Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 199

Search results for: isotherm

199 GAC Adsorption Modelling of Metsulfuron Methyl from Water

Authors: Nathaporn Areerachakul


In this study, the adsorption capacity of GAC with metsulfuron methyl was evaluated by using adsorption equilibrium and a fixed bed. Mathematical modelling was also used to simulate the GAC adsorption behavior. Adsorption equilibrium experiment of GAC was conducted using a constant concentration of metsulfuron methyl of 10 mg/L. The purpose of this study was to find the single component equilibrium concentration of herbicide. The adsorption behavior was simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm. The Sips isotherm fitted the experimental data reasonably well with an error of 6.6 % compared with 15.72 % and 7.07% for the Langmuir isotherm and Freudrich isotherm. Modelling using GAC adsorption theory could not replicate the experimental results in fixed bed column of 10 and 15 cm bed depths after a period more than 10 days of operation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of micro-organism (BAC) on the surface of GAC in addition to GAC alone.

Keywords: isotherm, adsorption equilibrium, GAC, metsulfuron methyl

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
198 The Experimental and Modeling Adsorption Properties of Sr2+ on Raw and Purified Bentonite

Authors: A. A. Khodadadi, S. C. Ravaj, B. D. Tavildari, M. B. Abdolahi


The adsorption properties of local bentonite (Semnan Iran) and purified prepared from this bentonite towards Sr2+ adsorption, were investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of equilibration time, adsorption isotherms, kinetic adsorption, solution pH, and presence of EDTA and NaCl on these properties was studied and discussed. Kinetic data were found to be well fitted with a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Sr2+ is preferably adsorbed by bentonite and purified bentonite. The D-R isotherm model has the best fit with experimental data than other adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption of Sr2+ representing the highest negative charge density on the surface of the adsorbent was seen at pH 12. Presence of EDTA and NaCl decreased the amount of Sr2+ adsorption.

Keywords: bentonite, purified bentonite, Sr2+, equilibrium isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
197 Biosorption of Phenol onto Water Hyacinth Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Isotherm Study

Authors: Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of phenol from its aqueous solution using water hyancith activated carbon (WHAC) as an adsorbent. The sorption kinetics were analysed using pseudo-first order kinetics and pseudo-second order model, and it was observed that the sorption data tend to fit very well in pseudo-second order model for the entire sorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 31.45 mg/g estimated using Langmuir model. The adsorption intensity 3.7975 represents a favorable adsorption condition.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, kinetics, phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
196 Methyl Red Dye Adsorption On PMMA/GO and PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 Nanocomposites: Equilibrium Isotherm Studies

Authors: Mostafa Rajabi, Kazem Mahanpoor


Performances of the methyl red (MR) dye adsorption on poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide (PMMA/GO) and poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide-Fe3O4 (PMMA/GO-Fe3O4) nanocomposites as adsorbents were investigated. Our results showed that for adsorption of MR dye on PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 and PMMA/GO nanocomposites, 80 minutes, 298 K, and pH 2 were the best contact time, temperature and pH value for process, respectively, because the optimum adsorption of the MR dye with both nanocomposite adsorbents were observed in these values of the parameters. The equilibrium study results showed that PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 and PMMA/GO were suitable adsorbents for MR dye removing and were best in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, methyl methacrylate, methyl red, nanocomposite, nano magnetic Fe3O4

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
195 Adsorption of Thionine Dye from its Aqueous Solution over Peanut Hull as a Low Cost Biosorbent

Authors: Alpana Saini, Sanghamitra Barman


Investigations were carried out to determine whether low cost peanut hull as adsorbent hold promise in removal of thionine dyes in the biomedical industries. Pollution of water due to presence of colorants is a severe socio-environmental problem caused by the discharge of industrial wastewater. In view of their toxicity, non-biodegradability and persistent nature, their removal becomes an absolute necessity. For the removal of Thionine Dye using Peanut Hull, the 10mg/L concentration of dyes, 0.5g/l of adsorbent and 200 rpm agitation speed are found to be optimum for the adsorption studies. The Spectrophotometric technique was adopted for the measurement of concentration of dyes before and after adsorption at ʎmax 598nm. The adsorption data has been fitted well to Langmuir isotherm than to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The adsorbent was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: adsorption, langmuir isotherm, peanut hull, thionine

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
194 Characterization of Activated Tire Char (ATC) and Adsorptive Desulfurization of Tire Pyrolytic Oil (TPO) Using ATC

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The adsorptive ability of different carbon materials, tire char (TC), demineralized tire char (DTC), activated tire char (ATC) and Aldrich supplied commercial activated carbon (CAC) was studied for desulfurization of tire pyrolytic oil (TPO). TPO with an initial sulfur content of 7767.7 ppmw was used in this present study. Preparation of ATC was achieved by chemical treatment of raw TC using a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and subsequent activation at 800°C in the presence of nitrogen. The thermal behavior of TC, surface microstructure, and the surface functional groups of the carbon materials was investigated using TGA, SEM, and FTIR, respectively. Adsorptive desulfurization of TPO using the carbon materials was performed and they performed in the order of CAC>ATC>DTC>TC. Adsorption kinetics were studied, and pseudo-first order kinetic model displayed a better fit compared to pseudo-second order model. For isotherm studies, the Freundlich isotherm model fitted to the equilibrium data better than the Langmuir isotherm model.

Keywords: ATC, desulfurization, pyrolysis, tire, TPO

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
193 Influence of Silica Surface Hydrophilicity on Adsorbed Water and Isopropanol Studied by in-situ NMR

Authors: Hyung T. Kwak, Jun Gao, Yao An, Alfred Kleinhammes, Yue Wu


Surface wettability is a crucial factor in oil recovery. In oil industry, the rock wettability involves the interplay between water, oil, and solid surface. Therefore, studying the interplay between adsorptions of water and hydrocarbon molecules on solid surface would be very informative for understanding rock wettability. Here we use the in-situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) gas isotherm technique to study competitive adsorptions of water and isopropanol, an intermediate step from hydrocarbons. This in-situ NMR technique obtains information on thermodynamic properties such as the isotherm, molecular dynamics via spin relaxation measurements, and adsorption kinetics such as how fast the system can reach thermal equilibrium after changes of vapor pressures. Using surfaces of silica glass beads, which can be modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, we obtained information on the influence of surface hydrophilicity on the state of surface water via obtained thermodynamic and dynamic properties.

Keywords: Wettability, NMR, Gas Isotherm, Hydrophilicity, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
192 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru


Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
191 Isotherm Study of Modified Zeolite in Sorption of Naphthalene from Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Amir Hesam Hassani, Akram Torki, Elham Moniri


A new sorbent was synthesized through chemical modification of clinoptilolite zeolite using 2-naphtol, and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods and applied for the removal and elimination of trace naphthalene from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the naphthalene by modified zeolite was in acidic pH. The sorption capacity of modified zeolite was 142 mg. g−1. Isotherm models, Langmuir, Frendlich and Temkin were employed to analyze the adsorption capacity of modified zeolite, which revealed that naphthalene adsorption by this zeolite follows Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeolite, clinoptilolite, modification, naphthalene

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
190 Batch Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) Removal from Wastewater Using HDL as Adsorbent

Authors: Nadjet Taoualit, Zoubida Chemat, Djamel-Eddine Hadj-Boussaad


This study aims the removal of copper Cu (II) contained in wastewater by adsorption on a perfect synthesized mud. It is the materials Hydroxides Double Lamellar, HDL, prepared and synthesized by co-precipitation method at constant pH, which requires a simple titration assembly, with an inexpensive and available material in the laboratory, and also allows us better control of the composition of the reaction medium, and gives well crystallized products. A characterization of the adsorbent proved essential. Thus a range of physic-chemical analysis was performed including: FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction… The adsorption of copper ions was investigated in dispersed medium (batch). A systematic study of various parameters (amount of support, contact time, initial copper concentration, temperature, pH…) was performed. Adsorption kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Bangham's equation and intra-particle diffusion models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and other isotherm models at different doses of HDL. The thermodynamics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures. The results have established good potentiality for the HDL to be used as a sorbent for the removal of Copper from wastewater.

Keywords: adsoption, copper, HDL, isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
189 Fabrication of Activated Carbon from Palm Trunksfor Removal of Harmful Dyes

Authors: Eman Alzahrani


Date palm trees are abundant and cheap natural resources in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an activated carbon was prepared from palm trunks by chemical processes. The chemical activation was performed by impregnation of the raw materials after grinding with H3PO4 solution (63%), followed by placing of the sample solution on a muffle furnace at 400ºC for 30 min, and then at 800ºC for 10 min. The morphology of the fabricated material was checked using scanning electron microscopy that showed the rough surfaces on the carbon samples. The use of fabricated activated carbon for removal of eosin dye from aqueous solutions at different contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent doses was investigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption process attains equilibrium within 20 min. The adsorption isotherm equilibrium was studied by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and it was found that the data fit the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 126.58 mg g-1. The results indicated that the home made activated carbon prepared from palm trunks has the ability to remove eosin dye from aqueous solution and it will be a promising adsorbent for the removal of harmful dyes from waste water.

Keywords: activated carbon, date palm trunks, H3PO4 activation, adsorption, dye removal, eosin dye, isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
188 Adsorption Performance of Hydroxyapatite Powder in the Removal of Dyes in Wastewater

Authors: Aderonke A. Okoya, Oluwaseun A. Somoye, Omotayo S. Amuda, Ifeanyi E. Ofoezie


This study assessed the efficiency of Hydroxyapatite Powder (HAP) in the removal of dyes in wastewater in comparison with Commercial Activated Carbon (CAC). This was with a view to developing cost effective method that could be more environment friendly. The HAP and CAC were used as adsorbent while Indigo dye was used as the adsorbate. The batch adsorption experiment was carried out by varying initial concentrations of the indigo dye, contact time and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption efficiency was classified by adsorption Isotherms using Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherm models. Physicochemical parameters of a textile industry wastewater were determined before and after treatment with the adsorbents. The results from the batch experiments showed that at initial concentration of 125 mg/L of adsorbate in simulated wastewater, 0.9276 ± 0.004618 mg/g and 3.121 ± 0.006928 mg/g of indigo adsorbed per unit time (qt) of HAP and CAC respectively. The ratio of HAP to CAC required for the removal of indigo dye in simulated wastewater was 2:1. The isotherm model of the simulated wastewater fitted well to Freundlich model, the adsorption intensity (1/n) presented 1.399 and 0.564 for HAP and CAC, respectively. This revealed that the HAP had weaker bond than the electrostatic interactions which were present in CAC. The values of some physicochemical parameters (acidity, COD, Cr, Cd) of textile wastewater when treated with HAP decreased. The study concluded that HAP, an environment-friendly adsorbent, could be effectively used to remove dye from textile industrial wastewater with added advantage of being regenerated.

Keywords: adsorption isotherm, commercial activated carbon, hydroxyapatite powder, indigo dye, textile wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
187 Adsorption of Congo Red on MgO Nanoparticles Prepared by Molten Salt Method

Authors: Shahbaa F. Bdewi, Bakhtyar K. Aziz, Ayad A. R. Mutar


Nano-materials show different surface properties due to their high surface area and active sites. This study investigates the feasibility of using nano-MgO (NMO) for removing Congo red (CR) dye from wastewater. NMO was prepared by molten salt method. Equilibrium experiments show the equilibrium was reached after 120 minutes and maximum adsorption efficiency was obtained in acidic media up to pH 6. Isotherm studies revealed the favorability of the adsorption process. The overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1100 mg g-1 at 40°C as estimated from Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo second-order rate equation. Relatively high activation energy (180.7 kJ mol-1) was obtained which is consistent with chemisorption mechanism for the adsorption process.

Keywords: adsorption, congo red, magnesium oxide, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
186 Bioremoval of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae: Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanistic Study

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian


This study reports the removal of Malachite Green (MG) from simulated wastewater by using marine macro algae Ulva lactuca. Batch biosorption experiments were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity. The biosorption capacity was found to be maximum at pH 10. The effect of various other operation parameters such as biosorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and agitation was also investigated. The equilibrium attained at 120 min with 0.1 g/L of biosorbent. The isotherm experimental data fitted well with Langmuir Model with R² value of 0.994. The maximum Langmuir biosorption capacity was found to be 76.92 mg/g. Further, Langmuir separation factor RL value was found to be 0.004. Therefore, the adsorption is favorable. The biosorption kinetics of MG was found to follow pseudo second-order kinetic model. The mechanistic study revealed that the biosorption of malachite onto Ulva lactuca was controlled by film diffusion. The solute transfer in a solid-liquid adsorption process is characterized by the film diffusion and/or particle diffusion. Thermodynamic study shows ΔG° is negative indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature for the biosorption of malachite green. The biosorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (CHNS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphur). This study showed that Ulva lactuca can be used as promising biosorbent for the removal of MG from wastewater.

Keywords: biosorption, Ulva lactuca, wastewater, malachite green, isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
185 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese


The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
184 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Serife Parlayici, Erol Pehlivan


In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: plum-stone, activated carbon, copper and lead, isotherms

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
183 High Performance Methyl Orange Capture on Magnetic Nanoporous MCM-41 Prepared by Incipient Wetness Impregnation Method

Authors: Talib M. Albayati, Omar S. Mahdy, Ghanim M. Alwan


This work is aimed to prepare magnetic nanoporous material Fe/MCM-41 and study its Physical characterization in order to enhance the magnetic properties for study the operating conditions on separation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) from wastewater by adsorption process. The experimental results are analysed to select the best operating conditions for different studied parameters which were obtained for both adsorbents mesoporous material samples MCM-41 and magnetic Fe/MCM-41 as follow: constant temperature (20 ºC), pH: (2) adsorbent dosage (0.03 gm), contact time (10 minute) and concentrations (30 mg/L). The results are demonstrated that the adsorption processes can be well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model for pure MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient (0.999) and fitted by the freundlich isotherm model for magnetic Fe/MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient of (0.994).

Keywords: adsorption, nanoporous materials, mcm-41, magnetic material, wastewater, orange, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
182 Colour and Curcuminoids Removal from Turmeric Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Adsorption

Authors: Nattawat Thongpraphai, Anusorn Boonpoke


This study aimed to determine the removal of colour and curcuminoids from turmeric wastewater using granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic behavior of colour and curcuminoids was invested using batch and fixed bed columns tests. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of colour and curcuminoids were 80.13 and 78.64%, respectively at 8 hr of equilibrium time. The adsorption isotherm of colour and curcuminoids were well fitted with the Freundlich adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of colour and curcuminoids were 130 Pt-Co/g and 17 mg/g, respectively. The continuous experiment data showed that the exhaustion concentration of colour and curcuminoids occurred at 39 hr of operation time. The adsorption characteristic of colour and curcuminoids from turmeric wastewater by GAC can be described by the Thomas model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from kinetic approach were 39954 Pt-Co/g and 0.0516 mg/kg for colour and curcuminoids, respectively. Moreover, the decrease of colour and curcuminoids concentration during the service time showed a similar trend.

Keywords: adsorption, turmeric, colour, curcuminoids, activated carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
181 Cadmium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Natural Biosorbents

Authors: Z. V. P. Murthy, Preeti Arunachalam, Sangeeta Balram


Removal of metal ions from different wastewaters has become important due to their effects on living beings. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals found in different industrial wastewaters. There are many conventional methods available to remove heavy metals from wastewaters like adsorption, membrane separations, precipitation, electrolytic methods, etc. and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present work deals with the use of natural biosorbents (chitin and chitosan) to separate cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption data were fitted with different isotherms and kinetics models. Amongst different adsorption isotherms used to fit the adsorption data, the Freundlich isotherm showed better fits for both the biosorbents. The kinetics data of adsorption of cadmium showed better fit with pseudo-second order model for both the biosorbents. Chitosan, the derivative from chitin, showed better performance than chitin. The separation results are encouraging.

Keywords: chitin, chitosan, cadmium, isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
180 Investigation of the Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism of Tagetes erecta Extract for Mild Steel in Nitric Acid: Gravimetric Studies

Authors: Selvam Noyel Victoria, Kavita Yadav, Manivannan Ramachandran


The extract of Tagetes erecta (marigold flower) was used as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (MS) in nitric acid medium. The weight loss measurements were performed to understand the inhibition mechanism. The effect of temperature on the behaviour of mild steel corrosion without and with inhibitor was studied. The temperature studies revealed that the activation energy increased from 12 kJ/mol to 28.8 kJ/mol with the addition of 500 ppm inhibitor concentration. The thermodynamic analysis and the adsorption isotherm studies revealed that the molecules of inhibitor show physical adsorption on the surface of mild steel. Based on weight loss measurements, adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel follows Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: Tagetes erecta, corrosion, adsorption, inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
179 Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan Beads Prepared from Shrimp Shell Extracted Chitosan

Authors: Bendjaballah Malek; Makhlouf Mohammed Rabeh; Boukerche Imane; Benhamza Mohammed El Hocine


In this study, chitosan was derived from Parapenaeus longirostris shrimp shells sourced from a local market in Annaba, eastern Algeria. The extraction process entailed four chemical stages: demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization, and deacetylation. The degree of deacetylation was calculated to be 80.86 %. The extracted chitosan was physically altered to synthesize chitosan beads and characterized via FTIR and XRD analysis. These beads were employed to eliminate cadmium ions from synthetic water. The batch adsorption process was optimized by analyzing the impact of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The adsorption capacity of and Cd+2 on chitosan beads was found to be 6.83 mg/g and 7.94 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic adsorption of Cd+2 conformed to the pseudo-first-order model, while the isotherm study indicated that the Langmuir Isotherm model well described the adsorption of cadmium . A thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that the adsorption of Cd+2 on chitosan beads is spontaneous and exothermic.

Keywords: Cd, chitosan, chitosanbeds, bioadsorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
178 Removal of Cr⁶⁺, Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺ Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Algerian Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Biomass

Authors: Asma Aid, Samira Amokrane, Djamel Nibou, Hadj Mekatel


The marine Enteromorpha Compressa (L.) (ECL) biomass was used as a low-cost biological adsorbent for the removal of Cr⁶⁺, Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺ ions from artificially contaminated aqueous solutions. The operating variables pH, the initial concentration C₀, the solid/liquid ratio R and the temperature T were studied. A full factorial experimental design technique enabled us to obtain a mathematical model describing the adsorption of Cr⁶⁺, Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺ ions and to study the main effects and interactions among operational parameters. The equilibrium isotherm has been analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models; it has been found that the adsorption process follows the Langmuir model for the used ions. Kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model correlates our experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters showed the endothermic heat of adsorption and the spontaneity of the adsorption process for Cr⁶⁺ ions and exothermic heat of adsorption for Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺ ions.

Keywords: enteromorpha Compressa, adsorption process, Cr⁶⁺, Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺, equilibrium isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
177 An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells

Authors: Somen Mondal, Subrata Kumar Majumder


Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
176 The Use of Thermally Modified Diatomite to Remove Lead Ions

Authors: Hilary Limo Rutto


To better understand the application of diatomite as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from heavy metal-contaminated water, in this paper, diatomite was used to adsorb Pb2+ from aqueous solution under various conditions. The intrinsic exchange properties were further improved by heating the raw diatomite with fluxing agent at different temperatures and modification with manganese oxides. It is evident that the mass of the adsorbed Pb2+ generally increases after thermal treatment and modification with manganese oxides. The adsorption characteristics of lead on diatomite were studied at pH range of 2.5–12. The favourable pH range was found to be 7.5-8.5. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e.,∆H° ∆G° ∆S°) were evaluated from the temperature dependent adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that the adsorption process of Pb2+ on diatomite was spontaneous, endothermic and physical in nature. The equilibrium data have been analyzed using Langmuir and freundlich isotherm. The Langmuir isotherm was demonstrated to provide the best correlation for the adsorption of lead onto diatomite. The kinetics was studied using Pseudo- first and second-order model on the adsorption of lead onto diatomite. The results give best fit in second-order studies and it can be concluded that the adsorption of lead onto diatomite is second order reaction.

Keywords: thermally modified, diatomite, adsorption, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
175 Calculation of Pressure-Varying Langmuir and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Isotherm Adsorption Parameters

Authors: Trevor C. Brown, David J. Miron


Gas-solid physical adsorption methods are central to the characterization and optimization of the effective surface area, pore size and porosity for applications such as heterogeneous catalysis, and gas separation and storage. Properties such as adsorption uptake, capacity, equilibrium constants and Gibbs free energy are dependent on the composition and structure of both the gas and the adsorbent. However, challenges remain, in accurately calculating these properties from experimental data. Gas adsorption experiments involve measuring the amounts of gas adsorbed over a range of pressures under isothermal conditions. Various constant-parameter models, such as Langmuir and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theories are used to provide information on adsorbate and adsorbent properties from the isotherm data. These models typically do not provide accurate interpretations across the full range of pressures and temperatures. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm is a simple approximation for modelling equilibrium adsorption data and has been effective in estimating surface areas and catalytic rate laws, particularly for high surface area solids. The Langmuir isotherm assumes the systematic filling of identical adsorption sites to a monolayer coverage. The BET model is based on the Langmuir isotherm and allows for the formation of multiple layers. These additional layers do not interact with the first layer and the energetics are equal to the adsorbate as a bulk liquid. This BET method is widely used to measure the specific surface area of materials. Both Langmuir and BET models assume that the affinity of the gas for all adsorption sites are identical and so the calculated adsorbent uptake at the monolayer and equilibrium constant are independent of coverage and pressure. Accurate representations of adsorption data have been achieved by extending the Langmuir and BET models to include pressure-varying uptake capacities and equilibrium constants. These parameters are determined using a novel regression technique called flexible least squares for time-varying linear regression. For isothermal adsorption the adsorption parameters are assumed to vary slowly and smoothly with increasing pressure. The flexible least squares for pressure-varying linear regression (FLS-PVLR) approach assumes two distinct types of discrepancy terms, dynamic and measurement for all parameters in the linear equation used to simulate the data. Dynamic terms account for pressure variation in successive parameter vectors, and measurement terms account for differences between observed and theoretically predicted outcomes via linear regression. The resultant pressure-varying parameters are optimized by minimizing both dynamic and measurement residual squared errors. Validation of this methodology has been achieved by simulating adsorption data for n-butane and isobutane on activated carbon at 298 K, 323 K and 348 K and for nitrogen on mesoporous alumina at 77 K with pressure-varying Langmuir and BET adsorption parameters (equilibrium constants and uptake capacities). This modeling provides information on the adsorbent (accessible surface area and micropore volume), adsorbate (molecular areas and volumes) and thermodynamic (Gibbs free energies) variations of the adsorption sites.

Keywords: Langmuir adsorption isotherm, BET adsorption isotherm, pressure-varying adsorption parameters, adsorbate and adsorbent properties and energetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
174 Valorization of a Forest Waste, Modified P-Brutia Cones, by Biosorption of Methyl Geen

Authors: Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Abdelbaki Reffas Khalil Guediri, Abdeltif Amrane


The removal of Methyl Green dye (MG) from aqueous solutions using modified P-brutia cones (PBH and PBN), has been investigated work. The physical parameters such as pH, temperature, initial MG concentration, ionic strength are examined in batch experiments on the sorption of the dye. Adsorption removal of MG was conducted at natural pH 4.5 because the dye is only stable in the range of pH 3.8 to 5. It was observed in experiments that the P-brutia cones treated with NaOH (PBN) exhibited high affinity and adsorption capacity compared to the MG P-brutia cones treated with HCl (PBH) and biosorption capacity of modified P-brutia cones (PBN and PBH) was enhanced by increasing the temperature. This is confirmed by the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° and ΔH°) which show that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The positive values of ΔS° suggested an irregular increase in the randomness for both adsorbent (PBN and PBH) during the adsorption process. The kinetic model pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion coefficient were examined to analyze the sorption process; they showed that the pseudo-second-order model is the one that best describes the adsorption process (MG) on PBN and PBH with a correlation coefficient R²> 0.999. The ionic strength has shown that it has a negative impact on the adsorption of MG on two supports. A reduction of 68.5% of the adsorption capacity for a value Ce=30 mg/L was found for the PBH, while the PBN did not show a significant influence of the ionic strength on adsorption especially in the presence of NaCl. Among the tested isotherm models, the Langmuir isotherm was found to be the most relevant to describe MG sorption onto modified P-brutia cones with a correlation factor R²>0.999. The capacity adsorption of P-brutia cones, was confirmed for the removal of a dye, MG, from aqueous solution. We note also that P-brutia cones is a material very available in the forest and low-cost biomaterial

Keywords: adsorption, p-brutia cones, forest wastes, dyes, isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
173 Removal of Toxic Ni++ Ions from Wastewater by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: A. M. Ahmed, Mona A. Darwish


Removal of Ni++ ions from aqueous solution by sorption ontoNano-bentonite was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function amount of Nano-bentonite, pH, concentration of metal, constant time, agitation speed and temperature. The adsorption parameter of metal ions followed the Langmuir Freundlich adsorption isotherm were applied to analyze adsorption data. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Thermodynamics parameters e.g.ΔG*, ΔS °and ΔH ° of adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data and both were found to be applicable to the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ∆G °, ∆S ° and ∆H ° of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Ni (II) same with some experimental conditions.

Keywords: waste water, nickel, bentonite, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
172 Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Triphenyltin onto NanoSiO₂/Fly Ash/Activated Carbon Composite

Authors: Olushola S. Ayanda, Olalekan S. Fatoki, Folahan A. Adekola, Bhekumusa J. Ximba, Cecilia O. Akintayo


In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of triphenyltin (TPT) from TPT-contaminated water onto nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite was investigated in batch adsorption system. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Pseudo first- and second-order, Elovich and fractional power models were applied to test the kinetic data and in order to understand the mechanism of adsorption, thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔSo and ΔH° were also calculated. The results showed a very good compliance with pseudo second-order equation while the Freundlich and D-R models fit the experiment data. Approximately 99.999 % TPT was removed from the initial concentration of 100 mg/L TPT at 80oC, contact time of 60 min, pH 8 and a stirring speed of 200 rpm. Thus, nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite could be used as effective adsorbent for the removal of TPT from contaminated water and wastewater.

Keywords: isotherm, kinetics, nanoSiO₂/fly ash/activated carbon composite, tributyltin

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
171 Development of Natural Zeolites Adsorbent: Preliminary Study on Water-Isopropyl Alcohol Adsorption in a Close-Loop Continuous Adsorber

Authors: Sang Kompiang Wirawan, Pandu Prabowo Jati, I Wayan Warmada


Klaten Indonesian natural zeolite can be used as powder or pellet adsorbent. Pellet adsorbent has been made from activated natural zeolite powder by a conventional pressing method. Starch and formaldehyde were added as binder to strengthen the construction of zeolite pellet. To increase the absorptivity and its capacity, natural zeolite was activated first chemically and thermally. This research examined adsorption process of water from Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)-water system using zeolite adsorbent pellet from natural zeolite powder which has been activated with H2SO4 0.1 M and 0.3 M. Adsorbent was pelleted by pressing apparatus at certain pressure to make specification in 1.96 cm diameter, 0.68 cm thickness which the natural zeolite powder (-80 mesh). The system of isopropyl-alcohol water contained 80% isopropyl-alcohol. Adsorption process was held in close-loop continuous apparatus which the zeolite pellet was put inside a column and the solution of IPA-water was circulated at certain flow. Concentration changing was examined thoroughly at a certain time. This adsorption process included mass transfer from bulk liquid into film layer and from film layer into the solid particle. Analysis of rate constant was using first order isotherm model that simulated with MATLAB. Besides using first order isotherm, intra-particle diffusion model was proposed by using pore diffusion model. The study shows that adsorbent activated by H2SO4 0.1 M has good absorptivity with mass transfer constant at 0.1286 min-1.

Keywords: intra-particle diffusion, fractional attainment, first order isotherm, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
170 Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Some Substituted Phenols from Aqueous Solution by Jujuba Seeds Activated Carbon

Authors: O. Benturki, A. Benturki


Activated carbon was prepared from Jujube seeds by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by pyrolysis at 800°C. Batch studies were conducted for kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of phenol (P) and 2-4 dichlorophenol (2-4 DCP) from aqueous solution, than the adsorption capacities followed the order of 2-4 dichlorophenol > phenol. The operating variables studied were initial phenols concentration, contact time, temperature and solution pH. Results show that the pH value of 7 is favorable for the adsorption of phenols. The sorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The isotherm data followed Langmuir Model. The adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy changes were also calculated and it was found that the sorption of phenols by Jujuba seeds activated carbon was a spontaneous process The maximum adsorption efficiency of phenol and 2-4 dichlorophenol was 142.85 mg.g−1 and 250 mg.g−1, respectively.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, isotherms, Jujuba seeds, phenols, langmuir

Procedia PDF Downloads 246