Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Clara K. Fayorsey

45 Erotica in Ghana: Gendered Negotiations of Erotic Sexual Pleasure in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Michael P.K. Okyerefo, Clara K. Fayorsey


Although sexual pleasure is an important aspect of human sexuality, there is little knowledge on how women and men negotiate pleasure in Ghana. The paper explores women and men’s agency in negotiating sexual pleasure in an urban community in Ghana based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men. Specifically, we explore meanings of sexual pleasure, the erotic factors that stimulate sexual pleasure, and how women and men negotiate for these factors. Women are active negotiators of stimulants of sexual pleasure based on symbolic meanings.

Keywords: eroticism, sexual pleasure, sexual negotiation, Ghana

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
44 Clara Cell Secretory Protein 16 Serum Level Decreases in Patients with Non-Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)

Authors: Lian Wu, Mervyn Merrilees


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide problem, characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. In New Zealand, it is currently the 4th commonest cause of death and exacerbations of COPD are a frequent cause of admission to hospital. Serum levels of Clara cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) are believed to represent Clara cell toxicity. More recently, CC-16 has been found to be associated with smoker COPD. It is produced almost exclusively by non-ciliated Clara cells in the airways, and its primary function is to protect the lungs against oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke, serum levels of CC-16 become elevated. CC16 is a potent natural immune-suppressor and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro, CC16 inhibits both monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and phagocytosis. CC16 also inhibits fibroblast chemotaxis. However, the role of CC-16 in non-smoking related COPD is still not clear. In this study, we investigated serum CC-16 levels in non-smoking related COPD. Methods: We compared non-smoker patients with COPD (FEV1<60% of predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7, n=100) and individuals with normal lung function FEV1≥ 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC≥ 0.7, n=80). All subjects had no smoking history. CC-16 was measured by ELISA. Results and conclusion: Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with non-smoking related COPD, and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in non-smoking related COPD group compared to non-smoker controls.

Keywords: COPD, CC-16, ELISA, non-smoking-related COPD

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43 Nazi Experiments during World War II: Dismal Period for Bioethics

Authors: Catharina O. Vianna Dias da Silva, Amanda F. Batista, Ana Clara C. Burgos Lessa, Carolina S. Lucchesi Ramacciotti, Maria Clara B. de Andrade, Roberto de B. Silva


This article aims to analyze the bioethical aspects related to the historical practices of experiments on humans that occurred in Nazi Germany during the period of World War II (1939-1945). The method was based on the bibliographic review of articles published in databases such as SciELO and Pubmed. In the discussion, historical and humanistic aspects that contributed to the construction of a genocidal culture practiced during this period were analyzed. Additionally, an ethical question arises: should the information acquired during this dark period be used by science? After analysis, it was found that these Nazi experiments went over medical and ethical principles, being a deplorable milestone in history. It was also concluded that, although they generated potentially 'useful' results in the scientific field, they should be discarded as an ethical question of principle, of never daring to validate such a deplorable way of obtaining knowledge.

Keywords: Nazism, bioethics, human experimentation, human rights, genocide, torture, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
42 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan


This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: slope stability, Rocscience, Clara W., 2d analysis, 3D analysis, sensitivity analysis

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41 A New Gateway for Rheumatoid Arthritis: COXIBs with a Safety Cardiovascular Profile

Authors: Malvina Hoxha, Valerie Capra, Carola Buccellati, Angelo Sala, Clara Cena, Roberta Fruttero, Massimo Bertinaria, G. Enrico Rovati


Today COXIBs are used in the treatment of arthritis and many other painful conditions in selected patients with high gastrointestinal risk and low CV risk. Previously we found a new mechanism of action of a traditional NSAID (diclofenac) and a COXIB (lumiracoxib) that possess weak competitive antagonism at the TP receptor. We hypothesize that modifying the structure of a known specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COXIB), so that it becomes also a more potent thromboxane antagonist will preserve the anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal safety typical of COXIBs and prevent the cardiovascular risk associated with long term therapy.

Keywords: cyclooxygenase, inflammation, lumiracoxib, thromboxane A2

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40 Links between Landscape Management and Environmental Risk Assessment: Considerations from the Italian Context

Authors: Mara Balestrieri, Clara Pusceddu


Issues relating to the destructive phenomena that can damage people and goods have returned to the centre of debate in Italy with the increase in catastrophic episodes in recent years in a country which is highly vulnerable to hydrological risk. Environmental factors and geological and geomorphological territorial characteristics play an important role in determining the level of vulnerability and the natural tendency to risk. However, a territory has also been subjected to the requirements of and transformations of society, and this brings other relevant factors. The reasons for the increase in destructive phenomena are often to be found in the territorial development models adopted. Stewardship of the landscape and management of risk are related issues. This study aims to summarize the most relevant elements about this connection and at the same time to clarify the role of environmental risk assessment as a tool to aid in the sustainable management of landscape. How planners relate to this problem and which aspects should be monitored in order to prepare responsible and useful interventions?

Keywords: assessment, landscape, risk, planning

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39 A Daily Diary Study on Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work, Psychological Detachment, and Well-Being – The Mediating Role of Cognitive Coping

Authors: Clara Eichberger, Daantje Derks, Hannes Zacher


Technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) involves performing job-related tasks after regular working hours with the help of technological devices. Due to emerging information and communication technologies, such behavior becomes increasingly common. Since previous research on the relationship of TASW, psychological detachment and well-being are mixed, this study aimed to examine the moderating roles of appraisal and cognitive coping. A moderated mediation model was tested with daily diary data from 100 employees. As hypothesized, TASW was positively related to negative affect at bedtime. In addition, psychological detachment mediated this relationship. Results did not confirm appraisal and cognitive coping as moderators. However, additional analyses revealed cognitive coping as a mediator of the positive relationship of TASW and positive affect at bedtime. These results suggest that, on the one hand engaging in TASW can be harmful to employee well-being (i.e., more negative affect) and on the other hand, it can also be associated with higher well-being (i.e., more positive affect) in case it is accompanied by cognitive coping.

Keywords: cognitive coping, psychological detachment, technology-assisted supplemental work, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
38 Effects of Pressure and Temperature on the Extraction of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Supercritical Fluids from Tropaeolum majus L. Leaves

Authors: Espinoza S. Clara, Gamarra Q. Flor, Marianela F. Ramos Quispe S. Miguel, Flores R. Omar


Tropaeolum majus L. is a native plant to South and Central America, used since ancient times by our ancestors to combat different diseases. Glucotropaeolonin is one of its main components, which when hydrolyzed, forms benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) that promotes cellular apoptosis (programmed cell death in cancer cells). Therefore, the present research aims to evaluate the effect of the pressure and temperature of BIT extraction by supercritical CO2 from Tropaeolum majus L. The extraction was carried out in a supercritical fluid extractor equipment Speed SFE BASIC Brand: Poly science, the leaves of Tropaeolum majus L. were ground for one hour and lyophilized until obtaining a humidity of 6%. The extraction with supercritical CO2 was carried out with pressures of 200 bar and 300 bar, temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, obtained by the conjugation of these six treatments. BIT was identified by thin layer chromatography using 98% BIT as the standard, and as the mobile phase hexane: dichloromethane (4:2). Subsequently, BIT quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of oleoresin by supercritical CO2 extraction was obtained pressure 300 bar and temperature at 60°C; and the higher content of BIT at pressure 200 bar and 70°C for 30 minutes to obtain 113.615 ± 0.03 mg BIT/100 g dry matter was obtained.

Keywords: solvent extraction, Tropaeolum majus L., supercritical fluids, benzyl isothiocyanate

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37 A Brief Narrative Intervention to Improve Well-being and Relational Ethics in Couples: A Mixed-Method Case Study

Authors: Kevser Cakmak, Adrián Montesano, Lourdes Artigas, Marta Salla, Clara Mateu


The main objective of this research is to explore the relational letter writing technique as an intervention in couple therapy for reconnecting couples with their values and ethical preferences. This is a recently developed therapeutic tool within the framework of Narrative Therapy that consists of two interviews and a letter writing task, in which a meta-conversation between the relationship itself, the couple members, and the therapists is fostered. Although this specific therapeutic technique can be used within the therapy process, in this case study, it is used as a brief stand-alone narrative intervention for a middle age heterosexual couple breast cancer survivor. Couple’s relational and personal wellbeing was monitored before, during, and after the intervention by means of the dyadic adjustment and the clinical outcomes in routine evaluation-outcome measure, respectively. The couple showed a significant improvement after the intervention in both levels. The content of the letter writing exercises was qualitatively analysed to explore the reconstruction of their ethical values. Results from both methods are integrated in order to get an in-depth perspective of the newly developed tool. The potential of the letter writing technique as stand-alone and as adjunct brief intervention is discussed.

Keywords: couple therapy, narrative therapy, psychotherapy tool, relational letter writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
36 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance, Fatigue, and Performance during Simulated Train Driving

Authors: Clara Theresia, Hardianto Iridiastadi


Drowsiness is one of the main factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents, particularly in the transportation sector. While the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions have been reported, the exact relationships remain a critical issue. This study aimed at quantifying the effects of extreme sleep deprivation on vigilance, fatigue, and performance during simulated train driving. A total of 12 participants were asked to drive a train simulator continuously for 4 hours, either in a sleep deprived condition (2-hr of sleep) or normal (8-hr of sleep) condition. Dependent variables obtained during the task included Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) parameters, degree of fatigue (assessed via Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) and sleepiness (reported using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale/KSS), and driving performance (the number of speed limit violations). Findings from this study demonstrated substantial decrements in vigilance in the sleep-deprived condition. This condition also resulted in 75% increase in speed violation and a two-fold increase in the degree of fatigue and sleepiness. Extreme sleep deprivation was clearly associated with substantially poorer response. The exact effects, however, were dependent upon the types of responses.

Keywords: cognitive function, psychomotor vigilance task, sleep deprivation, train simulator

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35 Recycling in Bogotá: A SWOT Analysis of Three Associations to Evaluate the Integrating the Informal Sector into Solid Waste Management

Authors: Clara Inés Pardo Martínez


In emerging economies, recycling is an opportunity for the cities to increase the lifespan of sanitary landfills, reduce the costs of the solid waste management, decrease the environmental problems of the waste treatment through reincorporate waste in the productive cycle and protect and develop people’s livelihoods of informal waste pickers. However, few studies have analysed the possibilities and strategies to integrate formal and informal sectors in the solid waste management for the benefit of both. This study seek to make a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis in three recycling associations of Bogotá with the aim to understand and determine the situation of recycling from perspective of informal sector in its transition to enter as authorized waste providers. Data used in the analysis are derived from multiple strategies such as literature review, the Bogota’s recycling database, focus group meetings, governmental reports, national laws and regulations and specific interviews with key stakeholders. Results of this study show as the main stakeholders of formal and informal sector of waste management can identify the internal and internal conditions of recycling in Bogotá. Several strategies were designed based on the SWOTs determined, could be useful for Bogotá to advance and promote recycling as a key strategy for integrated sustainable waste management in the city.

Keywords: Bogotá, recycling, solid waste management, SWOT analysis

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34 Schools of Thought in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Cris Bravo


Social entrepreneurship is a new and exciting topic that holds a great promise in helping alleviate the social problems of the world. As a new subject, the meaning of the term is too broad and this is counterproductive in trying to build understanding around the concept. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the elements of social entrepreneurship as defined by seven international organizations leading social entrepreneurship projects: Ashoka Foundation, Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation and Yunus Center; as well as from three other institutions fostering social entrepreneurship: Global Social Benefit Institute, BRAC University, and Socialab. The study used document analysis from Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Yunus Center and Ashoka Foundation; and open ended interview to experts from the Global Social Benefit Institute at Santa Clara University in United States, BRAC University from Bangladesh, and Socialab from Argentina. The study identified three clearly differentiated schools of thought, based on their views on revenue, scalability, replicability and geographic location. While this study is by no means exhaustive, it provides an indication of the patterns of ideas fostered by important players in the field. By clearly identifying the similarities and differences in the concept of social entrepreneurship, research and practitioners are better equipped to build on the subject, and to promote more adequate and accurate social policies to foster the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: replicability, revenue, scalability, schools of thought, social entrepreneurship

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33 Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites

Authors: Rui Magalhães, Sohel Rana, Raul Fangueiro, Clara Gonçalves, Pedro Nunes, Gustavo Dias


Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.

Keywords: auxetic fabrics, high performance, composites, energy absorption, impact resistance

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32 Lipid Profile of Civil Servants in Abeokuta Ogun State Nigeria

Authors: Sunday Sedodo Nupo, Clara Berstien Oguntona, Babatunde Oguntona, Oluseyi Akinloye, P. A. Olunusi Adeboye


Cardiovascular diseases are now becoming dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigated the lipid profile of civil servants. A cross-sectional study was carried out among randomly selected 202 male and 298 female civil servants in Abeokuta Ogun state. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on history of non-communicable diseases and physical activity pattern of the respondents. The blood pressures of the subjects were measured and classified using World Health Organization criteria. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Ethical approval was obtained from Ogun State Ministry of Health. Data collected were analysed using Statistical package for social science version 17.1. Results showed that majority (76%) of the subjects were within the age range of 20 - 40 years, 75% earned between N58,500 - N98,000 monthly and 68% were sedentary. The mean energy intake of men and women were 3942±38 kcal and 2791±3 kcal respectively, while the protein intake for men was 65±49 g/day and 54.28±40 g/day for women. Desirable TC level (<200 mg/dl) was found in 80% of the selected subjects while the normal TG (<150 mg/dl) and LDL (<129 mg/dl) was found in 95% and 90% subjects respectively. The mean TC was 78.91±11 mg/dl and 62.69±9 mg/dl in men and women respectively. The study showed that most of the subjects had normal lipid in terms of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Keywords: high density lipoprotein, morbidity, mortality, triglycerides

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31 Ultrastructural Changes Occur in Mice Lungs After Cessation to Exposure of Incense Smoke

Authors: Samar Rabah


Background: Incense woods are special kind of trees called Agarwood, which characterized by good smelling odors and many medical benefits. Incense smoke is heavily used in Saudi Arabia although comprehensive studies of its effects on health are limited. The present study demonstrated lung ultrastructure changes of mice after exposure and cessation to Incense smoke. Eighty mice are divided equally into four groups, three groups are exposed to different concentrations of Incense smoke (2, 4 and 6 gm) for three months, while the fourth group is control one. At the end of each month, lungs of five animals from each group are gathered, while the last five animals from each group are kept for another 60 days without exposure to the Incense smoke to allow for recovery. Results: Transmission electron microscope investigations of all exposed groups showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia in Clara Cells and some an enlargement of the macrophage to the point that it fills a large part of the alveolar lumen. Scanning electron microscope marks presence of mucus materials attached to the epithelial bronchioles. After prevention of exposure to the Incense smoke for 60 days, necrosis and degeneration in some cells of epithelial bronchioles, fibrosis of peribronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells were demonstrated. Conclusion: Based on the above findings and other related studies (not published), we conclude that exposure to Incense smoke causes harmful effects due to sever changes in pulmonary ultrastructure, such effects do not disappear even when Incense smoke inhalation was stopped. Therefore, we recommend that Incense smoke should use only in open places to reduce its harms.

Keywords: Incense smoke, lungs, ultrastructure of lungs, Agarwood

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30 Notions of Social Justice and Educational Globalization: Evaluations of Israeli Teachers and Students across Sectors

Authors: Clara Sabbagh, Nura Resh


The study delves into students’ and teachers’ notions of social justice (social justice judgments or SJJ), examining how they are shaped by both educational globalization and local (nation-state) conditions. Using the Israeli school setting as a case study, we discuss the status of hegemonic Zionism and two influential perspectives of educational globalization – world culture and the post-colonial critique of neo-liberalism – and derive competing hypotheses about the notions of social justice embedded in them. Against this background, we investigate how SJJ are affected by generation – Israeli teachers and students – and by educational sectors that mirror the society’s major divide: Jewish and Israeli Arab. In order to examine these issues, we used a representative sample of 2000 Israeli students, as well as a sample of 800 social studies teachers. We applied MANOVA repeated-measure for examining to what extent SSJ are dependent upon the type of resource that is distributed (repeated measures) and generational (teachers vs students) and sectorial (Jewish vs. Arab) group variables. As expected, findings revealed that the local context does matter. In other words, rather than being consistent with any of the three perspectives above, findings suggest that respondents elaborate the intersection between global and local traditions by creating various forms of mingled notions of social justice. In other words, Israeli (Jewish and Arab) teachers and students can be conceived as agents who play an important role in recreating national heritages and who differently interpret the ways educational globalization impacts their lives.

Keywords: educational globalization, social justice, teachers, Israel, Arab

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29 Dispersion Effects in Waves Reflected by Lossy Conductors: The Optics vs. Electromagnetics Approach

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver, Jose Miguel Miranda


The study of dispersion phenomena in electromagnetic waves reflected by conductors at infrared and lower frequencies is a topic which finds a number of applications. We aim to explain in this work what are the most relevant ones and how this phenomenon is modeled from both optics and electromagnetics points of view. We also explain here how the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave reflected by a lossy conductor could depend on both the frequency of the incident wave, as well as on the electrical properties of the conductor, and we illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example. The mathematical analysis made by a specialist in electromagnetics or a microwave engineer is apparently very different from the one made by a specialist in optics. We show here how both approaches lead to the same physical result and what are the key concepts which enable one to understand that despite the differences in the equations the solution to the problem happens to be the same. Our study starts with an analysis made by using the complex refractive index and the reflectance parameter. We show how this reflectance has a dependence with the square root of the frequency when the reflecting material is a good conductor, and the frequency of the wave is low enough. Then we analyze the same problem with a less known approach, which is based on the reflection coefficient of the electric field, a parameter that is most commonly used in electromagnetics and microwave engineering. In summary, this paper presents a mathematical study illustrated with a worked example which unifies the modeling of dispersion effects made by specialists in optics and the one made by specialists in electromagnetics. The main finding of this work is that it is possible to reproduce the dependence of the Fresnel reflectance with frequency from the intrinsic impedance of the reflecting media.

Keywords: dispersion, electromagnetic waves, microwaves, optics

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28 Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez


This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges.

Keywords: human body model, electrostatic discharge, sensitivity tests, static charge monitoring

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27 A Reflection: Looking the Pattern of Political Party (Gerindra Party) Campaign by Social Media in Indonesia General Election 2014

Authors: Clara Stella Anugerah


This study actually is a reflection of the general election in 2014. The researcher was interested in this case as the assessment of several phenomenons that happened recently. One of them is the use of social media for the campaign. By this modern era, social media becomes closer with society. It gains the communication process, and by the time being communicating others also becomes easier than before. Furthermore, social media can minimize the cost of communication with many people as a far distance that often comes to be an obstacle of communication does not become a big problem anymore. In Indonesia, the advantages of social media were used by a political party, Gerindra, to face the election that was held on 2014. Actually Gerindra is a newly formed political party that was established in 2008. In spite of Gerindra is the new comer in the election, according to the General Election Committee’s data in Indonesia, Gerindra has the biggest budget than others to cost campaign in social media. Because of that, this research wants to look “how is the pattern of Gerindra party’s campaign to face the general election in 2014? To ask that question, the theory used for this research is campaign method based on ICT (Information Communication Technology) by Rummele. According to the rummele, Gerindra was a party that used a product of social media massively, mainly facebook and twitter. According to that observation, this research focus on campaign that had been done by Gerindra in both of those social media by the time window given by KPU (General Election Committee) on Maret 16th until April 5th, 2014. The conclusion was derived by content analysis method that was used in the methodology. In this context, that method was used while interpreting the content uploaded by Gerindra to facebook or twitter, such as picture and writing. Finally, by that method and reflecting the rummele theory, this research inferred that the patern used for Gerindra’s campaign in social media tends to be top-down. It means: Gerindra showed uncommunicative tendency in social media and only want to catch much mass without mentioned a mission and vision clearly.

Keywords: Gerindra party, political party, social media, campaign, general election on 2014

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26 Multilayer Thermal Screens for Greenhouse Insulation

Authors: Clara Shenderey, Helena Vitoshkin, Mordechai Barak, Avraham Arbel


Greenhouse cultivation is an energy-intensive process due to the high demands on cooling or heating according to external climatic conditions, which could be extreme in the summer or winter seasons. The thermal radiation rate inside a greenhouse depends mainly on the type of covering material and greenhouse construction. Using additional thermal screens under a greenhouse covering combined with a dehumidification system improves the insulation and could be cost-effective. Greenhouse covering material usually contains protective ultraviolet (UV) radiation additives to prevent the film wear, insect harm, and crop diseases. This paper investigates the overall heat transfer coefficient, or U-value, for greenhouse polyethylene covering contains UV-additives and glass covering with or without a thermal screen supplement. The hot-box method was employed to evaluate overall heat transfer coefficients experimentally as a function of the type and number of the thermal screens. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing the number of thermal screens as a hyperbolic function. The overall heat transfer coefficient highly depends on the ability of the material to reflect thermal radiation. Using a greenhouse covering, i.e., polyethylene films or glass, in combination with high reflective thermal screens, i.e., containing about 98% of aluminum stripes or aluminum foil, the U-value reduces by 61%-89% in the first case, whereas by 70%-92% in the second case, depending on the number of the thermal screen. Using thermal screens made from low reflective materials may reduce the U-value by 30%-57%. The heat transfer coefficient is an indicator of the thermal insulation properties of the materials, which allows farmers to make decisions on the use of appropriate thermal screens depending on the external and internal climate conditions in a greenhouse.

Keywords: energy-saving thermal screen, greenhouse cover material, heat transfer coefficient, hot box

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25 VISSIM Modeling of Driver Behavior at Connecticut Roundabouts

Authors: F. Clara Fang, Hernan Castaneda


The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) has constructed four roundabouts in the State of Connecticut within the past ten years. VISSIM traffic simulation software was utilized to analyze these roundabouts during their design phase. The queue length and level of service observed in the field appear to be better than predicted by the VISSIM model. The objectives of this project are to: identify VISSIM input variables most critical to accurate modeling; recommend VISSIM calibration factors; and, provide other recommendations for roundabout traffic operations modeling. Traffic data were collected at these roundabouts using Miovision Technologies. Cameras were set up to capture vehicle circulating activity and entry behavior for two weekdays. A large sample size of filed data was analyzed to achieve accurate and statistically significant results. The data extracted from the videos include: vehicle circulating speed; critical gap estimated by Maximum Likelihood Method; peak hour volume; follow-up headway; travel time; and, vehicle queue length. A VISSIM simulation of existing roundabouts was built to compare both queue length and travel time predicted from simulation with measured in the field. The research investigated a variety of simulation parameters as calibration factors for describing driver behaviors at roundabouts. Among them, critical gap is the most effective calibration variable in roundabout simulation. It has a significant impact to queue length, particularly when the volume is higher. The results will improve the design of future roundabouts in Connecticut and provide decision makers with insights on the relationship between various choices and future performance.

Keywords: driver critical gap, roundabout analysis, simulation, VISSIM modeling

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24 Nimbus Radiance Gate Project: Media Architecture in Sacred Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá


The project presented in this investigation is part of the multidisciplinary field of Architecture and explores an experience in media architecture, integrated in Arts, Science and Technology. The objective of this work is to create a visual experience comprehending Architecture, Media and Art. It is intended to specifically explore the sacred spaces that are losing social, cultural or religious dynamics and insert new Media technologies to create a new generate momentum, testing tools, techniques and methods of implementation. Given an architectural project methodology, it seems essential that 'the location' should be the starting point for the development of this technological apparatus: the church of Santa Clara in Santarém, Portugal emerged as an experimental space for apparatus, presenting itself as both temple and museum. We also aim to address the concept of rehabilitation through media technologies, directed at interventions that may have an impact on energizing spaces. The idea is emphasized on the rehabilitation of spaces that, one way or another, may gain new dynamics after a media intervention. Thus, we intend to affect the play with a sensitive and spiritual character which endemically, sacred spaces have, by exploring a sensitive aspect of the subject and drawing up new ideas for meditation and spiritual reflection. The work is designed primarily as a visual experience that encompasses the space, the object and the subject. It is a media project supported by a dual structure with two transparent screens operating in a holographic screen which will be projecting two images that complement the translucent overlay film, thus making the merger of two projections. The digitally created content reacts to the presence of observers through infrared cameras, placed strategically. The object revives the memory of the altarpiece as an architectural surface, promoting the expansion of messages through the media technologies.

Keywords: architecture, media, sacred, technology

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23 Application of an Analytical Model to Obtain Daily Flow Duration Curves for Different Hydrological Regimes in Switzerland

Authors: Ana Clara Santos, Maria Manuela Portela, Bettina Schaefli


This work assesses the performance of an analytical model framework to generate daily flow duration curves, FDCs, based on climatic characteristics of the catchments and on their streamflow recession coefficients. According to the analytical model framework, precipitation is considered to be a stochastic process, modeled as a marked Poisson process, and recession is considered to be deterministic, with parameters that can be computed based on different models. The analytical model framework was tested for three case studies with different hydrological regimes located in Switzerland: pluvial, snow-dominated and glacier. For that purpose, five time intervals were analyzed (the four meteorological seasons and the civil year) and two developments of the model were tested: one considering a linear recession model and the other adopting a nonlinear recession model. Those developments were combined with recession coefficients obtained from two different approaches: forward and inverse estimation. The performance of the analytical framework when considering forward parameter estimation is poor in comparison with the inverse estimation for both, linear and nonlinear models. For the pluvial catchment, the inverse estimation shows exceptional good results, especially for the nonlinear model, clearing suggesting that the model has the ability to describe FDCs. For the snow-dominated and glacier catchments the seasonal results are better than the annual ones suggesting that the model can describe streamflows in those conditions and that future efforts should focus on improving and combining seasonal curves instead of considering single annual ones.

Keywords: analytical streamflow distribution, stochastic process, linear and non-linear recession, hydrological modelling, daily discharges

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22 Development of a Novel Antibacterial to Block Growth of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Prevent Biofilm Formation

Authors: Clara Franch de la Cal, Christopher J Morris, Michael McArthur


Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across the lung epithelium, leading to thick and viscous secretions. Within which CF patients suffer from repeated bacterial pulmonary infections, with Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa (PA) eliciting the greatest inflammatory response, causing an irreversible loss of lung func-tion that determines morbidity and mortality. The cell wall of PA is a permeability barrier to many antibacterials and the rise of Mutli-Drug Resistant strains (MDR) is eroding the efficacy of the few remaining clinical options. In addition when PA infection becomes established it forms an antibi-otic-resistant biofilm, embedded in which are slow growing cells that are refractive to drug treat-ment. Making the development of new antibacterials a major challenge. This work describes the development of new type of nanoparticulate oligonucleotide antibacterial capable of tackling PA infections, including MDR strains. It is being developed to both block growth and prevent biofilm formation. These oligonucleotide therapeutics, Transcription Factor Decoys (TFD), act on novel genomic targets by capturing key regulatory proteins to block essential bacterial genes and defeat infection. They have been successfully transfected into a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, both in vitro and in vivo, using a proprietary delivery technology. The surfactant used self-assembles with TFD to form a nanoparticle stable in biological fluids, which protects the TFD from degradation and preferentially transfects prokaryotic membranes. Key challenges are to adapt the nanoparticle so it is active against PA in the context of biofilms and to formulate it for administration by inhalation. This would allow the drug to be delivered to the respiratory tract, thereby achieving drug concentrations sufficient to eradicate the pathogenic organisms at the site of infection.

Keywords: antibacterials, transcriptional factor decoys (TFDs), pseudomonas aeruginosa

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21 Development of PVA/polypyrrole Scaffolds by Supercritical CO₂ for Its Application in Biomedicine

Authors: Antonio Montes, Antonio Cozar, Clara Pereyra, Diego Valor, Enrique Martinez de la Ossa


Tissues and organs can be damaged because of traumatism, congenital illnesses, or cancer and the traditional therapeutic alternatives, such as surgery, cannot usually completely repair the damaged tissues. Tissue engineering allows regeneration of the patient's tissues, reducing the problems caused by the traditional methods. Scaffolds, polymeric structures with interconnected porosity, can be promoted the proliferation and adhesion of the patient’s cells in the damaged area. Furthermore, by means of impregnation of the scaffold with beneficial active substances, tissue regeneration can be induced through a drug delivery process. The objective of the work is the fabrication of a PVA scaffold coated with Gallic Acid and polypyrrole through a one-step foaming and impregnation process using the SSI technique (Supercritical Solvent Impregnation). In this technique, supercritical CO₂ penetrates into the polymer chains producing the plasticization of the polymer. In the depressurization step a CO₂ cellular nucleation and growing to take place to an interconnected porous structure of the polymer. The foaming process using supercritical CO₂ as solvent and expansion agent presents advantages compared to the traditional scaffolds’ fabrication methods, such as the polymer’s high solubility in the solvent or the possibility of carrying out the process at a low temperature, avoiding the inactivation of the active substance. In this sense, the supercritical CO₂ avoids the use of organic solvents and reduces the solvent residues in the final product. Moreover, this process does not require long processing time that could cause the stratification of substance inside the scaffold reducing the therapeutic efficiency of the formulation. An experimental design has been carried out to optimize the SSI technique operating conditions, as well as a study of the morphological characteristics of the scaffold for its use in tissue engineerings, such as porosity, conductivity or the release profiles of the active substance. It has been proved that the obtained scaffolds are partially porous, conductors of electricity and are able to release Gallic Acid in the long term.

Keywords: scaffold, foaming, supercritical, PVA, polypyrrole, gallic acid

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20 Resolving Problems Experienced by Involving Patients in the Development of Pharmaceutical Products at Post-Launch Stage of Pharmaceutical Product Development

Authors: Clara T. Fatoye, April Betts, Abayomi Odeyemi, Francis A. Fatoye, Isaac O. Odeyemi


Background: The post-launch stage is the last stage in the development of a pharmaceutical product. It is important to involve patients in the development of pharmaceutical products at the post-launch stage, as patients are the end-users of pharmaceutical products. It is expected that involving them might ensure an effective working relationship among the various stakeholders. However, involving patients in the development of pharmaceutical products comes with its problems. Hence, this study examined how to resolve problems experienced by involving patients in the developments of pharmaceutical products’ at post-launch consisting of Positioning of pharmaceutical products (POPP), detailing of pharmaceutical products (DOPP) and reimbursement and Formulary Submission (R&FS). Methods: A questionnaire was used for the present study. It was administered at the ISPOR Glasgow 2017 to 104 participants, all of which were professionals from Market access (MA) and health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) backgrounds. They were asked how the issues experienced by patients can be resolved. Participants responded under six domains as follows: communication, cost, effectiveness, external factors, Quality of life (QoL) and safety. Thematic analysis was carried out to identify strategies to resolve issues experienced by patients at the post-launch stage. Results: Three (3) factors cut across at POPP, DOPP, and R&FS that is (external factors, communication and QoL). The first resolution method was an external factor that is, the relationship with stakeholders and policymakers. Communication was also identified as a resolution method that can help to resolve problems experienced by patients at the post-launch stage. The third method was QoL as perceived by the patients based on professionals’ opinions. Other strategies that could be used to resolve problems experienced were the effectiveness of pharmaceutical products at the DOPP level and cost at R&FS. Conclusion: The study showed that focusing on external factors, communication, and patients’ QoL are methods for resolving issues experienced by involving patients at the post-launch stage of pharmaceutical product development. Hence, effective working relationships between patients, policymakers and stakeholders may help to resolve problems experienced at the post-launch stage. Healthcare policymakers are to be aware of these findings as they may help them to put appropriate strategies in place to enhance the involvement of patients in pharmaceutical product development at the post-launch stage, thereby improving the health outcomes of the patients.

Keywords: patients, pharmaceutical products, post-launch stage, quality of life, QoL

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19 Verification Protocols for the Lightning Protection of a Large Scale Scientific Instrument in Harsh Environments: A Case Study

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez, Jose Miguel Miranda


This paper is devoted to the study of the most suitable protocols to verify the lightning protection and ground resistance quality in a large-scale scientific facility located in a harsh environment. We illustrate this work by reviewing a case study: the largest telescopes of the Northern Hemisphere Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA-N. This array hosts sensitive and high-speed optoelectronics instrumentation and sits on a clear, free from obstacle terrain at around 2400 m above sea level. The site offers a top-quality sky but also features challenging conditions for a lightning protection system: the terrain is volcanic and has resistivities well above 1 kOhm·m. In addition, the environment often exhibits humidities well below 5%. On the other hand, the high complexity of a Cherenkov telescope structure does not allow a straightforward application of lightning protection standards. CTA-N has been conceived as an array of fourteen Cherenkov Telescopes of two different sizes, which will be constructed in La Palma Island, Spain. Cherenkov Telescopes can provide valuable information on different astrophysical sources from the gamma rays reaching the Earth’s atmosphere. The largest telescopes of CTA are called LST’s, and the construction of the first one was finished in October 2018. The LST has a shape which resembles a large parabolic antenna, with a 23-meter reflective surface supported by a tubular structure made of carbon fibers and steel tubes. The reflective surface has 400 square meters and is made of an array of segmented mirrors that can be controlled individually by a subsystem of actuators. This surface collects and focuses the Cherenkov photons into the camera, where 1855 photo-sensors convert the light in electrical signals that can be processed by dedicated electronics. We describe here how the risk assessment of direct strike impacts was made and how down conductors and ground system were both tested. The verification protocols which should be applied for the commissioning and operation phases are then explained. We stress our attention on the ground resistance quality assessment.

Keywords: grounding, large scale scientific instrument, lightning risk assessment, lightning standards and safety

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18 Co-Creational Model for Blended Learning in a Flipped Classroom Environment Focusing on the Combination of Coding and Drone-Building

Authors: A. Schuchter, M. Promegger


The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown us that online education is so much more than just a cool feature for teachers – it is an essential part of modern teaching. In online math teaching, it is common to use tools to share screens, compute and calculate mathematical examples, while the students can watch the process. On the other hand, flipped classroom models are on the rise, with their focus on how students can gather knowledge by watching videos and on the teacher’s use of technological tools for information transfer. This paper proposes a co-educational teaching approach for coding and engineering subjects with the help of drone-building to spark interest in technology and create a platform for knowledge transfer. The project combines aspects from mathematics (matrices, vectors, shaders, trigonometry), physics (force, pressure and rotation) and coding (computational thinking, block-based programming, JavaScript and Python) and makes use of collaborative-shared 3D Modeling with, where students create mathematics knowhow. The instructor follows a problem-based learning approach and encourages their students to find solutions in their own time and in their own way, which will help them develop new skills intuitively and boost logically structured thinking. The collaborative aspect of working in groups will help the students develop communication skills as well as structural and computational thinking. Students are not just listeners as in traditional classroom settings, but play an active part in creating content together by compiling a Handbook of Knowledge (called “open book”) with examples and solutions. Before students start calculating, they have to write down all their ideas and working steps in full sentences so other students can easily follow their train of thought. Therefore, students will learn to formulate goals, solve problems, and create a ready-to use product with the help of “reverse engineering”, cross-referencing and creative thinking. The work on drones gives the students the opportunity to create a real-life application with a practical purpose, while going through all stages of product development.

Keywords: flipped classroom, co-creational education, coding, making, drones, co-education, ARCS-model, problem-based learning

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17 Auditory Perception of Frequency-Modulated Sweeps and Reading Difficulties in Chinese

Authors: Hsiao-Lan Wang, Chun-Han Chiang, I-Chen Chen


In Chinese Mandarin, lexical tones play an important role to provide contrasts in word meaning. They are pitch patterns and can be quantified as the fundamental frequency (F0), expressed in Hertz (Hz). In this study, we aim to investigate the influence of frequency discrimination on Chinese children’s performance of reading abilities. Fifty participants from 3rd to 4th grades, including 24 children with reading difficulties and 26 age-matched children, were examined. A serial of cognitive, language, reading and psychoacoustic tests were administrated. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was also employed to study children’s auditory sensitivity. In the present study, auditory frequency was measured through slide-up pitch, slide-down pitch and frequency-modulated tone. The results showed that children with Chinese reading difficulties were significantly poor at phonological awareness and auditory discrimination for the identification of frequency-modulated tone. Chinese children’s character reading performance was significantly related to lexical tone awareness and auditory perception of frequency-modulated tone. In our MEG measure, we compared the mismatch negativity (MMNm), from 100 to 200 ms, in two groups. There were no significant differences between groups during the perceptual discrimination of standard sounds, fast-up and fast-down frequencies. However, the data revealed significant cluster differences between groups in the slow-up and slow-down frequencies discrimination. In the slow-up stimulus, the cluster demonstrated an upward field map at 106-151 ms (p < .001) with a strong peak time at 127ms. The source analyses of two dipole model and localization resolution model (CLARA) from 100 to 200 ms both indicated a strong source from the left temporal area with 45.845% residual variance. Similar results were found in the slow-down stimulus with a larger upward current at 110-142 ms (p < 0.05) and a peak time at 117 ms in the left temporal area (47.857% residual variance). In short, we found a significant group difference in the MMNm while children processed frequency-modulated tones with slow temporal changes. The findings may imply that perception of sound frequency signals with slower temporal modulations was related to reading and language development in Chinese. Our study may also support the recent hypothesis of underlying non-verbal auditory temporal deficits accounting for the difficulties in literacy development seen developmental dyslexia.

Keywords: Chinese Mandarin, frequency modulation sweeps, magnetoencephalography, mismatch negativity, reading difficulties

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16 Static Charge Control Plan for High-Density Electronics Centers

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez, Jose Miguel Miranda


Ensuring a safe environment for sensitive electronics boards in places with high limitations in size poses two major difficulties: the control of charge accumulation in floating floors and the prevention of excess charge generation due to air cooling flows. In this paper, we discuss these mechanisms and possible solutions to prevent them. An experiment was made in the control room of a Cherenkov Telescope, where six racks of 2x1x1 m size and independent cooling units are located. The room is 10x4x2.5 m, and the electronics include high-speed digitizers, trigger circuits, etc. The floor used in this room was antistatic, but it was a raised floor mounted in floating design to facilitate the handling of the cables and maintenance. The tests were made by measuring the contact voltage acquired by a person who was walking along the room with different footwear qualities. In addition, we took some measurements of the voltage accumulated in a person in other situations like running or sitting up and down on an office chair. The voltages were taken in real time with an electrostatic voltage meter and dedicated control software. It is shown that peak voltages as high as 5 kV were measured with ambient humidity of more than 30%, which are within the range of a class 3A according to the HBM standard. In order to complete the results, we have made the same experiment in different spaces with alternative types of the floor like synthetic floor and earthenware floor obtaining peak voltages much lower than the ones measured with the floating synthetic floor. The grounding quality one achieves with this kind of floors can hardly beat the one typically encountered in standard floors glued directly on a solid substrate. On the other hand, the air ventilation used to prevent the overheating of the boards probably contributed in a significant way to the charge accumulated in the room. During the assessment of the quality of the static charge control, it is necessary to guarantee that the tests are made under repeatable conditions. One of the major difficulties which one encounters during these assessments is the fact the electrostatic voltmeters might provide different values depending on the humidity conditions and ground resistance quality. In addition, the use of certified antistatic footwear might mask deficiencies in the charge control. In this paper, we show how we defined protocols to guarantee that electrostatic readings are reliable. We believe that this can be helpful not only to qualify the static charge control in a laboratory but also to asses any procedure oriented to minimize the risk of electrostatic discharge events.

Keywords: electrostatics, ESD protocols, HBM, static charge control

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