated by using linear wave theory. Furthermore, the wave energy converters are assumed to be taut-moored to the seabed so that the secondary body which houses a power take-off system oscillates with much smaller amplitudes compared to the buoy. As a result, it is assumed that there is not any significant contribution to the power generation from the motions of the housing body and the only contribution to power generation comes from the buoy. The power take-off systems of the wave energy converters are high pressure oil hydraulic systems which are identical in terms of their characteristic parameters. The results show that the power generated by wave energy converters which have semi-ellipsoid floats is higher than that of those which have semi elliptic paraboloid floats in both locations and in all sea states. It is also determined that the power generated by the wave energy converters follow an unsteady pattern such that they do not decrease or increase with changing draft/radius ratios of the floats. Although the highest power level is obtained with a semi-ellipsoid float which has a draft/radius ratio equal to 1, other floats of which the draft/radius ratio is 0.25 delivered higher power that the floats with a draft/radius ratio equal to 1 in some cases.

Keywords: Black Sea, buoys, hydraulic power take-off system, wave energy converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
107 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
106 Three-Level Converters Back-To-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Benamrane, B. Bezza, Aeh Benkhelifa, A. Borni

Abstract:

This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

Keywords: back-to-back connection, feedback control, neutral-point balance, three-level converter, torque ripple

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
105 Generalized Mathematical Description and Simulation of Grid-Tied Thyristor Converters

Authors: V. S. Klimash, Ye Min Thu

Abstract:

Thyristor rectifiers, inverters grid-tied, and AC voltage regulators are widely used in industry, and on electrified transport, they have a lot in common both in the power circuit and in the control system. They have a common mathematical structure and switching processes. At the same time, the rectifier, but the inverter units and thyristor regulators of alternating voltage are considered separately both theoretically and practically. They are written about in different books as completely different devices. The aim of this work is to combine them into one class based on the unity of the equations describing electromagnetic processes, and then, to show this unity on the mathematical model and experimental setup. Based on research from mathematics to the product, a conclusion is made about the methodology for the rapid conduct of research and experimental design work, preparation for production and serial production of converters with a unified bundle. In recent years, there has been a transition from thyristor circuits and transistor in modular design. Showing the example of thyristor rectifiers and AC voltage regulators, we can conclude that there is a unity of mathematical structures and grid-tied thyristor converters.

Keywords: direct current, alternating current, rectifier, AC voltage regulator, generalized mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
104 Review, Analysis and Simulation of Advanced Technology Solutions of Selected Components in Power Electronics Systems (PES) of More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Lucjan Setlak, Emil Ruda

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is to review, comparative analysis and simulation of selected components of power electronic systems (PES), consistent with the concept of a more electric aircraft (MEA). Comparative analysis and simulation in software environment MATLAB / Simulink were carried out based on a group of representatives of civil aircraft (B-787, A-380) and military (F-22 Raptor, F-35) in the context of multi-pulse converters used in them (6- and 12-pulse, and 18- and 24-pulse), which are key components of high-tech electronics on-board power systems of autonomous power systems (ASE) of modern aircraft (airplanes of the future).

Keywords: converters, electric machines, MEA (more electric aircraft), PES (power electronics systems)

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
103 Particle Swarm Optimisation of a Terminal Synergetic Controllers for a DC-DC Converter

Authors: H. Abderrezek, M. N. Harmas

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used as reliable power source for many industrial and military applications, computers and electronic devices. Several control methods were developed for DC-DC converters control mostly with asymptotic convergence. Synergetic control (SC) is a proven robust control approach and will be used here in a so-called terminal scheme to achieve finite time convergence. Lyapunov synthesis is adopted to assure controlled system stability. Furthermore particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, based on an integral time absolute of error (ITAE) criterion will be used to optimize controller parameters. Simulation of terminal synergetic control of a DC-DC converter is carried out for different operating conditions and results are compared to classic synergetic control performance, that which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control method.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, PSO, finite time, terminal, synergetic control

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
102 Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter with Internal Model Controller

Authors: Fatih Suleyman Taskincan, Ahmet Karaarslan

Abstract:

In this article, the study and analysis of Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) are presented for battery charging applications that will be used in military applications. The usage of this kind of converters come from its advantage of non-reverse polarity at outputs. As capacitors charge and discharge through inductance, peak current does not occur on capacitors. Therefore, the efficiency will be high compared to buck-boost converters. In this study, the converter (SEPIC) is designed to be operated with Internal Model Controller (IMC). The traditional controllers like Proportional Integral Controller are not preferred as its linearity behavior. Hence IMC is designed for this converter. This controller is a model-based control and provides more robustness and better set point monitoring. Moreover, it can be used for an unstable process where the conventional controller cannot handle the dynamic operation. Matlab/Simulink environment is used to simulate the converter and its controller, then, the results are shown and discussed.

Keywords: DC/DC converter, single ended primary inductance converter, SEPIC, internal model controller, IMC, switched mode power supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
101 A Review of HVDC Modular Multilevel Converters Subjected to DC and AC Faults

Authors: Jude Inwumoh, Adam P. R. Taylor, Kosala Gunawardane

Abstract:

Modular multilevel converters (MMC) exhibit a highly scalable and modular characteristic with good voltage/power expansion, fault tolerance capability, low output harmonic content, good redundancy, and a flexible front-end configuration. Fault detection, location, and isolation, as well as maintaining fault ride-through (FRT), are major challenges to MMC reliability and power supply sustainability. Different papers have been reviewed to seek the best MMC configuration with fault capability. DC faults are the most common fault, while the probability that AC fault occurs in a modular multilevel converter (MCC) is low; though, AC faults consequence are severe. This paper reviews several MMC topologies and modulation techniques in tackling faults. These fault control strategies are compared based on cost, complexity, controllability, and power loss. A meshed network of half-bridge (HB) MMC topology was optimal in rendering fault ride through than any other MMC topologies but only when combined with DC circuit breakers (CBS), AC CBS, and fault current limiters (FCL).

Keywords: MMC-HVDC, DC faults, fault current limiters, control scheme

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
100 Integrated Dynamic Analysis of Semi-Submersible Flap Type Concept

Authors: M. Rafiur Rahman, M. Mezbah Uddin, Mohammad Irfan Uddin, M. Moinul Islam

Abstract:

With a rapid development of offshore renewable energy industry, the research activities in regards of harnessing power from offshore wind and wave energy are increasing day by day. Integration of wind turbines and wave energy converters into one combined semi-submersible platform might be a cost-economy and beneficial option. In this paper, the coupled integrated dynamic analysis in the time domain (TD) of a simplified semi-submersible flap type concept (SFC) is accomplished via state-of-the-art numerical code referred as Simo-Riflex-Aerodyn (SRA). This concept is a combined platform consisting of a semi-submersible floater supporting a 5 MW horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) and three elliptical shaped flap type wave energy converters (WECs) on three pontoons. The main focus is to validate the numerical model of SFC with experimental results and perform the frequency domain (FD) and TD response analysis. The numerical analysis is performed using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum (BEM) theory for aerodynamics. A variety of environmental conditions encompassing the functional & survival conditions for short-term sea (1-hour simulation) are tested to evaluate the sustainability of the SFC. The numerical analysis is performed in full scale. Finally, the time domain analysis of heave, pitch & surge motions is performed numerically using SRA and compared with the experimental results. Due to the simplification of the model, there are some discrepancies which are discussed in brief.

Keywords: coupled integrated dynamic analysis, SFC, time domain analysis, wave energy converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
99 Nanocomposite Metal Material: Study of Antimicrobial and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Rafal Wazny, Agnieszka Domka, Maciej Sitarz, Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain antimicrobial material based on thin zirconium dioxide coatings on structured reactors doped with metal nanoparticles using the sonochemical sol-gel method. As a result, dense, uniform zirconium dioxide films were obtained on the kanthal sheets which can be used as support materials in antimicrobial converters with sophisticated shapes. The material was characterised by physicochemical methods, such as AFM, SEM, EDX, XRF, XRD, XPS and in situ Raman and DRIFT spectroscopy. In terms of antimicrobial activity, the material was tested by ATP/AMP method using model microbes isolated from the real systems. The results show that the material can be potentially used in the market as a good candidate for active package and as active bulkheads of climatic systems. The mechanical tests showed that the developed method is an efficient way to obtain durable converters with high antimicrobial activity against fungi and bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobial properties, kanthal steel, nanocomposite, zirconium oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
98 A Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Increased Efficiency by Using ZVT-ZCT Techniques

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved active snubber cell is proposed on account of soft switching (SS) family of pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC converters. The improved snubber cell provides zero-voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero-current transition (ZCT) turn off for main switch. The snubber cell decreases EMI noise and operates with SS in a wide range of line and load voltages. Besides, all of the semiconductor devices in the converter operate with SS. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main devices. Additionally, extra voltage stress does not occur on the auxiliary switch and its current stress is acceptable value. The improved converter has a low cost and simple structure. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating states are given in detail. The experimental results of converter are obtained by prototype of 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the experimental results and theoretical analysis of converter are suitable with each other perfectly.

Keywords: active snubber cells, DC-DC converters, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
97 Single Tuned Shunt Passive Filter Based Current Harmonic Elimination of Three Phase AC-DC Converters

Authors: Mansoor Soomro

Abstract:

The evolution of power electronic equipment has been pivotal in making industrial processes productive, efficient and safe. Despite its attractive features, it has been due to nonlinear loads which make it vulnerable to power quality conditions. Harmonics is one of the power quality problem in which the harmonic frequency is integral multiple of supply frequency. Therefore, the supply voltage and supply frequency do not last within their tolerable limits. As a result, distorted current and voltage waveform may appear. Attributes of low power quality confirm that an electrical device or equipment is likely to malfunction, fail promptly or unable to operate under all applied conditions. The electrical power system is designed for delivering power reliably, namely maximizing power availability to customers. However, power quality events are largely untracked, and as a result, can take out a process as many as 20 to 30 times a year, costing utilities, customers and suppliers of load equipment, a loss of millions of dollars. The ill effects of current harmonics reduce system efficiency, cause overheating of connected equipment, result increase in electrical power and air conditioning costs. With the passage of time and the rapid growth of power electronic converters has highlighted the damages of current harmonics in the electrical power system. Therefore, it has become essential to address the bad influence of current harmonics while planning any suitable changes in the electrical installations. In this paper, an effort has been made to mitigate the effects of dominant 3rd order current harmonics. Passive filtering technique with six pulse multiplication converter has been employed to mitigate them. Since, the standards of power quality are to maintain the supply voltage and supply current within certain prescribed standard limits. For this purpose, the obtained results are validated as per specifications of IEEE 519-1992 and IEEE 519-2014 performance standards.

Keywords: current harmonics, power quality, passive filters, power electronic converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
96 Design of the LCL Harmonic Filter with Grid-Connected Transformer

Authors: Tamara Egamnazarova, Minxiao Han, Wenli Yan

Abstract:

Large-scale integration based on power electronic systems gives rise to new challenges to modern power grids' power quality and stability. Power converters are the key elements of the power system that are actively involved in improving power quality and increase penetration of new energy sources to the power grid. Integration magnetic components allow reducing the overall size and even increasing energy efficiency. Additionally, the parasitic elements of the power transformer model investigated by the analytical approach. Moreover, the harmonic issues are critical, which are emerged due to the deployment of converters. Low pass LCL filters are usually deployed between the inverter and grid-connected transformers to mitigate harmonic pollution produced by the inverter. Passive filter, connected to the grid inverter, requires a small filter size and the harmonic limitations defined by the standard IEEE-519. A significant part of the overall cost and size of the power converter is the magnetic components. This paper illustrates a low-pass LCL harmonic filter design using the power transformer's parasitic parameters for grid-connected inverter by theoretical and practical analysis, simulated in MATLAB–Simulink.

Keywords: harmonics, integration, inverter, LCL filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
95 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
94 Internal DC Short-Circuit Fault Analysis and Protection for VSI of Wind Power Generation Systems

Authors: Mehdi Radmehr, Amir Hamed Mashhadzadeh, Mehdi Jafari

Abstract:

Traditional HVDC systems are tough to DC short circuits as they are current regulated with a large reactance connected in series with cables. Multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies are attracting increasing research attempt. With AC/DC converters on the generator side, this topology can be developed into a multi-terminal DC network for wind power collection, which is especially suitable for large-scale offshore wind farms. For wind farms, the topology uses high-voltage direct-current transmission based on voltage-source converters (VSC-HVDC). Therefore, they do not suffer from over currents due to DC cable faults and there is no over current to react to. In this study, the multi-terminal DC wind farm topology is introduced. Then, possible internal DC faults are analyzed according to type and characteristic. Fault over current expressions are given in detail. Under this characteristic analysis, fault detection and detailed protection methods are proposed. Theoretical analysis and PSCAD/EMTDC simulations are provided.

Keywords: DC short circuits, multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies, HVDC transmission based on VSC, fault analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
93 Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Cloud Movement in a Basic Off-Grid Photovoltaic System: Case Study Using Transient Response of DC-DC Converters

Authors: Asowata Osamede, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker

Abstract:

Mismatch in electrical energy (power) or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to the public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The necessity for a well-structured photovoltaic (PV) system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The major renewable energy potential on earth is provided from solar radiation and solar photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduction on the dependence on fossil fuels. Solar arrays which consist of various PV module should be operated at the maximum power point in order to reduce the overall cost of the system. So power regulation and conditioning circuits should be incorporated in the set-up of a PV system. Power regulation circuits used in PV systems include maximum power point trackers, DC-DC converters and solar chargers. Inappropriate choice of power conditioning device in a basic off-grid PV system can attribute to power loss, hence the need for a right choice of power conditioning device to be coupled with the system of the essence. This paper presents the design and implementation of a power conditioning devices in order to improve the overall yield from the availability of solar energy and the system’s total efficiency. The power conditioning devices taken into consideration in the project includes the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters as well as solar chargers with MPPT. A logging interface circuit (LIC) is designed and employed into the system. The LIC is designed on a printed circuit board. It basically has DC current signalling sensors, specifically the LTS 6-NP. The LIC is consequently required to program the voltages in the system (these include the PV voltage and the power conditioning device voltage). The voltage is structured in such a way that it can be accommodated by the data logger. Preliminary results which include availability of power as well as power loss in the system and efficiency will be presented and this would be used to draw the final conclusion.

Keywords: tilt and orientation angles, solar chargers, PV panels, storage devices, direct solar radiation

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92 Performance Validation of Model Predictive Control for Electrical Power Converters of a Grid Integrated Oscillating Water Column

Authors: G. Rajapakse, S. Jayasinghe, A. Fleming

Abstract:

This paper aims to experimentally validate the control strategy used for electrical power converters in grid integrated oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The particular OWC’s unidirectional air turbine-generator output power results in discrete large power pulses. Therefore, the system requires power conditioning prior to integrating to the grid. This is achieved by using a back to back power converter with an energy storage system. A Li-Ion battery energy storage is connected to the dc-link of the back-to-back converter using a bidirectional dc-dc converter. This arrangement decouples the system dynamics and mitigates the mismatch between supply and demand powers. All three electrical power converters used in the arrangement are controlled using finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy. The rectifier controller is to regulate the speed of the turbine at a set rotational speed to uphold the air turbine at a desirable speed range under varying wave conditions. The inverter controller is to maintain the output power to the grid adhering to grid codes. The dc-dc bidirectional converter controller is to set the dc-link voltage at its reference value. The software modeling of the OWC system and FCS-MPC is carried out in the MATLAB/Simulink software using actual data and parameters obtained from a prototype unidirectional air-turbine OWC developed at Australian Maritime College (AMC). The hardware development and experimental validations are being carried out at AMC Electronic laboratory. The designed FCS-MPC for the power converters are separately coded in Code Composer Studio V8 and downloaded into separate Texas Instrument’s TIVA C Series EK-TM4C123GXL Launchpad Evaluation Boards with TM4C123GH6PMI microcontrollers (real-time control processors). Each microcontroller is used to drive 2kW 3-phase STEVAL-IHM028V2 evaluation board with an intelligent power module (STGIPS20C60). The power module consists of a 3-phase inverter bridge with 600V insulated gate bipolar transistors. Delta standard (ASDA-B2 series) servo drive/motor coupled to a 2kW permanent magnet synchronous generator is served as the turbine-generator. This lab-scale setup is used to obtain experimental results. The validation of the FCS-MPC is done by comparing these experimental results to the results obtained by MATLAB/Simulink software results in similar scenarios. The results show that under the proposed control scheme, the regulated variables follow their references accurately. This research confirms that FCS-MPC fits well into the power converter control of the OWC-WEC system with a Li-Ion battery energy storage.

Keywords: dc-dc bidirectional converter, finite control set-model predictive control, Li-ion battery energy storage, oscillating water column, wave energy converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 23