Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2740

Search results for: particle matter (PM)

2740 Feasibility of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter Candidates: Exploratory Study on The Possible Reasons for Lack of WIMP Detection

Authors: Sloka Bhushan


Dark matter constitutes a majority of matter in the universe, yet very little is known about it due to its extreme lack of interaction with regular matter and the fundamental forces. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, have been contested to be one of the strongest candidates for dark matter due to their promising theoretical properties. However, various endeavors to detect these elusive particles have failed. This paper explores the various particles which may be WIMPs and the detection techniques being employed to detect WIMPs (such as underground detectors, LHC experiments, and so on). There is a special focus on the reasons for the lack of detection of WIMPs so far, and the possibility of limits in detection being a reason for the lack of physical evidence of the existence of WIMPs. This paper also explores possible inconsistencies within the WIMP particle theory as a reason for the lack of physical detection. There is a brief review on the possible solutions and alternatives to these inconsistencies. Additionally, this paper also reviews the supersymmetry theory and the possibility of the supersymmetric neutralino (A possible WIMP particle) being detectable. Lastly, a review on alternate candidates for dark matter such as axions and MACHOs has been conducted. The explorative study in this paper is conducted through a series of literature reviews.

Keywords: dark matter, particle detection, supersymmetry, weakly interacting massive particles

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2739 Permeodynamic Particulate Matter Filtration for Improved Air Quality

Authors: Hamad M. Alnagran, Mohammed S. Imbabi


Particulate matter (PM) in the air we breathe is detrimental to health. Overcoming this problem has attracted interest and prompted research on the use of PM filtration in commercial buildings and homes to be carried out. The consensus is that tangible health benefits can result from the use of PM filters in most urban environments, to clean up the building’s fresh air supply and thereby reduce exposure of residents to airborne PM. The authors have investigated and are developing a new large-scale Permeodynamic Filtration Technology (PFT) capable of permanently filtering and removing airborne PMs from outdoor spaces, thus also benefiting internal spaces such as the interiors of buildings. Theoretical models were developed, and laboratory trials carried out to determine, and validate through measurement permeodynamic filtration efficiency and pressure drop as functions of PM particle size distributions. The conclusion is that PFT offers a potentially viable, cost effective end of pipe solution to the problem of airborne PM.

Keywords: air filtration, particulate matter, particle size distribution, permeodynamic

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2738 Comparative Studies on the Concentration of Some Heavy Metal in Urban Particulate Matter, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In


The main objective of this study was investigate particulate matter concentration on main and secondary roadside in urban area. And studied on the concentration of some heavy metal including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in particulate matter in Bangkok area. The averaged particle concentration for main roadside are higher than secondary roadside. The particulate matter less than 10 micron concentration contribute the majority of the Total Suspended Particulate for main road and zinc concentration were higher than copper and lead for both site.

Keywords: air pollution, air quality, polution, monitoring

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2737 On the Quantum Behavior of Nanoparticles: Quantum Theory and Nano-Pharmacology

Authors: Kurudzirayi Robson Musikavanhu


Nanophase particles exhibit quantum behavior by virtue of their small size, being particles of gamma to x-ray wavelength [atomic range]. Such particles exhibit high frequencies, high energy/photon, high penetration power, high ionization power [atomic behavior] and are stable at low energy levels as opposed to bulk phase matter [macro particles] which exhibit higher wavelength [radio wave end] properties, hence lower frequency, lower energy/photon, lower penetration power, lower ionizing power and are less stable at low temperatures. The ‘unique’ behavioral motion of Nano systems will remain a mystery as long as quantum theory remains a mystery, and for pharmacology, pharmacovigilance profiling of Nano systems becomes virtually impossible. Quantum theory is the 4 – 3 – 5 electromagnetic law of life and life motion systems on planet earth. Electromagnetic [wave-particle] properties of all particulate matter changes as mass [bulkiness] changes from one phase to the next [Nano-phase to micro-phase to milli-phase to meter-phase to kilometer phase etc.] and the subsequent electromagnetic effect of one phase particle on bulk matter [different phase] changes from one phase to another. All matter exhibit electromagnetic properties [wave-particle duality] in behavior and the lower the wavelength [and the lesser the bulkiness] the higher the gamma ray end properties exhibited and the higher the wavelength [and the greater the bulkiness], the more the radio-wave end properties are exhibited. Quantum theory is the 4 [moon] – 3[sun] – [earth] 5 law of the Electromagnetic spectrum [solar system]. 4 + 3 = 7; 4 + 3 + 5 = 12; 4 * 3 * 5 = 60; 42 + 32 = 52; 43 + 33 + 53 = 63. Quantum age is overdue.

Keywords: electromagnetic solar system, nano-material, nano pharmacology, pharmacovigilance, quantum theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2736 Cosmic Dust as Dark Matter

Authors: Thomas Prevenslik


Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust. Extensions of redshift corrections for cosmic dust to other historical astronomical observations are briefly discussed.

Keywords: alternative theories, cosmic dust redshift, doppler effect, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics

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2735 Growth Performance and Critical Supersaturation of Heterogeneous Condensation for High Concentration of Insoluble Sub-Micron Particles

Authors: Jie Yin, Jun Zhang


Measuring the growth performance and critical supersaturation of particle group have a high reference value for constructing a supersaturated water vapor environment that can improve the removal efficiency of the high-concentration particle group. The critical supersaturation and the variation of the growth performance with supersaturation for high-concentration particles were measured by a flow cloud chamber. Findings suggest that the influence of particle concentration on the growth performance will reduce with the increase of supersaturation. Reducing residence time and increasing particle concentration have similar effects on the growth performance of the high-concentration particle group. Increasing particle concentration and shortening residence time will increase the critical supersaturation of the particle group. The critical supersaturation required to activate a high-concentration particle group is lower than that of the single-particle when the minimum particle size in the particle group is the same as that of a single particle.

Keywords: sub-micron particles, heterogeneous condensation, critical supersaturation, nucleation

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2734 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao


Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

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2733 Advanced Technologies for Detector Readout in Particle Physics

Authors: Y. Venturini, C. Tintori


Given the continuous demand for improved readout performances in particle and dark matter physics, CAEN SpA is pushing on the development of advanced technologies for detector readout. We present the Digitizers 2.0, the result of the success of the previous Digitizers generation, combined with expanded capabilities and a renovation of the user experience introducing the open FPGA. The first product of the family is the VX2740 (64 ch, 125 MS/s, 16 bit) for advanced waveform recording and Digital Pulse Processing, fitting with the special requirements of Dark Matter and Neutrino experiments. In parallel, CAEN is developing the FERS-5200 platform, a Front-End Readout System designed to read out large multi-detector arrays, such as SiPMs, multi-anode PMTs, silicon strip detectors, wire chambers, GEM, gas tubes, and others. This is a highly-scalable distributed platform, based on small Front-End cards synchronized and read out by a concentrator board, allowing to build extremely large experimental setup. We plan to develop a complete family of cost-effective Front-End cards tailored to specific detectors and applications. The first one available is the A5202, a 64-channel unit for SiPM readout based on CITIROC ASIC by Weeroc.

Keywords: dark matter, digitizers, front-end electronics, open FPGA, SiPM

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2732 Analysis of Particulate Matter Concentration, EC, OC Emission and Elemental Composition for Biodiesel-Fuelled Diesel Engine

Authors: A. M. Ashraful, H .H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam


Comparative investigations were performed on the particles matter emitted from a DI diesel engine utilizing palm biodiesel. In this experiment, palm biodiesel PB10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), PB20 (80% diesel, 20% palm biodiesel) and diesel fuel samples exhaust were investigated at different working condition (25% and 50% load at 1500 rpm constant speed). Observation of this experiment it clearly seen that at low load condition particle matter concentration of palm biodiesel exhaust were de-creased than that of diesel fuel. At no load and 25% load condition PB10 biodiesel blend exhibited 2.2 times lower PM concentration than that of diesel fuel. On the other hand, elemental carbon (EC) and organic emission for PB10 showed decreases trend as varies 4.2% to 6.6% and 32 to 39% respectively, while elemental carbon percentage increased by 0.85 to 10% respectively. Similarly, metal composition of PB10 biodiesel blend increased by 4.8 to 26.5% respectively. SEM images for B10 and B20 demonstrated granular structure particulates with greater grain sizes compared with diesel fuel. Finally, the experimental outcomes showed that the blend composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel influence on the particulate matter formation.

Keywords: particulate matter, elemental carbon, organic carbon, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
2731 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse


Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters

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2730 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee


In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
2729 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan


In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: lateral buckling, nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis

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2728 Basic Properties of a Fundamental Particle: Behavioral-Physical and Visual Methods for the Study of Fundamental Particle

Authors: Shukran M. Dadayev


To author's best knowledge, in this paper, the Basic Properties and Research methods of a Fundamental Particle is studied for the first time. That's to say, Fundamental Particle has not been discovered in the Nature yet. Because Fundamental Particle consists of specific Physical, Geometrical and Internal bases. Geometrical and Internal characteristics that are considered significant for the elementary and fundamental particles aren’t basic properties, characteristics or criteria of a Fundamental Particle. Of course, completely new Physical and Visual experimental methods of Quantum mechanics and Behavioral-Physical investigations of Particles are needed to study and discover the Fundamental Particle. These are new Physical, Visual and Behavioral-Physical experimental methods for describing and discovering the Fundamental Particle in the Nature and Microworld. Fundamental Particle consists of the same Energy-Mass-Motion system and a symmetry of Energy-Mass-Motion. Fundamental Particle supplies each of the elementary particles with the same Energy-Mass-Motion system at the same time and regulates each of the particles. Fundamental Particle gives Energy, Mass and Motion to each particles at the same time, each of the Particles consists of acquired Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry. Energy, Mass, Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles are Symmetrical Equivalent and they remain in their primary shapes in all cases. Fundamental Particle gives Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry consisting of different measures and functions to each of the particles. The Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles is Gravitation, Gravitational Interaction not only gives Motion, but also cause Motion by attracting. All Substances, Fields and Cosmic objects consist of Energy-Mass-Motion. The Field also includes specific Mass. They are always Energetic, Massive and Active. Fundamental Particle establishes the bases of the Nature. Supplement and Regulating of all the particles existing in the Nature belongs to Fundamental Particle.

Keywords: basic properties of a fundamental particle, behavioral-physical and visual methods, energy-mass-motion system and symmetrical equivalence, fundamental particle

Procedia PDF Downloads 1789
2727 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi


In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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2726 Air Pollution: The Journey from Single Particle Characterization to in vitro Fate

Authors: S. Potgieter-Vermaak, N. Bain, A. Brown, K. Shaw


It is well-known from public news media that air pollution is a health hazard and is responsible for early deaths. The quantification of the relationship between air quality and health is a probing question not easily answered. It is known that airborne particulate matter (APM) <2.5µm deposits in the tracheal and alveoli zones and our research probes the possibility of quantifying pulmonary injury by linking reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these particles to DNA damage. Currently, APM mass concentration is linked to early deaths and limited studies probe the influence of other properties on human health. To predict the full extent and type of impact, particles need to be characterised for chemical composition and structure. APMs are routinely analysed for their bulk composition, but of late analysis on a micro level probing single particle character, using micro-analytical techniques, are considered. The latter, single particle analysis (SPA), permits one to obtain detailed information on chemical character from nano- to micron-sized particles. This paper aims to provide a snapshot of studies using data obtained from chemical characterisation and its link with in-vitro studies to inform on personal health risks. For this purpose, two studies will be compared, namely, the bioaccessibility of the inhalable fraction of urban road dust versus total suspended solids (TSP) collected in the same urban environment. The significant influence of metals such as Cu and Fe in TSP on DNA damage is illustrated. The speciation of Hg (determined by SPA) in different urban environments proved to dictate its bioaccessibility in artificial lung fluids rather than its concentration.

Keywords: air pollution, human health, in-vitro studies, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2725 Organic Matter Distribution in Bazhenov Source Rock: Insights from Sequential Extraction and Molecular Geochemistry

Authors: Margarita S. Tikhonova, Alireza Baniasad, Anton G. Kalmykov, Georgy A. Kalmykov, Ralf Littke


There is a high complexity in the pore structure of organic-rich rocks caused by the combination of inter-particle porosity from inorganic mineral matter and ultrafine intra-particle porosity from both organic matter and clay minerals. Fluids are retained in that pore space, but there are major uncertainties in how and where the fluids are stored and to what extent they are accessible or trapped in 'closed' pores. A large degree of tortuosity may lead to fractionation of organic matter so that the lighter and flexible compounds would diffuse to the reservoir whereas more complicated compounds may be locked in place. Additionally, parts of hydrocarbons could be bound to solid organic matter –kerogen– and mineral matrix during expulsion and migration. Larger compounds can occupy thin channels so that clogging or oil and gas entrapment will occur. Sequential extraction of applying different solvents is a powerful tool to provide more information about the characteristics of trapped organic matter distribution. The Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Bazhenov shale is one of the most petroliferous source rock extended in West Siberia, Russia. Concerning the variable mineral composition, pore space distribution and thermal maturation, there are high uncertainties in distribution and composition of organic matter in this formation. In order to address this issue geological and geochemical properties of 30 samples including mineral composition (XRD and XRF), structure and texture (thin-section microscopy), organic matter contents, type and thermal maturity (Rock-Eval) as well as molecular composition (GC-FID and GC-MS) of different extracted materials during sequential extraction were considered. Sequential extraction was performed by a Soxhlet apparatus using different solvents, i.e., n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol-benzene (1:1 v:v) first on core plugs and later on pulverized materials. The results indicate that the studied samples are mainly composed of type II kerogen with TOC contents varied from 5 to 25%. The thermal maturity ranged from immature to late oil window. Whereas clay contents decreased with increasing maturity, the amount of silica increased in the studied samples. According to molecular geochemistry, stored hydrocarbons in open and closed pore space reveal different geochemical fingerprints. The results improve our understanding of hydrocarbon expulsion and migration in the organic-rich Bazhenov shale and therefore better estimation of hydrocarbon potential for this formation.

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, bitumen, molecular geochemistry, sequential extraction

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2724 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan


In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

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2723 The Influence of the Form of Grain on the Mechanical Behaviour of Sand

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah


The size and shape of soil particles reflect the formation history of the grains. In turn, the macro scale behavior of the soil mass results from particle level interactions which are affected by particle shape. Sphericity, roundness and smoothness characterize different scales associated to particle shape. New experimental data and data from previously published studies are gathered into two databases to explore the effects of particle shape on packing as well as small and large-strain properties of sandy soils. Data analysis shows that increased particle irregularity (angularity and/or eccentricity) leads to: an increase in emax and emin, a decrease in stiffness yet with increased sensitivity to the state of stress, an increase in compressibility under zero-lateral strain loading, and an increase in critical state friction angle φcs and intercept Γ with a weak effect on slope λ. Therefore, particle shape emerges as a significant soil index property that needs to be properly characterized and documented, particularly in clean sands and gravels. The systematic assessment of particle shape will lead to a better understanding of sand behavior.

Keywords: angularity, eccentricity, shape particle, behavior of soil

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2722 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang


The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

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2721 Performance of an Optical Readout Gas Chamber for Charged Particle Track

Authors: Jing Hu, Xiaoping Ouyang


We develop an optical readout gas chamber based on avalanche-induced scintillation for energetic charged particles track. The gas chamber is equipped with a Single Anode Wires (SAW) structure to produce intensive electric field when the measured particles are of low yield or even single. In the presence of an intensive electric field around the single anode, primary electrons, resulting from the incident charged particles when depositing the energy along the track, accelerate to the anode effectively and rapidly. For scintillation gasses, this avalanche of electrons induces multiplying photons comparing with the primary scintillation excited directly from particle energy loss. The electric field distribution for different shape of the SAW structure is analyzed, and finally, an optimal one is used to study the optical readout performance. Using CF4 gas and its mixture with the noble gas, the results indicate that the optical readout characteristics of the chamber are attractive for imaging. Moreover, images of particles track including single particle track from 5.485MeV alpha particles are successfully acquired. The track resolution is quite well for the reason that the electrons undergo less diffusion in the intensive electric field. With the simple and ingenious design, the optical readout gas chamber has a high sensitivity. Since neutrons can be converted to charged particles when scattering, this optical readout gas chamber can be applied to neutron measurement for dark matter, fusion research, and others.

Keywords: optical readout, gas chamber, charged particle track, avalanche-induced scintillation, neutron measurement

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2720 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin


In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2719 Particle Deflection in a PDMS Microchannel Caused by a Plane Travelling Surface Acoustic Wave

Authors: Florian Keipert, Hagen Schmitd


The size selective separation of different species in a microfluidic system is an actual task in biological or medical research. Former works dealt with the utilisation of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) caused by a plane travelling Surface Acoustic Wave (tSAW). In literature the ARF is described by a dimensionless parameter κ, depending on the wavelength and the particle diameter. To our knowledge research was done for values 0.2 < κ < 5.8 showing that the ARF is dominating the acoustic streaming force (ASF) for κ > 1.2. As a consequence the particle separation is limited by κ. In addition the dependence on the electrical power level was examined but only for κ > 1 pointing out an increased particle deflection for higher electrical power levels. Nevertheless a detailed study on the ASF and ARF especially for κ < 1 is still missing. In our setup we used a tSAW with a wavelength λ = 90 µm and 3 µm PS particles corresponding to κ = 0.3. Herewith the influence of the applied electrical power level on the particle deflection in a polydimethylsiloxan micro channel was investigated. Our results show an increased particle deflection for an increased electrical power level, which coincides with the reported results for κ > 1. Therefore particle separation is in contrast to literature also possible for lower κ values. Thereby the experimental setup can be generally simplified by a coordinated electrical power level for the specific particle size. Furthermore this raises the question of whether this particle deflection is caused only by the ARF as adopted so far or by the ASF or the sum of both forces. To investigate this fact a 0% - 24% saline solution was used and thus the mismatch between the compressibility of the PS particle and the working fluid could be changed. Therefore it is possible to change the relative strength between ARF and ASF and consequently the particle deflection. We observed a decreasing in the particle deflection for an increased NaCl content up to a 12% saline solution and subsequently an increasing of the particle deflection. Our observation could be explained by the acoustic contrast factor Φ, which depends on the compressibility mismatch. The compressibility of water is increased by the NaCl and the range of a 0% - 24% saline solution covers the PS particle compressibility. Hence the particle deflection reaches a minimum value for the accordance between compressibility of PS particle and saline solution. This minimum value can be estimated as the particle deflection only caused by the ASF. Knowing the particle deflection due to the ASF the particle deflection caused by the ARF can be calculated and thus finally the relation between both forces. Concluding, the particle deflection and therefore the size selective particle separation generated by a tSAW can be achieved for values κ < 1, simplifying actual setups by adjusting the electrical power level. Beyond we studied for the first time the relative strength between ARF and ASF to characterise the particle deflection in a microchannel.

Keywords: ARF, ASF, particle separation, saline solution, tSAW

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2718 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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2717 Simulation of Complex - Shaped Particle Breakage with a Bonded Particle Model using the Discrete Element Method

Authors: Felix Platzer, Eric Fimbinger


In Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations, particle breakage behavior is possible to be simulated in different ways. In the case of relatively large and furthermore complex-shaped particles that show various breakage patterns depending on the scenario leading to the failure and which often only show breakage appearing locally instead of a full fracture of the particle, some DEM simulation methods do not lead to realistic results. This is due to the fact that in those methods, such as the Particle Replacement Method (PRM) or Voronoi Fracture, the initial particle is completely replaced by sub-particles when certain breakage criteria are reached, for instance, when exceeding a certain predefined fracture energy level. This aspect highlights why those methods are commonly used for the simulation of materials that fracture completely instead of breaking locally. For enabling particle models to allow local failure, it is advisable to pre-build the initial particle from sub-particles that are bonded together. The dimensions of these sub-particles automatically define the minimum size of the fracture results. This structure of bonded sub-particles enables the initial particle conglomerate to break at the location of the highest local bonding load due to the failure of these bonds in those areas; correspondingly, with several sub-particle clusters being the result of the fracture, which further again allow breakage. In this project, different methods for the generation and calibration of complex-shaped particle conglomerates, further with the ability to depict realistic fracture behavior, were evaluated based on the example of filter cake fragments. The method that proved to be suited best for this purpose is presented in this paper, thus enabling an efficient and realistic simulation of the breakage behavior of complex-shaped particles, which moreover allows the application to industrial-sized simulations due to their computational-efficient characteristics as revealed.

Keywords: bonded particle model, DEM, filter cake, particle breakage

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2716 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-To-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1 m tall methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurement of axial levels was conducted in the full developed region. The effect of axial level on flow development was not obvious under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons between upward, downward and average particle velocity were conducted. The average particle velocity was close to upward velocity and higher than downward velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile

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2715 Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils

Authors: Inci Develioglu, Hasan Firat Pulat


Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.

Keywords: compressibility, consolidation, geotechnical properties, organic matter content, dredged soil

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2714 Investigation of Single Particle Breakage inside an Impact Mill

Authors: E. Ghasemi Ardi, K. J. Dong, A. B. Yu, R. Y. Yang


In current work, a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM) was developed which provided information about particle dynamic and impact event condition inside a laboratory scale impact mill (Fritsch). It showed that each particle mostly experiences three impacts inside the mill. While the first impact frequently happens at front surface of the rotor’s rib, the frequent location of the second impact is side surfaces of the rotor’s rib. It was also showed that while the first impact happens at small impact angle mostly varying around 35º, the second impact happens at around 70º which is close to normal impact condition. Also analyzing impact energy revealed that varying mill speed from 6000 to 14000 rpm, the ratio of first impact’s average impact energy and minimum required energy to break particle (Wₘᵢₙ) increased from 0.30 to 0.85. Moreover, it was seen that second impact poses intense impact energy on particle which can be considered as the main cause of particle splitting. Finally, obtained information from DEM simulation along with obtained data from conducted experiments was implemented in semi-empirical equations in order to find selection and breakage functions. Then, using a back-calculation approach, those parameters were used to predict the PSDs of ground particles under different impact energies. Results were compared with experiment results and showed reasonable accuracy and prediction ability.

Keywords: single particle breakage, particle dynamic, population balance model, particle size distribution, discrete element method

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2713 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan


The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

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2712 Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian


Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: coaxial duct, gas insulated system, gas mixtures, metallic particle, partial discharges, histograms

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2711 Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In


This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28 %) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %) .The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7 μm, 0.7 – 1.1 μm, 1.1 – 2.1 μm, 2.1 – 3.3 μm, 3.3 – 4.7 μm, 4.7 – 5.8 μm, 5.8 – 9.0 μm, 9.0 – 10.0 μm, were 41.56 – 217.62 μg/m3 (175.86 ± 32.25 μg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 μg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 μg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 μg/m3 (180.95 ± 18.71 μg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 μg/m3 (183.22 ± 19.94 μg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 μg/m3 (181.85 ± 17.57 μg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 μg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 μg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 μg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 μg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 μg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 μg/m3), repectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)

Keywords: air pollution, particulate matter, size distribution, zinc

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