Search results for: data science
22793 Comprehensive Study of Data Science
Authors: Asifa Amara, Prachi Singh, Kanishka, Debargho Pathak, Akshat Kumar, Jayakumar Eravelly
Abstract:Today's generation is totally dependent on technology that uses data as its fuel. The present study is all about innovations and developments in data science and gives an idea about how efficiently to use the data provided. This study will help to understand the core concepts of data science. The concept of artificial intelligence was introduced by Alan Turing in which the main principle was to create an artificial system that can run independently of human-given programs and can function with the help of analyzing data to understand the requirements of the users. Data science comprises business understanding, analyzing data, ethical concerns, understanding programming languages, various fields and sources of data, skills, etc. The usage of data science has evolved over the years. In this review article, we have covered a part of data science, i.e., machine learning. Machine learning uses data science for its work. Machines learn through their experience, which helps them to do any work more efficiently. This article includes a comparative study image between human understanding and machine understanding, advantages, applications, and real-time examples of machine learning. Data science is an important game changer in the life of human beings. Since the advent of data science, we have found its benefits and how it leads to a better understanding of people, and how it cherishes individual needs. It has improved business strategies, services provided by them, forecasting, the ability to attend sustainable developments, etc. This study also focuses on a better understanding of data science which will help us to create a better world.
Keywords: data science, machine learning, data analytics, artificial intelligenceProcedia PDF Downloads 14
22792 Data Science in Military Decision-Making: A Semi-Systematic Literature Review
Authors: H. W. Meerveld, R. H. A. Lindelauf
Abstract:In contemporary warfare, data science is crucial for the military in achieving information superiority. Yet, to the authors’ knowledge, no extensive literature survey on data science in military decision-making has been conducted so far. In this study, 156 peer-reviewed articles were analysed through an integrative, semi-systematic literature review to gain an overview of the topic. The study examined to what extent literature is focussed on the opportunities or risks of data science in military decision-making, differentiated per level of war (i.e. strategic, operational, and tactical level). A relatively large focus on the risks of data science was observed in social science literature, implying that political and military policymakers are disproportionally influenced by a pessimistic view on the application of data science in the military domain. The perceived risks of data science are, however, hardly addressed in formal science literature. This means that the concerns on the military application of data science are not addressed to the audience that can actually develop and enhance data science models and algorithms. Cross-disciplinary research on both the opportunities and risks of military data science can address the observed research gaps. Considering the levels of war, relatively low attention for the operational level compared to the other two levels was observed, suggesting a research gap with reference to military operational data science. Opportunities for military data science mostly arise at the tactical level. On the contrary, studies examining strategic issues mostly emphasise the risks of military data science. Consequently, domain-specific requirements for military strategic data science applications are hardly expressed. Lacking such applications may ultimately lead to a suboptimal strategic decision in today’s warfare.
Keywords: data science, decision-making, information superiority, literature review, militaryProcedia PDF Downloads 52
22791 A Review on Intelligent Systems for Geoscience
Authors: R Palson Kennedy, P.Kiran Sai
Abstract:This article introduces machine learning (ML) researchers to the hurdles that geoscience problems present, as well as the opportunities for improvement in both ML and geosciences. This article presents a review from the data life cycle perspective to meet that need. Numerous facets of geosciences present unique difficulties for the study of intelligent systems. Geosciences data is notoriously difficult to analyze since it is frequently unpredictable, intermittent, sparse, multi-resolution, and multi-scale. The first half addresses data science’s essential concepts and theoretical underpinnings, while the second section contains key themes and sharing experiences from current publications focused on each stage of the data life cycle. Finally, themes such as open science, smart data, and team science are considered.
Keywords: Data science, intelligent system, machine learning, big data, data life cycle, recent development, geo scienceProcedia PDF Downloads 77
22790 Big Data: Appearance and Disappearance
Authors: James Moir
Abstract:The mainstay of Big Data is prediction in that it allows practitioners, researchers, and policy analysts to predict trends based upon the analysis of large and varied sources of data. These can range from changing social and political opinions, patterns in crimes, and consumer behaviour. Big Data has therefore shifted the criterion of success in science from causal explanations to predictive modelling and simulation. The 19th-century science sought to capture phenomena and seek to show the appearance of it through causal mechanisms while 20th-century science attempted to save the appearance and relinquish causal explanations. Now 21st-century science in the form of Big Data is concerned with the prediction of appearances and nothing more. However, this pulls social science back in the direction of a more rule- or law-governed reality model of science and away from a consideration of the internal nature of rules in relation to various practices. In effect Big Data offers us no more than a world of surface appearance and in doing so it makes disappear any context-specific conceptual sensitivity.
Keywords: big data, appearance, disappearance, surface, epistemologyProcedia PDF Downloads 326
22789 Discussion on Big Data and One of Its Early Training Application
Authors: Fulya Gokalp Yavuz, Mark Daniel Ward
Abstract:This study focuses on a contemporary and inevitable topic of Data Science and its exemplary application for early career building: Big Data and Leaving Learning Community (LLC). ‘Academia’ and ‘Industry’ have a common sense on the importance of Big Data. However, both of them are in a threat of missing the training on this interdisciplinary area. Some traditional teaching doctrines are far away being effective on Data Science. Practitioners needs some intuition and real-life examples how to apply new methods to data in size of terabytes. We simply explain the scope of Data Science training and exemplified its early stage application with LLC, which is a National Science Foundation (NSF) founded project under the supervision of Prof. Ward since 2014. Essentially, we aim to give some intuition for professors, researchers and practitioners to combine data science tools for comprehensive real-life examples with the guides of mentees’ feedback. As a result of discussing mentoring methods and computational challenges of Big Data, we intend to underline its potential with some more realization.
Keywords: Big Data, computation, mentoring, trainingProcedia PDF Downloads 281
22788 The Relationship Between Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, and Privacy
Authors: M. Naidoo
Abstract:Artificial intelligence often requires large amounts of good quality data. Within important fields, such as healthcare, the training of AI systems predominately relies on health and personal data; however, the usage of this data is complicated by various layers of law and ethics that seek to protect individuals’ privacy rights. This research seeks to establish the challenges AI and data sciences pose to (i) informational rights, (ii) privacy rights, and (iii) data protection. To solve some of the issues presented, various methods are suggested, such as embedding values in technological development, proper balancing of rights and interests, and others.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, data science, law, policyProcedia PDF Downloads 43
22787 Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions Related to the Concept of Laboratory: A Metaphorical Analysis
Authors: Salih Uzun
Abstract:The laboratory activities are seen an indispensable part of science, teaching, and learning. In this study, the aim was to identify pre-service science teachers’ perceptions related to the concept of laboratory through metaphors. It is expressed that metaphors can be used as a powerful research tool in order to understand personal perceptions. Therefore, metaphors were used with the aim of revealing a picture regarding how pre-service science teachers perceive laboratory. Within the scope of this aim, phenomenographic research design was adopted for this study and an answer was sought to the question; ‘What are pre-service science teachers’ perceptions about the concept of laboratory?’. The sample of this study was a total of 80 pre-service science teachers at various grade levels in Turkey. Participants were asked to complete the sentence; ‘Laboratory is like…; because…’. Documents including pre-service science teachers’ answers to the open-ended questions were used as data sources and the data were analysed with content analysis.
Keywords: laboratory, metaphor, phenomenology, pre-service science teachersProcedia PDF Downloads 372
22786 Reviewing Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining
Authors: Sajjad Baghernezhad, Saeideh Baghernezhad
Abstract:Nowadays considering human involved in increasing data development some methods such as data mining to extract science are unavoidable. One of the discussions of data mining is inherent distribution of the data usually the bases creating or receiving such data belong to corporate or non-corporate persons and do not give their information freely to others. Yet there is no guarantee to enable someone to mine special data without entering in the owner’s privacy. Sending data and then gathering them by each vertical or horizontal software depends on the type of their preserving type and also executed to improve data privacy. In this study it was attempted to compare comprehensively preserving data methods; also general methods such as random data, coding and strong and weak points of each one are examined.
Keywords: data mining, distributed data mining, privacy protection, privacy preservingProcedia PDF Downloads 416
22785 High Performance Computing and Big Data Analytics
Authors: Branci Sarra, Branci Saadia
Abstract:Because of the multiplied data growth, many computer science tools have been developed to process and analyze these Big Data. High-performance computing architectures have been designed to meet the treatment needs of Big Data (view transaction processing standpoint, strategic, and tactical analytics). The purpose of this article is to provide a historical and global perspective on the recent trend of high-performance computing architectures especially what has a relation with Analytics and Data Mining.
Keywords: high performance computing, HPC, big data, data analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 445
22784 Cognitive Science Based Scheduling in Grid Environment
Authors: N. D. Iswarya, M. A. Maluk Mohamed, N. Vijaya
Abstract:Grid is infrastructure that allows the deployment of distributed data in large size from multiple locations to reach a common goal. Scheduling data intensive applications becomes challenging as the size of data sets are very huge in size. Only two solutions exist in order to tackle this challenging issue. First, computation which requires huge data sets to be processed can be transferred to the data site. Second, the required data sets can be transferred to the computation site. In the former scenario, the computation cannot be transferred since the servers are storage/data servers with little or no computational capability. Hence, the second scenario can be considered for further exploration. During scheduling, transferring huge data sets from one site to another site requires more network bandwidth. In order to mitigate this issue, this work focuses on incorporating cognitive science in scheduling. Cognitive Science is the study of human brain and its related activities. Current researches are mainly focused on to incorporate cognitive science in various computational modeling techniques. In this work, the problem solving approach of human brain is studied and incorporated during the data intensive scheduling in grid environments. Here, a cognitive engine is designed and deployed in various grid sites. The intelligent agents present in CE will help in analyzing the request and creating the knowledge base. Depending upon the link capacity, decision will be taken whether to transfer data sets or to partition the data sets. Prediction of next request is made by the agents to serve the requesting site with data sets in advance. This will reduce the data availability time and data transfer time. Replica catalog and Meta data catalog created by the agents assist in decision making process.
Keywords: data grid, grid workflow scheduling, cognitive artificial intelligenceProcedia PDF Downloads 333
22783 To Handle Data-Driven Software Development Projects Effectively
Authors: Shahnewaz Khan
Abstract:Machine learning (ML) techniques are often used in projects for creating data-driven applications. These tasks typically demand additional research and analysis. The proper technique and strategy must be chosen to ensure the success of data-driven projects. Otherwise, even exerting a lot of effort, the necessary development might not always be possible. In this post, an effort to examine the workflow of data-driven software development projects and its implementation process in order to describe how to manage a project successfully. Which will assist in minimizing the added workload.
Keywords: data, data-driven projects, data science, NLP, software projectProcedia PDF Downloads 9
22782 An Investigation into the Views of Distant Science Education Students Regarding Teaching Laboratory Work Online
Authors: Abraham Motlhabane
Abstract:This research analysed the written views of science education students regarding the teaching of laboratory work using the online mode. The research adopted the qualitative methodology. The qualitative research was aimed at investigating small and distinct groups normally regarded as a single-site study. Qualitative research was used to describe and analyze the phenomena from the student’s perspective. This means the research began with assumptions of the world view that use theoretical lenses of research problems inquiring into the meaning of individual students. The research was conducted with three groups of students studying for Postgraduate Certificate in Education, Bachelor of Education and honors Bachelor of Education respectively. In each of the study programmes, the science education module is compulsory. Five science education students from each study programme were purposively selected to participate in this research. Therefore, 15 students participated in the research. In order to analysis the data, the data were first printed and hard copies were used in the analysis. The data was read several times and key concepts and ideas were highlighted. Themes and patterns were identified to describe the data. Coding as a process of organising and sorting data was used. The findings of the study are very diverse; some students are in favour of online laboratory whereas other students argue that science can only be learnt through hands-on experimentation.
Keywords: online learning, laboratory work, views, perceptionsProcedia PDF Downloads 82
22781 Adoption of Big Data by Global Chemical Industries
Authors: Ashiff Khan, A. Seetharaman, Abhijit Dasgupta
Abstract:The new era of big data (BD) is influencing chemical industries tremendously, providing several opportunities to reshape the way they operate and help them shift towards intelligent manufacturing. Given the availability of free software and the large amount of real-time data generated and stored in process plants, chemical industries are still in the early stages of big data adoption. The industry is just starting to realize the importance of the large amount of data it owns to make the right decisions and support its strategies. This article explores the importance of professional competencies and data science that influence BD in chemical industries to help it move towards intelligent manufacturing fast and reliable. This article utilizes a literature review and identifies potential applications in the chemical industry to move from conventional methods to a data-driven approach. The scope of this document is limited to the adoption of BD in chemical industries and the variables identified in this article. To achieve this objective, government, academia, and industry must work together to overcome all present and future challenges.
Keywords: chemical engineering, big data analytics, industrial revolution, professional competence, data scienceProcedia PDF Downloads 22
22780 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Science Teacher Training Programme in National Colleges of Education: a Preliminary Study, Perceptions of Prospective Teachers
Authors: A. S. V Polgampala, F. Huang
Abstract:This is an overview of what is entailed in an evaluation and issues to be aware of when class observation is being done. This study examined the effects of evaluating teaching practice of a 7-day ‘block teaching’ session in a pre -service science teacher training program at a reputed National College of Education in Sri Lanka. Effects were assessed in three areas: evaluation of the training process, evaluation of the training impact, and evaluation of the training procedure. Data for this study were collected by class observation of 18 teachers during 9th February to 16th of 2017. Prospective teachers of science teaching, the participants of the study were evaluated based on newly introduced format by the NIE. The data collected was analyzed qualitatively using the Miles and Huberman procedure for analyzing qualitative data: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/verification. It was observed that the trainees showed their confidence in teaching those competencies and skills. Teacher educators’ dissatisfaction has been a great impact on evaluation process.
Keywords: evaluation, perceptions & perspectives, pre-service, science teacheringProcedia PDF Downloads 255
22779 The Reflection on Pre-Service Teacher Training Program in Science Education
Authors: Sumalee Tientongdee
Abstract:The pre-service teacher training program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bankgok Thailand has been provided for undergraduate students for more than 80 years. It was established as the first teacher college in the country. The pre-service teacher program in science education is considered as one of the new training programs to prepare pre-service teacher to teach science in secondary school level. The need of program assessment is strongly important. Therefore, this study was conducted to gain the opinions and recommendations from the principals, in-service teachers, and mentoring teachers from the partnership schools of Bangkok. The invited 120 participants for the annual meeting was hold in May 2017. The focus group discussion and questionnaires were used to collect the data during the reflection session. The content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The results showed that the pre-service teacher training program in science education should improve students’ creative thinking skill, service mind, personality, and attitudes toward teaching science career. Also, the future science teachers must be able to teach in English to have more opportunities to teach science in Southeast Asian countries.
Keywords: pre-service teacher training program, reflection, science education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat universityProcedia PDF Downloads 149
22778 Advancement of Computer Science Research in Nigeria: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Past Three Decades
Authors: Temidayo O. Omotehinwa, David O. Oyewola, Friday J. Agbo
Abstract:This study aims to gather a proper perspective of the development landscape of Computer Science research in Nigeria. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis of 4,333 bibliographic records of Computer Science research in Nigeria in the last 31 years (1991-2021) was carried out. The bibliographic data were extracted from the Scopus database and analyzed using VOSviewer and the bibliometrix R package through the biblioshiny web interface. The findings of this study revealed that Computer Science research in Nigeria has a growth rate of 24.19%. The most developed and well-studied research areas in the Computer Science field in Nigeria are machine learning, data mining, and deep learning. The social structure analysis result revealed that there is a need for improved international collaborations. Sparsely established collaborations are largely influenced by geographic proximity. The funding analysis result showed that Computer Science research in Nigeria is under-funded. The findings of this study will be useful for researchers conducting Computer Science related research. Experts can gain insights into how to develop a strategic framework that will advance the field in a more impactful manner. Government agencies and policymakers can also utilize the outcome of this research to develop strategies for improved funding for Computer Science research.
Keywords: bibliometric analysis, biblioshiny, computer science, Nigeria, science mappingProcedia PDF Downloads 42
22777 Thai Student Teachers' Prior Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS)
Authors: N. Songumpai, W. Sumranwanich, S. Chatmaneerungcharoen
Abstract:This research aims to study the understanding of 8 aspects of nature of science (NOS). The research participants were 39 General Science student teachers who were selected by purposive sampling. In 2015 academic year, they enrolled in the course of Science Education Learning Management. Qualitative research was used as research methodology to understand how the student teachers propose on NOS. The research instruments consisted of open-ended questionnaires and semi-structure interviews that were used to assess students’ understanding of NOS. Research data was collected by 8 items- questionnaire and was categorized into students’ understanding of NOS, which consisted of complete understanding (CU), partial understanding (PU), misunderstanding (MU) and no understanding (NU). The findings reveal the majority of students’ misunderstanding of NOS regarding the aspects of theory and law(89.7%), scientific method(61.5%) and empirical evidence(15.4%) respectively. From the interview data, the student teachers present their misconceptions of NOS that indicate about theory and law cannot change; science knowledge is gained through experiment only (step by step); science is the things that are around humans. These results suggest that for effective science teacher education, the composition of design of NOS course needs to be considered. Therefore, teachers’ understanding of NOS is necessary to integrate into professional development program/course for empowering student teachers to begin their careers as strong science teachers in schools.
Keywords: nature of science, student teacher, no understanding, misunderstanding, partial understanding, complete understandingProcedia PDF Downloads 204
22776 A Review of Machine Learning for Big Data
Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, Aravindraj D., Sadathulla A.
Abstract:Big data are now rapidly expanding in all engineering and science and many other domains. The potential of large or massive data is undoubtedly significant, make sense to require new ways of thinking and learning techniques to address the various big data challenges. Machine learning is continuously unleashing its power in a wide range of applications. In this paper, the latest advances and advancements in the researches on machine learning for big data processing. First, the machine learning techniques methods in recent studies, such as deep learning, representation learning, transfer learning, active learning and distributed and parallel learning. Then focus on the challenges and possible solutions of machine learning for big data.
Keywords: active learning, big data, deep learning, machine learningProcedia PDF Downloads 347
22775 Commercial Automobile Insurance: A Practical Approach of the Generalized Additive Model
Authors: Nicolas Plamondon, Stuart Atkinson, Shuzi Zhou
Abstract:The insurance industry is usually not the first topic one has in mind when thinking about applications of data science. However, the use of data science in the finance and insurance industry is growing quickly for several reasons, including an abundance of reliable customer data, ferocious competition requiring more accurate pricing, etc. Among the top use cases of data science, we find pricing optimization, customer segmentation, customer risk assessment, fraud detection, marketing, and triage analytics. The objective of this paper is to present an application of the generalized additive model (GAM) on a commercial automobile insurance product: an individually rated commercial automobile. These are vehicles used for commercial purposes, but for which there is not enough volume to apply pricing to several vehicles at the same time. The GAM model was selected as an improvement over GLM for its ease of use and its wide range of applications. The model was trained using the largest split of the data to determine model parameters. The remaining part of the data was used as testing data to verify the quality of the modeling activity. We used the Gini coefficient to evaluate the performance of the model. For long-term monitoring, commonly used metrics such as RMSE and MAE will be used. Another topic of interest in the insurance industry is to process of producing the model. We will discuss at a high level the interactions between the different teams with an insurance company that needs to work together to produce a model and then monitor the performance of the model over time. Moreover, we will discuss the regulations in place in the insurance industry. Finally, we will discuss the maintenance of the model and the fact that new data does not come constantly and that some metrics can take a long time to become meaningful.
Keywords: insurance, data science, modeling, monitoring, regulation, processesProcedia PDF Downloads 18
22774 Exploring Students’ Views on Science Education
Authors: Ahmad Alshammari
Abstract:This study focused on exploring the students’ views about the science education in intermediate stage in State of Kuwait. This study used Social-Culture Theory (SCT) as a theoretical framework to understand the science curriculum reform process through the socio-cultural context and to discuss and explain the study findings. This study used a multi-method design, with both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect the data: students’ questionnaires and interviews. The study sample was selected randomly. First, the questionnaire was conducted with 647 students. Then 30 students (5 in each of 6 focus groups) were chosen to conduct the in-depth interviews. The findings of this study indicated the generally negative views of most of the students about the new science curriculum. The findings showed that most of the students have a negative attitude toward science, they have difficulty understanding most of the lessons, and they do not enjoy studying the science subject. This study recommends reviewing the new science curriculum (now currently in use) and taking into account the perspectives of the students about this curriculum. Developing and adapting the new science curriculum took place without taking into consideration the socio-culture and Islamic religion of Kuwaiti students. The MoE should deal with the relationship between science and culture and between science and religion, integrating more relevant science into the curriculum.
Keywords: science education, students views, science curriculum, curriculum developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 237
22773 A Survey of Semantic Integration Approaches in Bioinformatics
Authors: Chaimaa Messaoudi, Rachida Fissoune, Hassan Badir
Abstract:Technological advances of computer science and data analysis are helping to provide continuously huge volumes of biological data, which are available on the web. Such advances involve and require powerful techniques for data integration to extract pertinent knowledge and information for a specific question. Biomedical exploration of these big data often requires the use of complex queries across multiple autonomous, heterogeneous and distributed data sources. Semantic integration is an active area of research in several disciplines, such as databases, information-integration, and ontology. We provide a survey of some approaches and techniques for integrating biological data, we focus on those developed in the ontology community.
Keywords: biological ontology, linked data, semantic data integration, semantic webProcedia PDF Downloads 313
22772 Engaging Girls in 'Learn Science by Doing' as Strategy for Enhanced Learning Outcome at the Junior High School Level in Nigeria
Authors: Stella Y. Erinosho
Abstract:In an attempt to impact on girls’ interest in science, an instructional package on ‘Learn Science by Doing (LSD)’ was developed to support science teachers in teaching integrated science at the junior secondary level in Nigeria. LSD provides an instructional framework aimed at actively engaging girls in beginners’ science through activities that are discovery-oriented and allow for experiential learning. The goal of this study was to show the impact of application of LSD on girls’ performance and interest in science. The major hypothesis that was tested in the study was that students would exhibit higher learning outcomes (achievement and attitude) in science as effect of exposure to LSD instructional package. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, incorporating four all-girls schools. Three of the schools (comprising six classes) were randomly designated as experimental and one as the control. The sample comprised 357 girls (275 experimental and 82 control) and nine science teachers drawn from the experimental schools. The questionnaire was designed to gather data on students’ background characteristics and their attitude toward science while the cognitive outcomes were measured using tests, both within a group and between groups, the girls who had exposure to LSD exhibited improved cognitive outcomes and more positive attitude towards science compared with those who had conventional teaching. The data are consistent with previous studies indicating that interactive learning activities increase student performance and interest.
Keywords: active learning, school science, teaching and learning, NigeriaProcedia PDF Downloads 331
22771 Improving the Statistics Nature in Research Information System
Authors: Rajbir Cheema
Abstract:In order to introduce an integrated research information system, this will provide scientific institutions with the necessary information on research activities and research results in assured quality. Since data collection, duplication, missing values, incorrect formatting, inconsistencies, etc. can arise in the collection of research data in different research information systems, which can have a wide range of negative effects on data quality, the subject of data quality should be treated with better results. This paper examines the data quality problems in research information systems and presents the new techniques that enable organizations to improve their quality of research information.
Keywords: Research information systems (RIS), research information, heterogeneous sources, data quality, data cleansing, science system, standardizationProcedia PDF Downloads 80
22770 Recommendations for Data Quality Filtering of Opportunistic Species Occurrence Data
Authors: Camille Van Eupen, Dirk Maes, Marc Herremans, Kristijn R. R. Swinnen, Ben Somers, Stijn Luca
Abstract:In ecology, species distribution models are commonly implemented to study species-environment relationships. These models increasingly rely on opportunistic citizen science data when high-quality species records collected through standardized recording protocols are unavailable. While these opportunistic data are abundant, uncertainty is usually high, e.g., due to observer effects or a lack of metadata. Data quality filtering is often used to reduce these types of uncertainty in an attempt to increase the value of studies relying on opportunistic data. However, filtering should not be performed blindly. In this study, recommendations are built for data quality filtering of opportunistic species occurrence data that are used as input for species distribution models. Using an extensive database of 5.7 million citizen science records from 255 species in Flanders, the impact on model performance was quantified by applying three data quality filters, and these results were linked to species traits. More specifically, presence records were filtered based on record attributes that provide information on the observation process or post-entry data validation, and changes in the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed using the Maxent algorithm with and without filtering. Controlling for sample size enabled us to study the combined impact of data quality filtering, i.e., the simultaneous impact of an increase in data quality and a decrease in sample size. Further, the variation among species in their response to data quality filtering was explored by clustering species based on four traits often related to data quality: commonness, popularity, difficulty, and body size. Findings show that model performance is affected by i) the quality of the filtered data, ii) the proportional reduction in sample size caused by filtering and the remaining absolute sample size, and iii) a species ‘quality profile’, resulting from a species classification based on the four traits related to data quality. The findings resulted in recommendations on when and how to filter volunteer generated and opportunistically collected data. This study confirms that correctly processed citizen science data can make a valuable contribution to ecological research and species conservation.
Keywords: citizen science, data quality filtering, species distribution models, trait profilesProcedia PDF Downloads 131
22769 Building in Language Support in a Hong Kong Chemistry Classroom with English as a Medium of Instruction: An Exploratory Study
Authors: Kai Yip Michael Tsang
Abstract:Science writing has played a crucial part in science assessments. This paper reports a study in an area that has received little research attention – how Language across the Curriculum (LAC, i.e. science language and literacy) learning activities in science lessons can increase the science knowledge development of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in Hong Kong. The data comes from a school-based interventional study in chemistry classrooms, with written data from questionnaires, assessments and teachers’ logs and verbal data from interviews and classroom observations. The effectiveness of the LAC teaching and learning activities in various chemistry classrooms were compared and evaluated, with discussion of some implications. Students in the treatment group with lower achieving students received LAC learning and teaching activities while students in the control group with higher achieving students received conventional learning and teaching activities. After the study, they performed better in control group in formative assessments. Moreover, they had a better attitude to learning chemistry content with a richer language support. The paper concludes that LAC teaching and learning activities yielded positive learning outcomes among chemistry learners with low English ability.
Keywords: science learning and teaching, content and language integrated learning, language across the curriculum, English as a foreign languageProcedia PDF Downloads 120
22768 Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises
Authors: Martin Böhmer, Agatha Dabrowski, Boris Otto
Abstract:The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.
Keywords: data management, digitization, industry 4.0, knowledge engineering, metamodelProcedia PDF Downloads 287
22767 Data Science/Artificial Intelligence: A Possible Panacea for Refugee Crisis
Authors: Avi Shrivastava
Abstract:In 2021, two heart-wrenching scenes, shown live on television screens across countries, painted a grim picture of refugees. One of them was of people clinging onto an airplane's wings in their desperate attempt to flee war-torn Afghanistan. They ultimately fell to their death. The other scene was the U.S. government authorities separating children from their parents or guardians to deter migrants/refugees from coming to the U.S. These events show the desperation refugees feel when they are trying to leave their homes in disaster zones. However, data paints a grave picture of the current refugee situation. It also indicates that a bleak future lies ahead for the refugees across the globe. Data and information are the two threads that intertwine to weave the shimmery fabric of modern society. Data and information are often used interchangeably, but they differ considerably. For example, information analysis reveals rationale, and logic, while data analysis, on the other hand, reveals a pattern. Moreover, patterns revealed by data can enable us to create the necessary tools to combat huge problems on our hands. Data analysis paints a clear picture so that the decision-making process becomes simple. Geopolitical and economic data can be used to predict future refugee hotspots. Accurately predicting the next refugee hotspots will allow governments and relief agencies to prepare better for future refugee crises. The refugee crisis does not have binary answers. Given the emotionally wrenching nature of the ground realities, experts often shy away from realistically stating things as they are. This hesitancy can cost lives. When decisions are based solely on data, emotions can be removed from the decision-making process. Data also presents irrefutable evidence and tells whether there is a solution or not. Moreover, it also responds to a nonbinary crisis with a binary answer. Because of all that, it becomes easier to tackle a problem. Data science and A.I. can predict future refugee crises. With the recent explosion of data due to the rise of social media platforms, data and insight into data has solved many social and political problems. Data science can also help solve many issues refugees face while staying in refugee camps or adopted countries. This paper looks into various ways data science can help solve refugee problems. A.I.-based chatbots can help refugees seek legal help to find asylum in the country they want to settle in. These chatbots can help them find a marketplace where they can find help from the people willing to help. Data science and technology can also help solve refugees' many problems, including food, shelter, employment, security, and assimilation. The refugee problem seems to be one of the most challenging for social and political reasons. Data science and machine learning can help prevent the refugee crisis and solve or alleviate some of the problems that refugees face in their journey to a better life. With the explosion of data in the last decade, data science has made it possible to solve many geopolitical and social issues.
Keywords: refugee crisis, artificial intelligence, data science, refugee camps, Afghanistan, UkraineProcedia PDF Downloads 18
22766 The Effect of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Education on Preservice Science Teachers' Awareness of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Authors: Tuba Senel Zor, Oktay Aslan
Abstract:With current trends in nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST), scientists have paid much attention to education and nanoliteracy in parallel with the developments on these fields. To understand the advances in NST research requires a population with a high degree of science literacy. All citizens should soon need nanoliteracy in order to navigate some of the important science-based issues faced to their everyday lives. While the fields of NST are advancing rapidly and raising their societal significance, general public’s awareness of these fields has remained at a low level. Moreover, students enrolled different education levels and teachers don’t have awareness at expected level. This problem may be stemmed from inadequate education and training. To remove the inadequacy, teachers have greatest duties and responsibilities. Especially science teachers at all levels need to be made aware of these developments and adequately prepared so that they are able to teach about these advances in a developmentally appropriate manner. If the teachers develop understanding and awareness of NST, they can also discuss the topic with their students. Therefore, the awareness and conceptual understandings of both the teachers who will teach science to students and the students who will be introduced about NST should be increased, and the necessary training should be provided. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NST education on preservice science teachers’ awareness of NST. The study was designed in one group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental pattern. The study was conducted with 32 preservice science teachers attending the Elementary Science Education Program at a large Turkish university in central Anatolia. NST education was given during five weeks as two hours per week. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Awareness Questionnaire was used as data collected tool and was implemented for pre-test and post-test. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS). The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference (z=6.25, p< .05) on NST awareness of preservice science teachers after implemented NST education. The results of the study indicate that NST education has an important effect for improving awareness of preservice science teachers on NST.
Keywords: awareness level, nanoliteracy, nanoscience and nanotechnology education, preservice science teachersProcedia PDF Downloads 385
22765 Exploring Data Leakage in EEG Based Brain-Computer Interfaces: Overfitting Challenges
Authors: Khalida Douibi, Rodrigo Balp, Solène Le Bars
Abstract:In the medical field, applications related to human experiments are frequently linked to reduced samples size, which makes the training of machine learning models quite sensitive and therefore not very robust nor generalizable. This is notably the case in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) studies, where the sample size rarely exceeds 20 subjects or a few number of trials. To address this problem, several resampling approaches are often used during the data preparation phase, which is an overly critical step in a data science analysis process. One of the naive approaches that is usually applied by data scientists consists in the transformation of the entire database before the resampling phase. However, this can cause model’ s performance to be incorrectly estimated when making predictions on unseen data. In this paper, we explored the effect of data leakage observed during our BCI experiments for device control through the real-time classification of SSVEPs (Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials). We also studied potential ways to ensure optimal validation of the classifiers during the calibration phase to avoid overfitting. The results show that the scaling step is crucial for some algorithms, and it should be applied after the resampling phase to avoid data leackage and improve results.
Keywords: data leackage, data science, machine learning, SSVEP, BCI, overfittingProcedia PDF Downloads 76
22764 R Data Science for Technology Management
Authors: Sunghae Jun
Abstract:Technology management (TM) is important issue in a company improving the competitiveness. Among many activities of TM, technology analysis (TA) is important factor, because most decisions for management of technology are decided by the results of TA. TA is to analyze the developed results of target technology using statistics or Delphi. TA based on Delphi is depended on the experts’ domain knowledge, in comparison, TA by statistics and machine learning algorithms use objective data such as patent or paper instead of the experts’ knowledge. Many quantitative TA methods based on statistics and machine learning have been studied, and these have been used for technology forecasting, technological innovation, and management of technology. They applied diverse computing tools and many analytical methods case by case. It is not easy to select the suitable software and statistical method for given TA work. So, in this paper, we propose a methodology for quantitative TA using statistical computing software called R and data science to construct a general framework of TA. From the result of case study, we also show how our methodology is applied to real field. This research contributes to R&D planning and technology valuation in TM areas.
Keywords: technology management, R system, R data science, statistics, machine learningProcedia PDF Downloads 372