Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: Ana Clara C. Burgos Lessa

55 Nazi Experiments during World War II: Dismal Period for Bioethics

Authors: Catharina O. Vianna Dias da Silva, Amanda F. Batista, Ana Clara C. Burgos Lessa, Carolina S. Lucchesi Ramacciotti, Maria Clara B. de Andrade, Roberto de B. Silva

Abstract:

This article aims to analyze the bioethical aspects related to the historical practices of experiments on humans that occurred in Nazi Germany during the period of World War II (1939-1945). The method was based on the bibliographic review of articles published in databases such as SciELO and Pubmed. In the discussion, historical and humanistic aspects that contributed to the construction of a genocidal culture practiced during this period were analyzed. Additionally, an ethical question arises: should the information acquired during this dark period be used by science? After analysis, it was found that these Nazi experiments went over medical and ethical principles, being a deplorable milestone in history. It was also concluded that, although they generated potentially 'useful' results in the scientific field, they should be discarded as an ethical question of principle, of never daring to validate such a deplorable way of obtaining knowledge.

Keywords: Nazism, bioethics, human experimentation, human rights, genocide, torture, medicine

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54 Clara Cell Secretory Protein 16 Serum Level Decreases in Patients with Non-Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)

Authors: Lian Wu, Mervyn Merrilees

Abstract:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide problem, characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. In New Zealand, it is currently the 4th commonest cause of death and exacerbations of COPD are a frequent cause of admission to hospital. Serum levels of Clara cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) are believed to represent Clara cell toxicity. More recently, CC-16 has been found to be associated with smoker COPD. It is produced almost exclusively by non-ciliated Clara cells in the airways, and its primary function is to protect the lungs against oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke, serum levels of CC-16 become elevated. CC16 is a potent natural immune-suppressor and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro, CC16 inhibits both monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and phagocytosis. CC16 also inhibits fibroblast chemotaxis. However, the role of CC-16 in non-smoking related COPD is still not clear. In this study, we investigated serum CC-16 levels in non-smoking related COPD. Methods: We compared non-smoker patients with COPD (FEV1<60% of predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7, n=100) and individuals with normal lung function FEV1≥ 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC≥ 0.7, n=80). All subjects had no smoking history. CC-16 was measured by ELISA. Results and conclusion: Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with non-smoking related COPD, and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in non-smoking related COPD group compared to non-smoker controls.

Keywords: COPD, CC-16, ELISA, non-smoking-related COPD

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53 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan

Abstract:

This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: slope stability, Rocscience, Clara W., 2d analysis, 3D analysis, sensitivity analysis

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52 The Validity of a Literature Review Rubric in the Ecuadorian Context

Authors: Francisco Bolaños-Burgos, Antonio Cevallos Gamboa

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of a literature review rubric in the Ecuadorian context at the graduate level. The sample was composed of 73 students of the online and on-site study format in the years 2015-2016. The instrument has 20 items (α=0.974) ranked in a 5-point Likert scale with six dimensions. The validity analysis was made by experts´ criterion. Findings evidenced that there is no significance difference between grades based on the study formats and that women write better than men. Furthermore, the students lacked to describe the limitation of their research and are good in writing: the research topic of the abstract, the conclusion in terms of the research objective and the citation norms (APA).

Keywords: literature review, rubric, validity, Ecuadorian context, graduate level

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51 The Fake News Impact on the Public Policy Cycle: A Systemic Analysis through Documentary Survey

Authors: Aron Miranda Burgos, Ergon Cugler de Moraes Silva

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In the present article, it is observed that the constant advancement of issues related to misinformation impacts the guarantee of the public policy cycle. Thus, it is found that the dissemination of false information has a direct influence on each of the component stages of this cycle. Therefore, in order to maintain scientific and theoretical credibility in the qualitative analysis process, it was necessary to logically interpose the concepts of firehosing of falsehood, fake news, public policy cycle, as well as using the epistemological and pragmatic mechanism at the intersection of such academic concepts, such as the scientific method. It was found, through the analysis of official documents and public notes, how the multiple theoretical perspectives evidence the commitment of the provision and elaboration of public policies, verifying the way in which the fake news impact each part of the process in this atmosphere.

Keywords: firehosing of falsehood, governance, misinformation, post-truth

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50 Erotica in Ghana: Gendered Negotiations of Erotic Sexual Pleasure in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Michael P.K. Okyerefo, Clara K. Fayorsey

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Although sexual pleasure is an important aspect of human sexuality, there is little knowledge on how women and men negotiate pleasure in Ghana. The paper explores women and men’s agency in negotiating sexual pleasure in an urban community in Ghana based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men. Specifically, we explore meanings of sexual pleasure, the erotic factors that stimulate sexual pleasure, and how women and men negotiate for these factors. Women are active negotiators of stimulants of sexual pleasure based on symbolic meanings.

Keywords: eroticism, sexual pleasure, sexual negotiation, Ghana

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49 A New Gateway for Rheumatoid Arthritis: COXIBs with a Safety Cardiovascular Profile

Authors: Malvina Hoxha, Valerie Capra, Carola Buccellati, Angelo Sala, Clara Cena, Roberta Fruttero, Massimo Bertinaria, G. Enrico Rovati

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Today COXIBs are used in the treatment of arthritis and many other painful conditions in selected patients with high gastrointestinal risk and low CV risk. Previously we found a new mechanism of action of a traditional NSAID (diclofenac) and a COXIB (lumiracoxib) that possess weak competitive antagonism at the TP receptor. We hypothesize that modifying the structure of a known specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COXIB), so that it becomes also a more potent thromboxane antagonist will preserve the anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal safety typical of COXIBs and prevent the cardiovascular risk associated with long term therapy.

Keywords: cyclooxygenase, inflammation, lumiracoxib, thromboxane A2

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48 Modeling the Philippine Stock Exchange Index Closing Value Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Frankie Burgos, Emely Munar, Conrado Basa

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This paper aimed at developing an artificial neural network (ANN) model specifically for the Philippine Stock Exchange index closing value. The inputs to the ANN are US Dollar and Philippine Peso(USD-PHP) exchange rate, GDP growth of the country, quarterly inflation rate, 10-year bond yield, credit rating of the country, previous open, high, low, close values and volume of trade of the Philippine Stock Exchange Index (PSEi), gold price of the previous day, National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ), Standard and Poor’s 500 (S & P 500) and the iShares MSCI Philippines ETF (EPHE) previous closing value. The target is composed of the closing value of the PSEi during the 627 trading days from November 3, 2011, to May 30, 2014. MATLAB’s Neural Network toolbox was employed to create, train and simulate the network using multi-layer feed forward neural network with back-propagation algorithm. The results satisfactorily show that the neural network developed has the ability to model the PSEi, which is affected by both internal and external economic factors. It was found out that the inputs used are the main factors that influence the movement of the PSEi closing value.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence, philippine stocks exchange index, stocks trading

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47 Links between Landscape Management and Environmental Risk Assessment: Considerations from the Italian Context

Authors: Mara Balestrieri, Clara Pusceddu

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Issues relating to the destructive phenomena that can damage people and goods have returned to the centre of debate in Italy with the increase in catastrophic episodes in recent years in a country which is highly vulnerable to hydrological risk. Environmental factors and geological and geomorphological territorial characteristics play an important role in determining the level of vulnerability and the natural tendency to risk. However, a territory has also been subjected to the requirements of and transformations of society, and this brings other relevant factors. The reasons for the increase in destructive phenomena are often to be found in the territorial development models adopted. Stewardship of the landscape and management of risk are related issues. This study aims to summarize the most relevant elements about this connection and at the same time to clarify the role of environmental risk assessment as a tool to aid in the sustainable management of landscape. How planners relate to this problem and which aspects should be monitored in order to prepare responsible and useful interventions?

Keywords: assessment, landscape, risk, planning

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46 Community Assemblages of Reef Fishes in Marine Sanctuary and Non-Marine Sanctuary Areas in Sogod Bay, Southern Leyte, Philippines

Authors: Homer Hermes De Dios, Dewoowoogen Baclayon

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The community assemblages of reef fishes was conducted in ten marine sanctuaries and ten non-marine sanctuary areas in Sogod Bay, Southern Leyte, Philippines from 2014-2015. A total of 223 species belonging to 39 families of reef fishes in Sogod Bay were recorded. Family Pomacentridae (e.g. damsel fishes) has the highest number of species (42), followed by Labridae or wrasses (27), Chaetodonthidae or butterfly fish (22), Scaridae or parrotfishes (17), and Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes) and Pomacanthidae (angelfishes) both with 10 species. Two of the recorded fish species were included in the IUCN Red List, wherein one is near threatened (Chlorurus bowersi) and the other is endangered species (Cheilinus undulatus). The mean total fish biomass (target + indicator + major or other fish) in MPA was significantly higher (13,468 g/500m2 or equivalent to 26.94 mt/km2) than Non-MPA with 7,408 g/500m2 or 15,216mt/km2 in Non-MPA. The mean total fish biomass in MPAs in Sogod Bay can be categorized as high (21-40 mt/km2) with minimal fishing and medium or slightly moderately fished (11-20 mt/km2) in Non-MPAs. The mean (±SE) biomass of target fishes was significantly higher in MPA than Non-MPA and differ significantly across two depths. The target fish biomass was significantly higher in Limasawa Marine Sanctuary (13,569 g/500m2) followed by Lungsodaan Marine Sanctuary in Padre Burgos (11,884 g/500m2) and the lowest was found in San Isidro (735 g/500m2). The mean total fish density (target + indicator + major or other fish) did not differ between Marine Protected area (607.912 fishes/500m2 or 1215.824 fishes/1000m2) and 525.937 fishes/500m2 in non-Marine Protected Area and can be categorized as moderate (667-2267mt/km2). The mean density of target fishes was significantly (p=0.022) higher in deeper areas (12-15m) than in shallow areas but did not differ significantly between MPAs and Non-MPA. No significant difference of the biomass and density for indicator and other fishes in MPAs and Non-MPAs.

Keywords: abundance, density, species richness, target fish, coral reef management

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45 A Daily Diary Study on Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work, Psychological Detachment, and Well-Being – The Mediating Role of Cognitive Coping

Authors: Clara Eichberger, Daantje Derks, Hannes Zacher

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Technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) involves performing job-related tasks after regular working hours with the help of technological devices. Due to emerging information and communication technologies, such behavior becomes increasingly common. Since previous research on the relationship of TASW, psychological detachment and well-being are mixed, this study aimed to examine the moderating roles of appraisal and cognitive coping. A moderated mediation model was tested with daily diary data from 100 employees. As hypothesized, TASW was positively related to negative affect at bedtime. In addition, psychological detachment mediated this relationship. Results did not confirm appraisal and cognitive coping as moderators. However, additional analyses revealed cognitive coping as a mediator of the positive relationship of TASW and positive affect at bedtime. These results suggest that, on the one hand engaging in TASW can be harmful to employee well-being (i.e., more negative affect) and on the other hand, it can also be associated with higher well-being (i.e., more positive affect) in case it is accompanied by cognitive coping.

Keywords: cognitive coping, psychological detachment, technology-assisted supplemental work, well-being

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44 Effects of Pressure and Temperature on the Extraction of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Supercritical Fluids from Tropaeolum majus L. Leaves

Authors: Espinoza S. Clara, Gamarra Q. Flor, Marianela F. Ramos Quispe S. Miguel, Flores R. Omar

Abstract:

Tropaeolum majus L. is a native plant to South and Central America, used since ancient times by our ancestors to combat different diseases. Glucotropaeolonin is one of its main components, which when hydrolyzed, forms benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) that promotes cellular apoptosis (programmed cell death in cancer cells). Therefore, the present research aims to evaluate the effect of the pressure and temperature of BIT extraction by supercritical CO2 from Tropaeolum majus L. The extraction was carried out in a supercritical fluid extractor equipment Speed SFE BASIC Brand: Poly science, the leaves of Tropaeolum majus L. were ground for one hour and lyophilized until obtaining a humidity of 6%. The extraction with supercritical CO2 was carried out with pressures of 200 bar and 300 bar, temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, obtained by the conjugation of these six treatments. BIT was identified by thin layer chromatography using 98% BIT as the standard, and as the mobile phase hexane: dichloromethane (4:2). Subsequently, BIT quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of oleoresin by supercritical CO2 extraction was obtained pressure 300 bar and temperature at 60°C; and the higher content of BIT at pressure 200 bar and 70°C for 30 minutes to obtain 113.615 ± 0.03 mg BIT/100 g dry matter was obtained.

Keywords: solvent extraction, Tropaeolum majus L., supercritical fluids, benzyl isothiocyanate

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43 A Brief Narrative Intervention to Improve Well-being and Relational Ethics in Couples: A Mixed-Method Case Study

Authors: Kevser Cakmak, Adrián Montesano, Lourdes Artigas, Marta Salla, Clara Mateu

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The main objective of this research is to explore the relational letter writing technique as an intervention in couple therapy for reconnecting couples with their values and ethical preferences. This is a recently developed therapeutic tool within the framework of Narrative Therapy that consists of two interviews and a letter writing task, in which a meta-conversation between the relationship itself, the couple members, and the therapists is fostered. Although this specific therapeutic technique can be used within the therapy process, in this case study, it is used as a brief stand-alone narrative intervention for a middle age heterosexual couple breast cancer survivor. Couple’s relational and personal wellbeing was monitored before, during, and after the intervention by means of the dyadic adjustment and the clinical outcomes in routine evaluation-outcome measure, respectively. The couple showed a significant improvement after the intervention in both levels. The content of the letter writing exercises was qualitatively analysed to explore the reconstruction of their ethical values. Results from both methods are integrated in order to get an in-depth perspective of the newly developed tool. The potential of the letter writing technique as stand-alone and as adjunct brief intervention is discussed.

Keywords: couple therapy, narrative therapy, psychotherapy tool, relational letter writing

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42 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance, Fatigue, and Performance during Simulated Train Driving

Authors: Clara Theresia, Hardianto Iridiastadi

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Drowsiness is one of the main factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents, particularly in the transportation sector. While the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions have been reported, the exact relationships remain a critical issue. This study aimed at quantifying the effects of extreme sleep deprivation on vigilance, fatigue, and performance during simulated train driving. A total of 12 participants were asked to drive a train simulator continuously for 4 hours, either in a sleep deprived condition (2-hr of sleep) or normal (8-hr of sleep) condition. Dependent variables obtained during the task included Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) parameters, degree of fatigue (assessed via Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) and sleepiness (reported using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale/KSS), and driving performance (the number of speed limit violations). Findings from this study demonstrated substantial decrements in vigilance in the sleep-deprived condition. This condition also resulted in 75% increase in speed violation and a two-fold increase in the degree of fatigue and sleepiness. Extreme sleep deprivation was clearly associated with substantially poorer response. The exact effects, however, were dependent upon the types of responses.

Keywords: cognitive function, psychomotor vigilance task, sleep deprivation, train simulator

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41 Recycling in Bogotá: A SWOT Analysis of Three Associations to Evaluate the Integrating the Informal Sector into Solid Waste Management

Authors: Clara Inés Pardo Martínez

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In emerging economies, recycling is an opportunity for the cities to increase the lifespan of sanitary landfills, reduce the costs of the solid waste management, decrease the environmental problems of the waste treatment through reincorporate waste in the productive cycle and protect and develop people’s livelihoods of informal waste pickers. However, few studies have analysed the possibilities and strategies to integrate formal and informal sectors in the solid waste management for the benefit of both. This study seek to make a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis in three recycling associations of Bogotá with the aim to understand and determine the situation of recycling from perspective of informal sector in its transition to enter as authorized waste providers. Data used in the analysis are derived from multiple strategies such as literature review, the Bogota’s recycling database, focus group meetings, governmental reports, national laws and regulations and specific interviews with key stakeholders. Results of this study show as the main stakeholders of formal and informal sector of waste management can identify the internal and internal conditions of recycling in Bogotá. Several strategies were designed based on the SWOTs determined, could be useful for Bogotá to advance and promote recycling as a key strategy for integrated sustainable waste management in the city.

Keywords: Bogotá, recycling, solid waste management, SWOT analysis

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40 Schools of Thought in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Cris Bravo

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Social entrepreneurship is a new and exciting topic that holds a great promise in helping alleviate the social problems of the world. As a new subject, the meaning of the term is too broad and this is counterproductive in trying to build understanding around the concept. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the elements of social entrepreneurship as defined by seven international organizations leading social entrepreneurship projects: Ashoka Foundation, Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation and Yunus Center; as well as from three other institutions fostering social entrepreneurship: Global Social Benefit Institute, BRAC University, and Socialab. The study used document analysis from Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Yunus Center and Ashoka Foundation; and open ended interview to experts from the Global Social Benefit Institute at Santa Clara University in United States, BRAC University from Bangladesh, and Socialab from Argentina. The study identified three clearly differentiated schools of thought, based on their views on revenue, scalability, replicability and geographic location. While this study is by no means exhaustive, it provides an indication of the patterns of ideas fostered by important players in the field. By clearly identifying the similarities and differences in the concept of social entrepreneurship, research and practitioners are better equipped to build on the subject, and to promote more adequate and accurate social policies to foster the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: replicability, revenue, scalability, schools of thought, social entrepreneurship

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39 Computational System for the Monitoring Ecosystem of the Endangered White Fish (Chirostoma estor estor) in the Patzcuaro Lake, Mexico

Authors: Cesar Augusto Hoil Rosas, José Luis Vázquez Burgos, José Juan Carbajal Hernandez

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White fish (Chirostoma estor estor) is an endemic species that habits in the Patzcuaro Lake, located in Michoacan, Mexico; being an important source of gastronomic and cultural wealth of the area. Actually, it have undergone an immense depopulation of individuals, due to the high fishing, contamination and eutrophication of the lake water, resulting in the possible extinction of this important species. This work proposes a new computational model for monitoring and assessment of critical environmental parameters of the white fish ecosystem. According to an Analytical Hierarchy Process, a mathematical model is built assigning weights to each environmental parameter depending on their water quality importance on the ecosystem. Then, a development of an advanced system for the monitoring, analysis and control of water quality is built using the virtual environment of LabVIEW. As results, we have obtained a global score that indicates the condition level of the water quality in the Chirostoma estor ecosystem (excellent, good, regular and poor), allowing to provide an effective decision making about the environmental parameters that affect the proper culture of the white fish such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen. In situ evaluations show regular conditions for a success reproduction and growth rates of this species where the water quality tends to have regular levels. This system emerges as a suitable tool for the water management, where future laws for white fish fishery regulations will result in the reduction of the mortality rate in the early stages of development of the species, which represent the most critical phase. This can guarantees better population sizes than those currently obtained in the aquiculture crop. The main benefit will be seen as a contribution to maintain the cultural and gastronomic wealth of the area and for its inhabitants, since white fish is an important food and economical income of the region, but the species is endangered.

Keywords: Chirostoma estor estor, computational system, lab view, white fish

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38 Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites

Authors: Rui Magalhães, Sohel Rana, Raul Fangueiro, Clara Gonçalves, Pedro Nunes, Gustavo Dias

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Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.

Keywords: auxetic fabrics, high performance, composites, energy absorption, impact resistance

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37 Lipid Profile of Civil Servants in Abeokuta Ogun State Nigeria

Authors: Sunday Sedodo Nupo, Clara Berstien Oguntona, Babatunde Oguntona, Oluseyi Akinloye, P. A. Olunusi Adeboye

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Cardiovascular diseases are now becoming dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigated the lipid profile of civil servants. A cross-sectional study was carried out among randomly selected 202 male and 298 female civil servants in Abeokuta Ogun state. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on history of non-communicable diseases and physical activity pattern of the respondents. The blood pressures of the subjects were measured and classified using World Health Organization criteria. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Ethical approval was obtained from Ogun State Ministry of Health. Data collected were analysed using Statistical package for social science version 17.1. Results showed that majority (76%) of the subjects were within the age range of 20 - 40 years, 75% earned between N58,500 - N98,000 monthly and 68% were sedentary. The mean energy intake of men and women were 3942±38 kcal and 2791±3 kcal respectively, while the protein intake for men was 65±49 g/day and 54.28±40 g/day for women. Desirable TC level (<200 mg/dl) was found in 80% of the selected subjects while the normal TG (<150 mg/dl) and LDL (<129 mg/dl) was found in 95% and 90% subjects respectively. The mean TC was 78.91±11 mg/dl and 62.69±9 mg/dl in men and women respectively. The study showed that most of the subjects had normal lipid in terms of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Keywords: high density lipoprotein, morbidity, mortality, triglycerides

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36 Ultrastructural Changes Occur in Mice Lungs After Cessation to Exposure of Incense Smoke

Authors: Samar Rabah

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Background: Incense woods are special kind of trees called Agarwood, which characterized by good smelling odors and many medical benefits. Incense smoke is heavily used in Saudi Arabia although comprehensive studies of its effects on health are limited. The present study demonstrated lung ultrastructure changes of mice after exposure and cessation to Incense smoke. Eighty mice are divided equally into four groups, three groups are exposed to different concentrations of Incense smoke (2, 4 and 6 gm) for three months, while the fourth group is control one. At the end of each month, lungs of five animals from each group are gathered, while the last five animals from each group are kept for another 60 days without exposure to the Incense smoke to allow for recovery. Results: Transmission electron microscope investigations of all exposed groups showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia in Clara Cells and some an enlargement of the macrophage to the point that it fills a large part of the alveolar lumen. Scanning electron microscope marks presence of mucus materials attached to the epithelial bronchioles. After prevention of exposure to the Incense smoke for 60 days, necrosis and degeneration in some cells of epithelial bronchioles, fibrosis of peribronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells were demonstrated. Conclusion: Based on the above findings and other related studies (not published), we conclude that exposure to Incense smoke causes harmful effects due to sever changes in pulmonary ultrastructure, such effects do not disappear even when Incense smoke inhalation was stopped. Therefore, we recommend that Incense smoke should use only in open places to reduce its harms.

Keywords: Incense smoke, lungs, ultrastructure of lungs, Agarwood

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35 Notions of Social Justice and Educational Globalization: Evaluations of Israeli Teachers and Students across Sectors

Authors: Clara Sabbagh, Nura Resh

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The study delves into students’ and teachers’ notions of social justice (social justice judgments or SJJ), examining how they are shaped by both educational globalization and local (nation-state) conditions. Using the Israeli school setting as a case study, we discuss the status of hegemonic Zionism and two influential perspectives of educational globalization – world culture and the post-colonial critique of neo-liberalism – and derive competing hypotheses about the notions of social justice embedded in them. Against this background, we investigate how SJJ are affected by generation – Israeli teachers and students – and by educational sectors that mirror the society’s major divide: Jewish and Israeli Arab. In order to examine these issues, we used a representative sample of 2000 Israeli students, as well as a sample of 800 social studies teachers. We applied MANOVA repeated-measure for examining to what extent SSJ are dependent upon the type of resource that is distributed (repeated measures) and generational (teachers vs students) and sectorial (Jewish vs. Arab) group variables. As expected, findings revealed that the local context does matter. In other words, rather than being consistent with any of the three perspectives above, findings suggest that respondents elaborate the intersection between global and local traditions by creating various forms of mingled notions of social justice. In other words, Israeli (Jewish and Arab) teachers and students can be conceived as agents who play an important role in recreating national heritages and who differently interpret the ways educational globalization impacts their lives.

Keywords: educational globalization, social justice, teachers, Israel, Arab

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34 Dispersion Effects in Waves Reflected by Lossy Conductors: The Optics vs. Electromagnetics Approach

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver, Jose Miguel Miranda

Abstract:

The study of dispersion phenomena in electromagnetic waves reflected by conductors at infrared and lower frequencies is a topic which finds a number of applications. We aim to explain in this work what are the most relevant ones and how this phenomenon is modeled from both optics and electromagnetics points of view. We also explain here how the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave reflected by a lossy conductor could depend on both the frequency of the incident wave, as well as on the electrical properties of the conductor, and we illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example. The mathematical analysis made by a specialist in electromagnetics or a microwave engineer is apparently very different from the one made by a specialist in optics. We show here how both approaches lead to the same physical result and what are the key concepts which enable one to understand that despite the differences in the equations the solution to the problem happens to be the same. Our study starts with an analysis made by using the complex refractive index and the reflectance parameter. We show how this reflectance has a dependence with the square root of the frequency when the reflecting material is a good conductor, and the frequency of the wave is low enough. Then we analyze the same problem with a less known approach, which is based on the reflection coefficient of the electric field, a parameter that is most commonly used in electromagnetics and microwave engineering. In summary, this paper presents a mathematical study illustrated with a worked example which unifies the modeling of dispersion effects made by specialists in optics and the one made by specialists in electromagnetics. The main finding of this work is that it is possible to reproduce the dependence of the Fresnel reflectance with frequency from the intrinsic impedance of the reflecting media.

Keywords: dispersion, electromagnetic waves, microwaves, optics

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33 Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez

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This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges.

Keywords: human body model, electrostatic discharge, sensitivity tests, static charge monitoring

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32 A Reflection: Looking the Pattern of Political Party (Gerindra Party) Campaign by Social Media in Indonesia General Election 2014

Authors: Clara Stella Anugerah

Abstract:

This study actually is a reflection of the general election in 2014. The researcher was interested in this case as the assessment of several phenomenons that happened recently. One of them is the use of social media for the campaign. By this modern era, social media becomes closer with society. It gains the communication process, and by the time being communicating others also becomes easier than before. Furthermore, social media can minimize the cost of communication with many people as a far distance that often comes to be an obstacle of communication does not become a big problem anymore. In Indonesia, the advantages of social media were used by a political party, Gerindra, to face the election that was held on 2014. Actually Gerindra is a newly formed political party that was established in 2008. In spite of Gerindra is the new comer in the election, according to the General Election Committee’s data in Indonesia, Gerindra has the biggest budget than others to cost campaign in social media. Because of that, this research wants to look “how is the pattern of Gerindra party’s campaign to face the general election in 2014? To ask that question, the theory used for this research is campaign method based on ICT (Information Communication Technology) by Rummele. According to the rummele, Gerindra was a party that used a product of social media massively, mainly facebook and twitter. According to that observation, this research focus on campaign that had been done by Gerindra in both of those social media by the time window given by KPU (General Election Committee) on Maret 16th until April 5th, 2014. The conclusion was derived by content analysis method that was used in the methodology. In this context, that method was used while interpreting the content uploaded by Gerindra to facebook or twitter, such as picture and writing. Finally, by that method and reflecting the rummele theory, this research inferred that the patern used for Gerindra’s campaign in social media tends to be top-down. It means: Gerindra showed uncommunicative tendency in social media and only want to catch much mass without mentioned a mission and vision clearly.

Keywords: Gerindra party, political party, social media, campaign, general election on 2014

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31 Multilayer Thermal Screens for Greenhouse Insulation

Authors: Clara Shenderey, Helena Vitoshkin, Mordechai Barak, Avraham Arbel

Abstract:

Greenhouse cultivation is an energy-intensive process due to the high demands on cooling or heating according to external climatic conditions, which could be extreme in the summer or winter seasons. The thermal radiation rate inside a greenhouse depends mainly on the type of covering material and greenhouse construction. Using additional thermal screens under a greenhouse covering combined with a dehumidification system improves the insulation and could be cost-effective. Greenhouse covering material usually contains protective ultraviolet (UV) radiation additives to prevent the film wear, insect harm, and crop diseases. This paper investigates the overall heat transfer coefficient, or U-value, for greenhouse polyethylene covering contains UV-additives and glass covering with or without a thermal screen supplement. The hot-box method was employed to evaluate overall heat transfer coefficients experimentally as a function of the type and number of the thermal screens. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing the number of thermal screens as a hyperbolic function. The overall heat transfer coefficient highly depends on the ability of the material to reflect thermal radiation. Using a greenhouse covering, i.e., polyethylene films or glass, in combination with high reflective thermal screens, i.e., containing about 98% of aluminum stripes or aluminum foil, the U-value reduces by 61%-89% in the first case, whereas by 70%-92% in the second case, depending on the number of the thermal screen. Using thermal screens made from low reflective materials may reduce the U-value by 30%-57%. The heat transfer coefficient is an indicator of the thermal insulation properties of the materials, which allows farmers to make decisions on the use of appropriate thermal screens depending on the external and internal climate conditions in a greenhouse.

Keywords: energy-saving thermal screen, greenhouse cover material, heat transfer coefficient, hot box

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30 VISSIM Modeling of Driver Behavior at Connecticut Roundabouts

Authors: F. Clara Fang, Hernan Castaneda

Abstract:

The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) has constructed four roundabouts in the State of Connecticut within the past ten years. VISSIM traffic simulation software was utilized to analyze these roundabouts during their design phase. The queue length and level of service observed in the field appear to be better than predicted by the VISSIM model. The objectives of this project are to: identify VISSIM input variables most critical to accurate modeling; recommend VISSIM calibration factors; and, provide other recommendations for roundabout traffic operations modeling. Traffic data were collected at these roundabouts using Miovision Technologies. Cameras were set up to capture vehicle circulating activity and entry behavior for two weekdays. A large sample size of filed data was analyzed to achieve accurate and statistically significant results. The data extracted from the videos include: vehicle circulating speed; critical gap estimated by Maximum Likelihood Method; peak hour volume; follow-up headway; travel time; and, vehicle queue length. A VISSIM simulation of existing roundabouts was built to compare both queue length and travel time predicted from simulation with measured in the field. The research investigated a variety of simulation parameters as calibration factors for describing driver behaviors at roundabouts. Among them, critical gap is the most effective calibration variable in roundabout simulation. It has a significant impact to queue length, particularly when the volume is higher. The results will improve the design of future roundabouts in Connecticut and provide decision makers with insights on the relationship between various choices and future performance.

Keywords: driver critical gap, roundabout analysis, simulation, VISSIM modeling

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29 Nimbus Radiance Gate Project: Media Architecture in Sacred Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá

Abstract:

The project presented in this investigation is part of the multidisciplinary field of Architecture and explores an experience in media architecture, integrated in Arts, Science and Technology. The objective of this work is to create a visual experience comprehending Architecture, Media and Art. It is intended to specifically explore the sacred spaces that are losing social, cultural or religious dynamics and insert new Media technologies to create a new generate momentum, testing tools, techniques and methods of implementation. Given an architectural project methodology, it seems essential that 'the location' should be the starting point for the development of this technological apparatus: the church of Santa Clara in Santarém, Portugal emerged as an experimental space for apparatus, presenting itself as both temple and museum. We also aim to address the concept of rehabilitation through media technologies, directed at interventions that may have an impact on energizing spaces. The idea is emphasized on the rehabilitation of spaces that, one way or another, may gain new dynamics after a media intervention. Thus, we intend to affect the play with a sensitive and spiritual character which endemically, sacred spaces have, by exploring a sensitive aspect of the subject and drawing up new ideas for meditation and spiritual reflection. The work is designed primarily as a visual experience that encompasses the space, the object and the subject. It is a media project supported by a dual structure with two transparent screens operating in a holographic screen which will be projecting two images that complement the translucent overlay film, thus making the merger of two projections. The digitally created content reacts to the presence of observers through infrared cameras, placed strategically. The object revives the memory of the altarpiece as an architectural surface, promoting the expansion of messages through the media technologies.

Keywords: architecture, media, sacred, technology

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28 Application of an Analytical Model to Obtain Daily Flow Duration Curves for Different Hydrological Regimes in Switzerland

Authors: Ana Clara Santos, Maria Manuela Portela, Bettina Schaefli

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This work assesses the performance of an analytical model framework to generate daily flow duration curves, FDCs, based on climatic characteristics of the catchments and on their streamflow recession coefficients. According to the analytical model framework, precipitation is considered to be a stochastic process, modeled as a marked Poisson process, and recession is considered to be deterministic, with parameters that can be computed based on different models. The analytical model framework was tested for three case studies with different hydrological regimes located in Switzerland: pluvial, snow-dominated and glacier. For that purpose, five time intervals were analyzed (the four meteorological seasons and the civil year) and two developments of the model were tested: one considering a linear recession model and the other adopting a nonlinear recession model. Those developments were combined with recession coefficients obtained from two different approaches: forward and inverse estimation. The performance of the analytical framework when considering forward parameter estimation is poor in comparison with the inverse estimation for both, linear and nonlinear models. For the pluvial catchment, the inverse estimation shows exceptional good results, especially for the nonlinear model, clearing suggesting that the model has the ability to describe FDCs. For the snow-dominated and glacier catchments the seasonal results are better than the annual ones suggesting that the model can describe streamflows in those conditions and that future efforts should focus on improving and combining seasonal curves instead of considering single annual ones.

Keywords: analytical streamflow distribution, stochastic process, linear and non-linear recession, hydrological modelling, daily discharges

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27 Pre-Cancerigene Injuries Related to Human Papillomavirus: Importance of Cervicography as a Complementary Diagnosis Method

Authors: Denise De Fátima Fernandes Barbosa, Tyane Mayara Ferreira Oliveira, Diego Jorge Maia Lima, Paula Renata Amorim Lessa, Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro, Cintia Gondim Pereira Calou, Glauberto Da Silva Quirino, Hellen Lívia Oliveira Catunda, Tatiana Gomes Guedes, Nicolau Da Costa

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of Digital Cervicography (DC) in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions related to Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, of evaluative type, held in a health unit linked to the Pro Dean of Extension of the Federal University of Ceará, in the period of July to August 2015 with a sample of 33 women. Data collecting was conducted through interviews with enforcement tool. Franco (2005) standardized the technique used for DC. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to identify high-risk HPV genotypes. DC were evaluated and classified by 3 judges. The results of DC and PCR were classified as positive, negative or inconclusive. The data of the collecting instruments were compiled and analyzed by the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) with descriptive statistics and cross-references. Sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables were analyzed through absolute frequencies (N) and their respective percentage (%). Kappa coefficient (κ) was applied to determine the existence of agreement between the DC of reports among evaluators with PCR and also among the judges about the DC results. The Pearson's chi-square test was used for analysis of sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables with the PCR reports. It was considered statistically significant (p<0.05). Ethical aspects of research involving human beings were respected, according to 466/2012 Resolution. Regarding the socio-demographic profile, the most prevalent ages and equally were those belonging to the groups 21-30 and 41-50 years old (24.2%). The brown color was reported in excess (84.8%) and 96.9% out of them had completed primary and secondary school or studying. 51.5% were married, 72.7% Catholic, 54.5% employed and 48.5% with income between one and two minimum wages. As for the sexual and reproductive characteristics, prevailed heterosexual (93.9%) who did not use condoms during sexual intercourse (72.7%). 51.5% had a previous history of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI), and HPV the most prevalent STI (76.5%). 57.6% did not use contraception, 78.8% underwent examination Cancer Prevention Uterus (PCCU) with shorter time interval or equal to one year, 72.7% had no cases of Cervical Cancer in the family, 63.6% were multiparous and 97% were not vaccinated against HPV. DC identified good level of agreement between raters (κ=0.542), had a specificity of 77.8% and sensitivity of 25% when compared their results with PCR. Only the variable race showed a statistically significant association with CRP (p=0.042). DC had 100% acceptance amongst women in the sample, revealing the possibility of other experiments in using this method so that it proves as a viable technique. The DC positivity criteria were developed by nurses and these professionals also perform PCCU in Brazil, which means that DC can be an important complementary diagnostic method for the appreciation of these professional’s quality of examinations.

Keywords: gynecological examination, human papillomavirus, nursing, papillomavirus infections, uterine lasmsneop

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26 Evaluating the Effect of 'Terroir' on Volatile Composition of Red Wines

Authors: María Luisa Gonzalez-SanJose, Mihaela Mihnea, Vicente Gomez-Miguel

Abstract:

The zoning methodology currently recommended by the OIVV as official methodology to carry out viticulture zoning studies and to define and delimit the ‘terroirs’ has been applied in this study. This methodology has been successfully applied on the most significant an important Spanish Oenological D.O. regions, such as Ribera de Duero, Rioja, Rueda and Toro, but also it have been applied around the world in Portugal, different countries of South America, and so on. This is a complex methodology that uses edaphoclimatic data but also other corresponding to vineyards and other soils’ uses The methodology is useful to determine Homogeneous Soil Units (HSU) to different scale depending on the interest of each study, and has been applied from viticulture regions to particular vineyards. It seems that this methodology is an appropriate method to delimit correctly the medium in order to enhance its uses and to obtain the best viticulture and oenological products. The present work is focused on the comparison of volatile composition of wines made from grapes grown in different HSU that coexist in a particular viticulture region of Castile-Lion cited near to Burgos. Three different HSU were selected for this study. They represented around of 50% of the global area of vineyards of the studied region. Five different vineyards on each HSU under study were chosen. To reduce variability factors, other criteria were also considered as grape variety, clone, rootstocks, vineyard’s age, training systems and cultural practices. This study was carried out during three consecutive years, then wine from three different vintage were made and analysed. Different red wines were made from grapes harvested in the different vineyards under study. Grapes were harvested to ‘Technological maturity’, which are correlated with adequate levels of sugar, acidity, phenolic content (nowadays named phenolic maturity), good sanitary stages and adequate levels of aroma precursors. Results of the volatile profile of the wines produced from grapes of each HSU showed significant differences among them pointing out a direct effect of the edaphoclimatic characteristic of each UHT on the composition of the grapes and then on the volatile composition of the wines. Variability induced by HSU co-existed with the well-known inter-annual variability correlated mainly with the specific climatic conditions of each vintage, however was most intense, so the wine of each HSU were perfectly differenced. A discriminant analysis allowed to define the volatiles with discriminant capacities which were 21 of the 74 volatiles analysed. Detected discriminant volatiles were chemical different, although .most of them were esters, followed by were superior alcohols and fatty acid of short chain. Only one lactone and two aldehydes were selected as discriminant variable, and no varietal aroma compounds were selected, which agree with the fact that all the wine were made from the same grape variety.

Keywords: viticulture zoning, terroir, wine, volatile profile

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