Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Anushka Naidoo

17 Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs in South African Patients from Kwazulu-Natal: Effects of Pharmacogenetic Variation on Rifampicin and Isoniazid Concentrations

Authors: Anushka Naidoo, Veron Ramsuran, Maxwell Chirehwa, Paolo Denti, Kogieleum Naidoo, Helen McIlleron, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Ravesh Singh, Sinaye Ngcapu, Nesri Padayatachi

Abstract:

Background: Despite efforts to introduce new drugs and shorter drug regimens for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), the standard first-line treatment has not changed in over 50 years. Rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide are critical components of the current standard treatment regimens. Some studies suggest that microbiologic failure and acquired drug resistance are primarily driven by low drug concentrations that result from pharmacokinetic (PK) variability independent of adherence to treatment. Wide between-patient pharmacokinetic variability for rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide has been reported in prior studies. There may be several reasons for this variability. However, genetic variability in genes coding for drug metabolizing and transporter enzymes have been shown to be a contributing factor for variable tuberculosis drug exposures. Objective: We describe the pharmacokinetics of first-line TB drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide and assess the effect of genetic variability in relevant selected drug metabolizing and transporter enzymes on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin. Methods: We conducted the randomized-controlled Improving retreatment success TB trial in Durban, South Africa. The drug regimen included rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide. Drug concentrations were measured in plasma, and concentration-time data were analysed using nonlinear-mixed-effects models to quantify the effects of relevant covariates and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) of drug metabolizing and transporter genes on rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide exposure. A total of 25 SNP’s: four NAT2 (used to determine acetylator status), four SLCO1B1, three Pregnane X receptor (NR1), six ABCB1 and eight UGT1A, were selected for analysis in this study. Genotypes were determined for each of the SNP’s using a TaqMan® Genotyping OpenArray™. Results: Among fifty-eight patients studied; 41 (70.7%) were male, 97% black African, 42 (72.4%) HIV co-infected and 40 (95%) on efavirenz-based ART. Median weight, fat-free mass (FFM), and age at baseline were 56.9 kg (interquartile range, IQR: 51.1-65.2), 46.8 kg (IQR: 42.5-50.3) and 37 years (IQR: 31-42), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and pyrazinamide was best described using one-compartment models with first-order absorption and elimination, while for isoniazid two-compartment disposition was used. The median (interquartile range: IQR) AUC (h·mg/L) and Cmax (mg/L) for rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide were; 25.62 (23.01-28.53) and 4.85 (4.36-5.40), 10.62 (9.20-12.25) and 2.79 (2.61-2.97), 345.74 (312.03-383.10) and 28.06 (25.01-31.52), respectively. Eighteen percent of patients were classified as rapid acetylators, and 34% and 43% as slow and intermediate acetylators, respectively. Rapid and intermediate acetylator status based on NAT 2 genotype resulted in 2.3 and 1.6 times higher isoniazid clearance than slow acetylators. We found no effects of the SLCO1B1 genotypes on rifampicin pharmacokinetics. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide were low overall in our patients. Isoniazid clearance was high overall and as expected higher in rapid and intermediate acetylators resulting in lower drug exposures. In contrast to reports from previous South African or Ugandan studies, we did not find any effects of the SLCO1B1 or other genotypes tested on rifampicin PK. However, our findings are in keeping with more recent studies from Malawi and India emphasizing the need for geographically diverse and adequately powered studies. The clinical relevance of the low tuberculosis drug concentrations warrants further investigation.

Keywords: rifampicin, isoniazid pharmacokinetics, genetics, NAT2, SLCO1B1, tuberculosis

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16 Investigation into Varied Inspection Utilization for Mass Customization

Authors: Trishen Naidoo, Anthony Walker, Shaniel Davrajh, Glen Bright

Abstract:

An investigation into on-line inspection was performed where research is focused on the use of varied inspection (as opposed to 100% inspection) for mass customization (MC). Manufacturers need new methods for quality control in mass customization, and these methods need to address some of the old problems such as over-inspection and bottlenecking. Due to the risks of varied inspection, many manufacturers do not implement it and rather opt for sampling methods. However, there are many advantages of varied inspection and can have applications in mass customization. A control system incorporating fuzzy logic (FL) control is used to perform the variations in inspection usage in a simulated environment. The proposed system can have a key impact in appraisal costs reduction and possibly work-in-process reduction in high variety environments.

Keywords: appraisal costs, fuzzy logic, quality control, work-in-process

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15 Arsenic(III) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Fly Ash

Authors: Olushola Ayanda, Simphiwe Nelana, Eliazer Naidoo

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of As(III) ions from aqueous solution onto fly ash (FA) was investigated in batch adsorption system. Prior to the adsorption studies, the FA was characterized by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination. The effect of contact time, initial As(III) concentration, FA dosage, stirring speed, solution pH and temperature was examined on the adsorption rate. Experimental results showed a very good compliance with the pseudo-second-order equation, while the equilibrium study showed that the sorption of As(III) ions onto FA fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous, moreover, the maximum percentage removal of As(III) achieved with approx. 2.5 g FA mixed with 25 mL of 100 mg/L As(III) solution was 65.4 % at pH 10, 60 min contact time, temperature of 353 K and a stirring speed of 120 rpm.

Keywords: arsenic, fly ash, kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics

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14 Risk-Based Regulation as a Model of Control in the South African Meat Industry

Authors: R. Govender, T. C. Katsande, E. Madoroba, N. M. Thiebaut, D. Naidoo

Abstract:

South African control over meat safety is managed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Veterinary services department in each of the nine provinces in the country is tasked with overseeing the farm and abattoir segments of the meat supply chain. Abattoirs are privately owned. The number of abattoirs over the years has increased. This increase has placed constraints on government resources required to monitor these abattoirs. This paper presents empirical research results on the hygienic processing of meat in high and low throughout abattoirs. This paper presents a case for the adoption of risk-based regulation as a method of government control over hygiene and safe meat processing at abattoirs in South Africa. Recommendations are made to the DAFF regarding policy considerations on risk-based regulation as a model of control in South Africa.

Keywords: risk-based regulation, abattoir, food control, meat safety

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13 Optimal Scheduling of Trains in Complex National Scale Railway Networks

Authors: Sanat Ramesh, Tarun Dutt, Abhilasha Aswal, Anushka Chandrababu, G. N. Srinivasa Prasanna

Abstract:

Optimal Schedule Generation for a large national railway network operating thousands of passenger trains with tens of thousands of kilometers of track is a grand computational challenge in itself. We present heuristics based on a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) formulation for local optimization. These methods provide flexibility in scheduling new trains with varying speed and delays and improve utilization of infrastructure. We propose methods that provide a robust solution with hundreds of trains being scheduled over a portion of the railway network without significant increases in delay. We also provide techniques to validate the nominal schedules thus generated over global correlated variations in travel times thereby enabling us to detect conflicts arising due to delays. Our validation results which assume only the support of the arrival and departure time distributions takes an order of few minutes for a portion of the network and is computationally efficient to handle the entire network.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, optimization, railway network, train scheduling

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12 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo

Abstract:

The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation

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11 Common Regulatory Mechanisms Reveals Links between Aberrant Glycosylation and Biological Hallmarks in Cancer

Authors: Jahanshah Ashkani, Kevin J. Naidoo

Abstract:

Glycosylation is the major posttranslational modification (PTM) process in cellular development. In tumour development, it is marked by structural alteration of carbohydrates (glycans) that is the result of aberrant glycosylation. Altered glycan structures affect cell surface ligand-receptor interactions that interfere with the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. The resulting changes in glycan biosynthesis pathways originate from altered expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. While the alteration in glycosylation patterns is a recognized “hallmark of cancer”, the influential overview of the biology of cancer proposes eight hallmarks with no explicit suggestion to connectivity with glycosylation. Recently, we have discovered a connection between the glycosyltransferase gene expression and cancer type and subtype. Here we present an association between aberrant glycosylation and the biological hallmarks of breast cancer by exploring the common regulatory mechanisms at the genomic scale. The result of this study bridges the glycobiological and biological pathways that are accepted hallmarks of cancer by connecting their common regulatory pathways. This is an impetus for further investigation as target therapies of breast cancer are very likely to be uncovered from this.

Keywords: aberrant glycosylation, biological hallmarks, breast cancer, regulatory mechanism

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10 Media Manipulations and the Culture of Beneficial Endophytic Fungi in the Leaves and Stem Bark of Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv

Authors: Akwu A. Nneka, Naidoo, Yougasphree

Abstract:

A significantly high number of microbes exist in higher plants; these microbes include bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. There are reports on the benefits of endophytic fungi and their products of metabolism to the host plant and man, consequently, it is expedient to explore the changes that could arise as a result of manipulating their growth media. Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv. (Malvaceae) is an indigenous Southern African plant, that belongs to a genus with known medicinal properties. Three media were used to culture the endophytic fungi viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), and Bacteriological Agar (BA) were used singly, and supplemented with three dilutions of the leaves and stem bark extracts. The manipulated growth media composition had a significant effect on the diversity of the isolated fungal populations. Several endophytic fungi were isolated; their distribution and diversity revealed a significant relatedness with the manipulated media. The media supplemented with the plant extracts was observed to give a significant increase in the growth rate and yield of the endophytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the endophytic fungi present in the leaves and stem bark of G. lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv.

Keywords: Grewia lasiocarpa, plant-based extracts, endophytic fungi, Malvaceae

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9 Antidiabetic and Admet Pharmacokinetic Properties of Grewia Lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv. Stem Bark Extracts: An in Vitro and in Silico Study

Authors: Akwu N. A., Naidoo Y., Salau V. F., Olofinsan K. A.

Abstract:

Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv. (Malvaceae) is a Southern African medicinal plant indigenously used with other plants for birthing problems. The anti-diabetic properties of the hexane, chloroform, and methanol extracts of Grewia lasiocarpa stem bark were assessed using in vitro α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay. The predictive in silico drug-likeness and toxicity properties of the phytocompounds were conducted using the pKCSM, ADMElab, and SwissADME computer-aided online tools. The highest α-glucosidase percentage inhibition was observed in the hexane extract (86.76%, IC50= 0.24 mg/mL), followed by chloroform (63.08%, IC50= 4.87 mg/mL) and methanol (53.22%, IC50= 9.41 mg/mL); while acarbose, the standard anti-diabetic drug was (84.54%, IC50= 1.96 mg/mL). The α-glucosidase assay revealed that the hexane extract exhibited the strongest carbohydrate inhibiting capacity and is a better inhibitor than the standard reference drug-acarbose. The computational studies also affirm the results observed in the in vitroα-glucosidaseassay. Thus, the extracts of G. lasiocarpa may be considered a potential plant-sourced compound for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is the first study on the anti-diabetic properties of Grewia lasiocarpa hexane, chloroform, and methanol extracts using in vitro and in silico models.

Keywords: grewia lasiocarpa, α-glucosidase inhibition, anti-diabetes, ADMET

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8 Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia

Authors: Maia Kukhaleishvili, Ekaterine Bulauri, Iveta Megrelishvili, Tamar Shamatava, Tamar Chipashvili

Abstract:

Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.

Keywords: virus, potato, infection, diseases

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7 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath

Abstract:

The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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6 Characterization, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv. Plant Extracts

Authors: Nneka Augustina Akwu, Yougasphree Naidoo

Abstract:

Molecular advancement in technology has created a means whereby the atoms and molecules (solid forms) of certain materials such as plants, can now be reduced to a range of 1-100 nanometres. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out at room temperature (RT) 25 ± 2°C and 80°C, using the metabolites in the aqueous extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Grewia lasiocarpa as reductants and stabilizing agents. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transforms infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRF) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The AgNPs were biologically evaluated for antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxicity activities. The phytochemical and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of metabolites that act as reducing and capping agents, while the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the biosynthesized NPs showed absorption between 380-460 nm, confirming AgNP synthesis. The Zeta potential values were between -9.1 and -20.6 mV with a hydrodynamics diameter ranging from 38.3 to 46.7 nm. SEM and HRTEM analyses revealed that AgNPs were predominately spherical with an average particle size of 2- 31 nm for the leaves and 5-27 nm for the stem bark. The cytotoxicity IC50 values of the AgNPs against HeLa, Caco-2 and MCF-7 were >1 mg/mL. The AgNPs were sensitive to all strains of bacteria used, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) being more sensitive to the AgNPs. Our findings propose that antibacterial and anticancer agents could be derived from these AgNPs of G. lasiocarpa, and warrant their further investigation.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Grewia lasiocarpa, silver nanoparticles, Zeta potentials

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5 A Theory of Aftercare for Human Trafficking Survivors: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Survivors and Aftercare Providers in South Africa

Authors: Robyn L. Curran, Joanne R. Naidoo, Gugu Mchunu

Abstract:

Along with the increasing awareness of human trafficking, is the acknowledgement that it is no longer just a social problem but also a significant public health problem that requires both increased knowledge and the specialist equipping of aftercare providers such as nurses who care for human trafficking survivors. Current discourse regarding aftercare of human trafficking survivors, is that approaches do not clearly explain the function or content of aftercare and what aftercare entails. Although psychological and medical aftercare are emphasized as important components, little practical attention is devoted to what these components actually involve and the effectiveness of current practice in aftercare. Review of the literature on the processes that take place from aftercare to empowerment, revealed the need for emphasis to be placed on the voices of survivors concerning their liberation from oppression. The aim of the study was to develop a theory for aftercare of human trafficking survivors, through analyzing the experiences of survivors and aftercare providers in shelters in three provinces in South Africa. Through using a Straussian grounded theory approach, the researcher developed a theory to inform care of human trafficking survivors in low resource settings using the voice of the survivors and those experienced in direct care of human trafficking survivors. Four human trafficking survivors and three aftercare providers from three shelters in three provinces in South Africa were individually interviewed in order for the theory to emerge. The findings of the study elicited a theoretical model of the renewed self, and the conditions that facilitate this process in care of human trafficking survivors. The process that human trafficking survivors navigate to empowerment require mutual collaboration of the aftercare provider and survivor as the survivor awakens vision, confronts reality, re-salvages autonomy and liberates self. Psychological resilience of the survivor facilitates the transition to renewed self. The recommendations of this study may improve the nursing care provided to human trafficking survivors and equip professionals with knowledge and skills to promote the process of renewing self for survivors.

Keywords: aftercare, aftercare providers, grounded theory, human trafficking survivors

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4 Methylation Profiling and Validation of Candidate Tissue-Specific Differentially Methylated Regions for Identification of Human Blood, Saliva, Semen and Vaginal Fluid and Its Application in Forensics

Authors: Meenu Joshi, Natalie Naidoo, Farzeen Kader

Abstract:

Identification of body fluids is an essential step in forensic investigation to aid in crime reconstruction. Tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) of the human genome can be targeted to be used as biomarkers to differentiate between body fluids. The present study was undertaken to establish the methylation status of potential tDMRs in blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal fluid by using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing (BS). The methylation statuses of 3 potential tDMRS in genes ZNF282, PTPRS, and HPCAL1 were analysed in 10 samples of each body fluid. With MSP analysis, the ZNF282, and PTPRS1 tDMR displayed semen-specific hypomethylation while HPCAL1 tDMR showed saliva-specific hypomethylation. With quantitative analysis by BS, the ZNF282 tDMR showed statistically significant difference in overall methylation between semen and all other body fluids as well as at individual CpG sites (p < 0.05). To evaluate the effect of environmental conditions on the stability of methylation profiles of the ZNF282 tDMR, five samples of each body fluid were subjected to five different forensic simulated conditions (dry at room temperature, wet in an exsiccator, outside on the ground, sprayed with alcohol, and sprayed with bleach) for 50 days. Vaginal fluid showed highest DNA recovery under all conditions while semen had least DNA quantity. Under outside on the ground condition, all body fluids except semen showed a decrease in methylation level; however, a significant decrease in methylation level was observed for saliva. A statistical significant difference was observed for saliva and semen (p < 0.05) for outside on the ground condition. No differences in methylation level were observed for the ZNF282 tDMR under all conditions for vaginal fluid samples. Thus, in the present study ZNF282 tDMR has been identified as a novel and stable semen-specific hypomethylation marker.

Keywords: body fluids, bisulphite sequencing, forensics, tDMRs, MSP

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3 Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane

Authors: Peterson Thokozani Ngema, Paramespri Naidoo, Amir H. Mohammadi, Deresh Ramjugernath

Abstract:

Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.

Keywords: association, desalination, electrolytes, promoter

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2 Identification and Molecular Profiling of A Family I Cystatin Homologue from Sebastes schlegeli Deciphering Its Putative Role in Host Immunity

Authors: Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, P. D. S. U. Wickramasinghe, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Cystatins are a large superfamily of proteins which act as reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Papain proteases and cysteine cathepsins are predominant substrates of cystatins. Cystatin superfamily can be further clustered into three groups as Stefins, Cystatins, and Kininogens. Among them, stefines are also known as family 1 cystatins which harbors cystatin Bs and cystatin As. In this study, a homologue of family one cystatins more close to cystatin Bs was identified from Korean black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) using a prior constructed cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) database and designated as RfCyt1. The full-length cDNA of RfCyt1 consisted of 573 bp, with a coding region of 294 bp. It comprised a 5´-untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp, and 3´-UTR of 263 bp. The coding sequence encodes a polypeptide consisting of 97 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 11kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. The RfCyt1 shared homology with other teleosts and vertebrate species and consisted conserved features of cystatin family signature including single cystatin-like domain, cysteine protease inhibitory signature of pentapeptide (QXVXG) consensus sequence and N-terminal two conserved neighboring glycine (⁸GG⁹) residues. As expected, phylogenetic reconstruction developed using the neighbor-joining method showed that RfCyt1 is clustered with the cystatin family 1 members, in which more closely with its teleostan orthologues. An SYBR Green qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) assay was performed to quantify the RfCytB transcripts in different tissues in healthy and immune stimulated fish. RfCyt1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissue types of healthy animals with gill and spleen being the highest. Temporal expression of RfCyt1 displayed significant up-regulation upon infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Recombinantly expressed RfCyt1 showed concentration-dependent papain inhibitory activity. Collectively these findings evidence for detectable protease inhibitory and immunity relevant roles of RfCyt1 in Sebastes schlegeli.

Keywords: Sebastes schlegeli, family 1 cystatin, immune stimulation, expressional modulation

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1 Non-Mammalian Pattern Recognition Receptor from Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Genomic Characterization and Transcriptional Profile upon Bacterial and Viral Inductions

Authors: Thanthrige Thiunuwan Priyathilaka, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Bong-Soo Lim, Hyung-Bok Jeong, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a phylogeneticaly conserved family of pattern recognition receptors, which participates in the host immune responses against various pathogens and pathogen derived mitogen. TLR21, a non-mammalian type, is almost restricted to the fish species even though those can be identified rarely in avians and amphibians. Herein, this study was carried out to identify and characterize TLR21 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) designated as RbTLR21, at transcriptional and genomic level. In this study, the full length cDNA and genomic sequence of RbTLR21 was identified using previously constructed cDNA sequence database and BAC library, respectively. Identified RbTLR21 sequence was characterized using several bioinformatics tools. The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) experiment was conducted to determine tissue specific expressional distribution of RbTLR21. Further, transcriptional modulation of RbTLR21 upon the stimulation with Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) and Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) was analyzed in spleen tissues. The complete coding sequence of RbTLR21 was 2919 bp in length which can encode a protein consisting of 973 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 112 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.6. The anticipated protein sequence resembled a typical TLR domain architecture including C-terminal ectodomain with 16 leucine rich repeats, a transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic TIR domain and signal peptide with 23 amino acid residues. Moreover, protein folding pattern prediction of RbTLR21 exhibited well-structured and folded ectodomain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmc TIR domain. According to the pair wise sequence analysis data, RbTLR21 showed closest homology with orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR21with 76.9% amino acid identity. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbTLR21 shows a close evolutionary relationship with its ortholog from Danio rerio. Genomic structure of RbTLR21 consisted of single exon similar to its ortholog of zebra fish. Sevaral putative transcription factor binding sites were also identified in 5ʹ flanking region of RbTLR21. The RBTLR 21 was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues we tested. Relatively, high expression levels were found in spleen, liver and blood tissues. Upon induction with rock bream iridovirus, RbTLR21 expression was upregulated at the early phase of post induction period even though RbTLR21 expression level was fluctuated at the latter phase of post induction period. Post Edwardsiella tarda injection, RbTLR transcripts were upregulated throughout the experiment. Similarly, Streptococcus iniae induction exhibited significant upregulations of RbTLR21 mRNA expression in the spleen tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that RbTLR21 is indeed a homolog of TLR21 family members and RbTLR21 may be involved in host immune responses against bacterial and DNA viral infections.

Keywords: rock bream, toll like receptor 21 (TLR21), pattern recognition receptor, genomic characterization

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