Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6442

Search results for: computational models

6442 Robot Spatial Reasoning via 3D Models

Authors: John Allard, Alex Rich, Iris Aguilar, Zachary Dodds


With this paper we present several experiences deploying novel, low-cost resources for computing with 3D spatial models. Certainly, computing with 3D models undergirds some of our field’s most important contributions to the human experience. Most often, those are contrived artifacts. This work extends that tradition by focusing on novel resources that deliver uncontrived models of a system’s current surroundings. Atop this new capability, we present several projects investigating the student-accessibility of the computational tools for reasoning about the 3D space around us. We conclude that, with current scaffolding, real-world 3D models are now an accessible and viable foundation for creative computational work.

Keywords: 3D vision, matterport model, real-world 3D models, mathematical and computational methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
6441 Continuum-Based Modelling Approaches for Cell Mechanics

Authors: Yogesh D. Bansod, Jiri Bursa


The quantitative study of cell mechanics is of paramount interest since it regulates the behavior of the living cells in response to the myriad of extracellular and intracellular mechanical stimuli. The novel experimental techniques together with robust computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models, which describe cell mechanics as a combination of biomechanical and biochemical processes. This review paper encapsulates the existing continuum-based computational approaches that have been developed for interpreting the mechanical responses of living cells under different loading and boundary conditions. The salient features and drawbacks of each model are discussed from both structural and biological points of view. This discussion can contribute to the development of even more precise and realistic computational models of cell mechanics based on continuum approaches or on their combination with microstructural approaches, which in turn may provide a better understanding of mechanotransduction in living cells.

Keywords: cell mechanics, computational models, continuum approach, mechanical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
6440 Computational Models for a More Accurate Estimation of Joint Force

Authors: Ibrahim Elnour Abdelrahman Eltayeb


Computational modelling is a method used to investigate joint forces during a movement. It can get high accuracy in the joint forces via subject-specific models. However, the construction of subject-specific models remains time-consuming and expensive. The purpose of this paper was to identify what alterations we can make to generic computational models to get a better estimation of the joint forces. It appraised the impact of these alterations on the accuracy of the estimated joint forces. It found different strategies of alterations: joint model, muscle model, and an optimisation problem. All these alterations affected joint contact force accuracy, so showing the potential for improving the model predictions without involving costly and time-consuming medical images.

Keywords: Joint force, joint model, optimisation problem, validation

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6439 Performance Evaluation of Using Genetic Programming Based Surrogate Models for Approximating Simulation Complex Geochemical Transport Processes

Authors: Hamed K. Esfahani, Bithin Datta


Transport of reactive chemical contaminant species in groundwater aquifers is a complex and highly non-linear physical and geochemical process especially for real life scenarios. Simulating this transport process involves solving complex nonlinear equations and generally requires huge computational time for a given aquifer study area. Development of optimal remediation strategies in aquifers may require repeated solution of such complex numerical simulation models. To overcome this computational limitation and improve the computational feasibility of large number of repeated simulations, Genetic Programming based trained surrogate models are developed to approximately simulate such complex transport processes. Transport process of acid mine drainage, a hazardous pollutant is first simulated using a numerical simulated model: HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 for a contaminated aquifer in a historic mine site. Simulation model solution results for an illustrative contaminated aquifer site is then approximated by training and testing a Genetic Programming (GP) based surrogate model. Performance evaluation of the ensemble GP models as surrogate models for the reactive species transport in groundwater demonstrates the feasibility of its use and the associated computational advantages. The results show the efficiency and feasibility of using ensemble GP surrogate models as approximate simulators of complex hydrogeologic and geochemical processes in a contaminated groundwater aquifer incorporating uncertainties in historic mine site.

Keywords: geochemical transport simulation, acid mine drainage, surrogate models, ensemble genetic programming, contaminated aquifers, mine sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
6438 Comparative Study and Parallel Implementation of Stochastic Models for Pricing of European Options Portfolios using Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Vinayak Bassi, Rajpreet Singh


Over the years, with the emergence of sophisticated computers and algorithms, finance has been quantified using computational prowess. Asset valuation has been one of the key components of quantitative finance. In fact, it has become one of the embryonic steps in determining risk related to a portfolio, the main goal of quantitative finance. This study comprises a drawing comparison between valuation output generated by two stochastic dynamic models, namely Black-Scholes and Dupire’s bi-dimensionality model. Both of these models are formulated for computing the valuation function for a portfolio of European options using Monte Carlo simulation methods. Although Monte Carlo algorithms have a slower convergence rate than calculus-based simulation techniques (like FDM), they work quite effectively over high-dimensional dynamic models. A fidelity gap is analyzed between the static (historical) and stochastic inputs for a sample portfolio of underlying assets. In order to enhance the performance efficiency of the model, the study emphasized the use of variable reduction methods and customizing random number generators to implement parallelization. An attempt has been made to further implement the Dupire’s model on a GPU to achieve higher computational performance. Furthermore, ideas have been discussed around the performance enhancement and bottleneck identification related to the implementation of options-pricing models on GPUs.

Keywords: monte carlo, stochastic models, computational finance, parallel programming, scientific computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
6437 Perspectives of Computational Modeling in Sanskrit Lexicons

Authors: Baldev Ram Khandoliyan, Ram Kishor


India has a classical tradition of Sanskrit Lexicons. Research work has been done on the study of Indian lexicography. India has seen amazing strides in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications for Indian languages in general and for Sanskrit in particular. Since Machine Translation from Sanskrit to other Indian languages is often the desired goal, traditional Sanskrit lexicography has attracted a lot of attention from the ICT and Computational Linguistics community. From Nighaŋţu and Nirukta to Amarakośa and Medinīkośa, Sanskrit owns a rich history of lexicography. As these kośas do not follow the same typology or standard in the selection and arrangement of the words and the information related to them, several types of Kośa-styles have emerged in this tradition. The model of a grammar given by Aṣṭādhyāyī is well appreciated by Indian and western linguists and grammarians. But the different models provided by lexicographic tradition also have importance. The general usefulness of Sanskrit traditional Kośas is well discussed by some scholars. That is most of the matter made available in the text. Some also have discussed the good arrangement of lexica. This paper aims to discuss some more use of the different models of Sanskrit lexicography especially focusing on its computational modeling and its use in different computational operations.

Keywords: computational lexicography, Sanskrit Lexicons, nighanṭu, kośa, Amarkosa

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6436 Effect of Drag Coefficient Models concerning Global Air-Sea Momentum Flux in Broad Wind Range including Extreme Wind Speeds

Authors: Takeshi Takemoto, Naoya Suzuki, Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Masako Terui, George Truscott


Drag coefficient is an important parameter in order to correctly estimate the air-sea momentum flux. However, The parameterization of the drag coefficient hasn’t been established due to the variation in the field data. Instead, a number of drag coefficient model formulae have been proposed, even though almost all these models haven’t discussed the extreme wind speed range. With regards to such models, it is unclear how the drag coefficient changes in the extreme wind speed range as the wind speed increased. In this study, we investigated the effect of the drag coefficient models concerning the air-sea momentum flux in the extreme wind range on a global scale, comparing two different drag coefficient models. Interestingly, one model didn’t discuss the extreme wind speed range while the other model considered it. We found that the difference of the models in the annual global air-sea momentum flux was small because the occurrence frequency of strong wind was approximately 1% with a wind speed of 20m/s or more. However, we also discovered that the difference of the models was shown in the middle latitude where the annual mean air-sea momentum flux was large and the occurrence frequency of strong wind was high. In addition, the estimated data showed that the difference of the models in the drag coefficient was large in the extreme wind speed range and that the largest difference became 23% with a wind speed of 35m/s or more. These results clearly show that the difference of the two models concerning the drag coefficient has a significant impact on the estimation of a regional air-sea momentum flux in an extreme wind speed range such as that seen in a tropical cyclone environment. Furthermore, we estimated each air-sea momentum flux using several kinds of drag coefficient models. We will also provide data from an observation tower and result from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) concerning the influence of wind flow at and around the place.

Keywords: air-sea interaction, drag coefficient, air-sea momentum flux, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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6435 Simulation to Detect Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Artery Idealized Models

Authors: Nabila Jaman, K. E. Hoque, S. Sawall, M. Ferdows


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most lethal diseases of the cardiovascular diseases. Coronary arteries stenosis and bifurcation angles closely interact for myocardial infarction. We want to use computer-aided design model coupled with computational hemodynamics (CHD) simulation for detecting several types of coronary artery stenosis with different locations in an idealized model for identifying virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). The vFFR provides us the information about the severity of stenosis in the computational models. Another goal is that we want to imitate patient-specific computed tomography coronary artery angiography model for constructing our idealized models with different left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) bifurcation angles. Further, we want to analyze whether the bifurcation angles has an impact on the creation of narrowness in coronary arteries or not. The numerical simulation provides the CHD parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity magnitude and pressure gradient (PGD) that allow us the information of stenosis condition in the computational domain.

Keywords: CAD, CHD, vFFR, bifurcation angles, coronary stenosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
6434 Evaluation and Compression of Different Language Transformer Models for Semantic Textual Similarity Binary Task Using Minority Language Resources

Authors: Ma. Gracia Corazon Cayanan, Kai Yuen Cheong, Li Sha


Training a language model for a minority language has been a challenging task. The lack of available corpora to train and fine-tune state-of-the-art language models is still a challenge in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Moreover, the need for high computational resources and bulk data limit the attainment of this task. In this paper, we presented the following contributions: (1) we introduce and used a translation pair set of Tagalog and English (TL-EN) in pre-training a language model to a minority language resource; (2) we fine-tuned and evaluated top-ranking and pre-trained semantic textual similarity binary task (STSB) models, to both TL-EN and STS dataset pairs. (3) then, we reduced the size of the model to offset the need for high computational resources. Based on our results, the models that were pre-trained to translation pairs and STS pairs can perform well for STSB task. Also, having it reduced to a smaller dimension has no negative effect on the performance but rather has a notable increase on the similarity scores. Moreover, models that were pre-trained to a similar dataset have a tremendous effect on the model’s performance scores.

Keywords: semantic matching, semantic textual similarity binary task, low resource minority language, fine-tuning, dimension reduction, transformer models

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6433 Students' Perception of Using Dental E-Models in an Inquiry-Based Curriculum

Authors: Yanqi Yang, Chongshan Liao, Cheuk Hin Ho, Susan Bridges


Aim: To investigate student’s perceptions of using e-models in an inquiry-based curriculum. Approach: 52 second-year dental students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire relating to their perceptions of e-models and their use in inquiry-based learning. The pre-test occurred prior to any learning with e-models. The follow-up survey was conducted after one year's experience of using e-models. Results: There was no significant difference between the two sets of questionnaires regarding student’s perceptions of the usefulness of e-models and their willingness to use e-models in future inquiry-based learning. Most of the students preferred using both plaster models and e-models in tandem. Conclusion: Students did not change their attitude towards e-models and most of them agreed or were neutral that e-models are useful in inquiry-based learning. Whilst recognizing the utility of 3D models for learning, student's preference for combining these with solid models has implications for the development of haptic sensibility in an operative discipline.

Keywords: e-models, inquiry-based curriculum, education, questionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
6432 Graphical Modeling of High Dimension Processes with an Environmental Application

Authors: Ali S. Gargoum


Graphical modeling plays an important role in providing efficient probability calculations in high dimensional problems (computational efficiency). In this paper, we address one of such problems where we discuss fragmenting puff models and some distributional assumptions concerning models for the instantaneous, emission readings and for the fragmenting process. A graphical representation in terms of a junction tree of the conditional probability breakdown of puffs and puff fragments is proposed.

Keywords: graphical models, influence diagrams, junction trees, Bayesian nets

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
6431 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître


Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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6430 Turbulent Forced Convection of Cu-Water Nanofluid: CFD Models Comparison

Authors: I. Behroyan, P. Ganesan, S. He, S. Sivasankaran


This study compares the predictions of five types of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, including two single-phase models (i.e. Newtonian and non-Newtonian) and three two-phase models (Eulerian-Eulerian, mixture and Eulerian-Lagrangian), to investigate turbulent forced convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a tube with a constant heat flux on the tube wall. The Reynolds (Re) number of the flow is between 10,000 and 25,000, while the volume fraction of Cu particles used is in the range of 0 to 2%. The commercial CFD package of ANSYS-Fluent is used. The results from the CFD models are compared with results from experimental investigations from literature. According to the results of this study, non-Newtonian single-phase model, in general, does not show a good agreement with Xuan and Li correlation in prediction of Nu number. Eulerian-Eulerian model gives inaccurate results expect for φ=0.5%. Mixture model gives a maximum error of 15%. Newtonian single-phase model and Eulerian-Lagrangian model, in overall, are the recommended models. This work can be used as a reference for selecting an appreciate model for future investigation. The study also gives a proper insight about the important factors such as Brownian motion, fluid behavior parameters and effective nanoparticle conductivity which should be considered or changed by the each model.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, single-phase models, two-phase models

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6429 A Geometrical Multiscale Approach to Blood Flow Simulation: Coupling 2-D Navier-Stokes and 0-D Lumped Parameter Models

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Robert G. Owens


In this study, a geometrical multiscale approach which means coupling together the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations, constitutive equations and 0-D lumped parameter models is investigated. A multiscale approach, suggest a natural way of coupling detailed local models (in the flow domain) with coarser models able to describe the dynamics over a large part or even the whole cardiovascular system at acceptable computational cost. In this study we introduce a new velocity correction scheme to decouple the velocity computation from the pressure one. To evaluate the capability of our new scheme, a comparison between the results obtained with Neumann outflow boundary conditions on the velocity and Dirichlet outflow boundary conditions on the pressure and those obtained using coupling with the lumped parameter model has been performed. Comprehensive studies have been done based on the sensitivity of numerical scheme to the initial conditions, elasticity and number of spectral modes. Improvement of the computational algorithm with stable convergence has been demonstrated for at least moderate Weissenberg number. We comment on mathematical properties of the reduced model, its limitations in yielding realistic and accurate numerical simulations, and its contribution to a better understanding of microvascular blood flow. We discuss the sophistication and reliability of multiscale models for computing correct boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries of a section of the cardiovascular system of interest. In this respect the geometrical multiscale approach can be regarded as a new method for solving a class of biofluids problems, whose application goes significantly beyond the one addressed in this work.

Keywords: geometrical multiscale models, haemorheology model, coupled 2-D navier-stokes 0-D lumped parameter modeling, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
6428 On the Evaluation of Different Turbulence Models through the Displacement of Oil-Water Flow in Porous Media

Authors: Sidique Gawusu, Xiaobing Zhang


Turbulence models play a significant role in all computational fluid dynamics based modelling approaches. There is, however, no general turbulence model suitable for all flow scenarios. Therefore, a successful numerical modelling approach is only achievable if a more appropriate closure model is used. This paper evaluates different turbulence models in numerical modelling of oil-water flow within the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. A comparison among the obtained numerical results and published benchmark data showed reasonable agreement. The domain was meshed using structured mesh, and grid test was performed to ascertain grid independence. The evaluation of the models was made through analysis of velocity and pressure profiles across the domain. The models were tested for their suitability to accurately obtain a scalable and precise numerical experience. As a result, it is found that all the models except Standard-ω provide comparable results. The study also revealed new insights on flow in porous media, specifically oil reservoirs.

Keywords: turbulence modelling, simulation, multi-phase flows, water-flooding, heavy oil

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6427 Study on 3D FE Analysis on Normal and Osteoporosis Mouse Models Based on 3-Point Bending Tests

Authors: Tae-min Byun, Chang-soo Chon, Dong-hyun Seo, Han-sung Kim, Bum-mo Ahn, Hui-suk Yun, Cheolwoong Ko


In this study, a 3-point bending computational analysis of normal and osteoporosis mouse models was performed based on the Micro-CT image information of the femurs. The finite element analysis (FEA) found 1.68 N (normal group) and 1.39 N (osteoporosis group) in the average maximum force, and 4.32 N/mm (normal group) and 3.56 N/mm (osteoporosis group) in the average stiffness. In the comparison of the 3-point bending test results, the maximum force and the stiffness were different about 9.4 times in the normal group and about 11.2 times in the osteoporosis group. The difference between the analysis and the test was greatly significant and this result demonstrated improvement points of the material properties applied to the computational analysis of this study. For the next study, the material properties of the mouse femur will be supplemented through additional computational analysis and test.

Keywords: 3-point bending test, mouse, osteoporosis, FEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
6426 A Review on Water Models of Surface Water Environment

Authors: Shahbaz G. Hassan


Water quality models are very important to predict the changes in surface water quality for environmental management. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the water qualities, and to provide directions for selecting models in specific situation. Water quality models include one kind of model based on a mechanistic approach, while other models simulate water quality without considering a mechanism. Mechanistic models can be widely applied and have capabilities for long-time simulation, with highly complexity. Therefore, more spaces are provided to explain the principle and application experience of mechanistic models. Mechanism models have certain assumptions on rivers, lakes and estuaries, which limits the application range of the model, this paper introduces the principles and applications of water quality model based on the above three scenarios. On the other hand, mechanistic models are more easily to compute, and with no limit to the geographical conditions, but they cannot be used with confidence to simulate long term changes. This paper divides the empirical models into two broad categories according to the difference of mathematical algorithm, models based on artificial intelligence and models based on statistical methods.

Keywords: empirical models, mathematical, statistical, water quality

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6425 Management and Marketing Implications of Tourism Gravity Models

Authors: Clive L. Morley


Gravity models and panel data modelling of tourism flows are receiving renewed attention, after decades of general neglect. Such models have quite different underpinnings from conventional demand models derived from micro-economic theory. They operate at a different level of data and with different theoretical bases. These differences have important consequences for the interpretation of the results and their policy and managerial implications. This review compares and contrasts the two model forms, clarifying the distinguishing features and the estimation requirements of each. In general, gravity models are not recommended for use to address specific management and marketing purposes.

Keywords: gravity models, micro-economics, demand models, marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
6424 Aerodynamic Heating Analysis of Hypersonic Flow over Blunt-Nosed Bodies Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Aakash Chhunchha, Assma Begum


The qualitative aspects of hypersonic flow over a range of blunt bodies have been extensively analyzed in the past. It is well known that the curvature of a body’s geometry in the sonic region predominantly dictates the bow shock shape and its standoff distance from the body, while the surface pressure distribution depends on both the sonic region and on the local body shape. The present study is an extension to analyze the hypersonic flow characteristics over several blunt-nosed bodies using modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to determine the shock shape and its effect on the heat flux around the body. 4 blunt-nosed models with cylindrical afterbodies were analyzed for a flow at a Mach number of 10 corresponding to the standard atmospheric conditions at an altitude of 50 km. The nose radii of curvature of the models range from a hemispherical nose to a flat nose. Appropriate numerical models and the supplementary convergence techniques that were implemented for the CFD analysis are thoroughly described. The flow contours are presented highlighting the key characteristics of shock wave shape, shock standoff distance and the sonic point shift on the shock. The variation of heat flux, due to different shock detachments for various models is comprehensively discussed. It is observed that the more the bluntness of the nose radii, the farther the shock stands from the body; and consequently, the less the surface heating at the nose. The results obtained from the CFD analyses are compared with approximated theoretical engineering correlations. Overall, a satisfactory agreement is observed between the two.

Keywords: aero-thermodynamics, blunt-nosed bodies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hypersonic flow

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6423 Electric Models for Crosstalk Predection: Analysis and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Kachout Mnaouer, Bel Hadj Tahar Jamel, Choubani Fethi


In this paper, three electric equivalent models to evaluate crosstalk between three-conductor transmission lines are proposed. First, electric equivalent models for three-conductor transmission lines are presented. Secondly, rigorous equations to calculate the per-unit length inductive and capacitive parameters are developed. These models allow us to calculate crosstalk between conductors. Finally, to validate the presented models, we compare the theoretical results with simulation data. Obtained results show that proposed models can be used to predict crosstalk performance.

Keywords: near-end crosstalk, inductive parameter, L, Π, T models

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
6422 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
6421 The Grit in the Glamour: A Qualitative Study of the Well-Being of Fashion Models

Authors: Emily Fortune Super, Ameerah Khadaroo, Aurore Bardey


Fashion models are often assumed to have a glamorous job with limited consideration for their well-being. This study aims to assess the well-being of models through semi-structured interviews with six professional fashion models and six industry professionals. Thematic analysis revealed that although models experienced improved self-confidence, they also reported heightened anxiety levels, body image issues, and the negative influence of modelling on their self-esteem. By contrast, industry professionals reported no or minimum concerns about anxious behaviours or the general well-being of fashion models. Being resilient as a model was perceived as an essential attribute to have by both models and industry professionals as they face recurrent rejection in this industry. These results demonstrate a significant gap in the current understanding of the well-being of fashion models between industry professionals and the models themselves. Findings imply that there is an inherent need for change in the modelling industry to promote and enhance their well-being.

Keywords: body image, fashion industry, modelling, well-being

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6420 Numerical Investigation of Cavitation on Different Venturi Shapes by Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sedat Yayla, Mehmet Oruc, Shakhwan Yaseen


Cavitation phenomena might rigorously impair machine parts such as pumps, propellers and impellers or devices as the pressure in the fluid declines under the liquid's saturation pressure. To evaluate the influence of cavitation, in this research two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) venturi models with variety of inlet pressure values, throat lengths and vapor fluid contents were applied. In this research three different vapor contents (0%, 5% 10%), four inlet pressures (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 atm) and two venturi models were employed at different throat lengths ( 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for discovering the impact of each parameter on the cavitation number. It is uncovered that there is a positive correlation between pressure inlet and vapor fluid content and cavitation number. Furthermore, it is unveiled that velocity remains almost constant at the inlet pressures of 6, 8,10atm, nevertheless increasing the length of throat results in the substantial escalation in the velocity of the throat at inlet pressures of 2 and 4 atm. Furthermore, velocity and cavitation number were negatively correlated. The results of the cavitation number varied between 0.092 and 0.495 depending upon the velocity values of the throat.

Keywords: cavitation number, computational fluid dynamics, mixture of fluid, two-phase flow, velocity of throat

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6419 Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omid Shahmirzadi, Adam Lugowski, Kenneth Younge


Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.

Keywords: big data, patent, text embedding, text similarity, vector space model

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6418 Lean Models Classification: Towards a Holistic View

Authors: Y. Tiamaz, N. Souissi


The purpose of this paper is to present a classification of Lean models which aims to capture all the concepts related to this approach and thus facilitate its implementation. This classification allows the identification of the most relevant models according to several dimensions. From this perspective, we present a review and an analysis of Lean models literature and we propose dimensions for the classification of the current proposals while respecting among others the axes of the Lean approach, the maturity of the models as well as their application domains. This classification allowed us to conclude that researchers essentially consider the Lean approach as a toolbox also they design their models to solve problems related to a specific environment. Since Lean approach is no longer intended only for the automotive sector where it was invented, but to all fields (IT, Hospital, ...), we consider that this approach requires a generic model that is capable of being implemented in all areas.

Keywords: lean approach, lean models, classification, dimensions, holistic view

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
6417 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi


The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, permeation models, porous particles, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
6416 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan


The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

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6415 The Hyperbolic Smoothing Approach for Automatic Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Models

Authors: Adilson Elias Xavier, Otto Corrêa Rotunno Filho, Paulo Canedo De Magalhães


This paper addresses the issue of automatic parameter estimation in conceptual rainfall-runoff (CRR) models. Due to threshold structures commonly occurring in CRR models, the associated mathematical optimization problems have the significant characteristic of being strongly non-differentiable. In order to face this enormous task, the resolution method proposed adopts a smoothing strategy using a special C∞ differentiable class function. The final estimation solution is obtained by solving a sequence of differentiable subproblems which gradually approach the original conceptual problem. The use of this technique, called Hyperbolic Smoothing Method (HSM), makes possible the application of the most powerful minimization algorithms, and also allows for the main difficulties presented by the original CRR problem to be overcome. A set of computational experiments is presented for the purpose of illustrating both the reliability and the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: rainfall-runoff models, automatic calibration, hyperbolic smoothing method

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6414 Artificial Intelligence for Generative Modelling

Authors: Shryas Bhurat, Aryan Vashistha, Sampreet Dinakar Nayak, Ayush Gupta


As the technology is advancing more towards high computational resources, there is a paradigm shift in the usage of these resources to optimize the design process. This paper discusses the usage of ‘Generative Design using Artificial Intelligence’ to build better models that adapt the operations like selection, mutation, and crossover to generate results. The human mind thinks of the simplest approach while designing an object, but the intelligence learns from the past & designs the complex optimized CAD Models. Generative Design takes the boundary conditions and comes up with multiple solutions with iterations to come up with a sturdy design with the most optimal parameter that is given, saving huge amounts of time & resources. The new production techniques that are at our disposal allow us to use additive manufacturing, 3D printing, and other innovative manufacturing techniques to save resources and design artistically engineered CAD Models. Also, this paper discusses the Genetic Algorithm, the Non-Domination technique to choose the right results using biomimicry that has evolved for current habitation for millions of years. The computer uses parametric models to generate newer models using an iterative approach & uses cloud computing to store these iterative designs. The later part of the paper compares the topology optimization technology with Generative Design that is previously being used to generate CAD Models. Finally, this paper shows the performance of algorithms and how these algorithms help in designing resource-efficient models.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, bio mimicry, generative modeling, non-dominant techniques

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6413 Preserving Privacy in Workflow Delegation Models

Authors: Noha Nagy, Hoda Mokhtar, Mohamed El Sherkawi


The popularity of workflow delegation models and the increasing number of workflow provenance-aware systems motivate the need for finding more strict delegation models. Such models combine different approaches for enhanced security and respecting workflow privacy. Although modern enterprises seek conformance to workflow constraints to ensure correctness of their work, these constraints pose a threat to security, because these constraints can be good seeds for attacking privacy even in secure models. This paper introduces a comprehensive Workflow Delegation Model (WFDM) that utilizes provenance and workflow constraints to prevent malicious delegate from attacking workflow privacy as well as extending the delegation functionalities. In addition, we argue the need for exploiting workflow constraints to improve workflow security models.

Keywords: workflow delegation models, secure workflow, workflow privacy, workflow provenance

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