Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 191

Search results for: Oibar Martinez

191 Dispersion Effects in Waves Reflected by Lossy Conductors: The Optics vs. Electromagnetics Approach

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The study of dispersion phenomena in electromagnetic waves reflected by conductors at infrared and lower frequencies is a topic which finds a number of applications. We aim to explain in this work what are the most relevant ones and how this phenomenon is modeled from both optics and electromagnetics points of view. We also explain here how the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave reflected by a lossy conductor could depend on both the frequency of the incident wave, as well as on the electrical properties of the conductor, and we illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example. The mathematical analysis made by a specialist in electromagnetics or a microwave engineer is apparently very different from the one made by a specialist in optics. We show here how both approaches lead to the same physical result and what are the key concepts which enable one to understand that despite the differences in the equations the solution to the problem happens to be the same. Our study starts with an analysis made by using the complex refractive index and the reflectance parameter. We show how this reflectance has a dependence with the square root of the frequency when the reflecting material is a good conductor, and the frequency of the wave is low enough. Then we analyze the same problem with a less known approach, which is based on the reflection coefficient of the electric field, a parameter that is most commonly used in electromagnetics and microwave engineering. In summary, this paper presents a mathematical study illustrated with a worked example which unifies the modeling of dispersion effects made by specialists in optics and the one made by specialists in electromagnetics. The main finding of this work is that it is possible to reproduce the dependence of the Fresnel reflectance with frequency from the intrinsic impedance of the reflecting media.

Keywords: dispersion, electromagnetic waves, microwaves, optics

190 Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez

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This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges. Downloads 62
189 Photoreflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy of Coupled Quantum Wells

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We report on a theoretical-experimental study of photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA) spectroscopy of coupled double quantum wells. By probing the in-plane interfacial optical anisotropies, we demonstrate that PRA spectroscopy has the capacity to detect and distinguish layers with quantum dimensions. In order to account for the experimental PRA spectra, we have used a theoretical model at k=0 based on a linear electro-optic effect through a piezoelectric shear strain. Downloads 593
188 Verification Protocols for the Lightning Protection of a Large Scale Scientific Instrument in Harsh Environments: A Case Study

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This paper is devoted to the study of the most suitable protocols to verify the lightning protection and ground resistance quality in a large-scale scientific facility located in a harsh environment. We illustrate this work by reviewing a case study: the largest telescopes of the Northern Hemisphere Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA-N. This array hosts sensitive and high-speed optoelectronics instrumentation and sits on a clear, free from obstacle terrain at around 2400 m above sea level. The site offers a top-quality sky but also features challenging conditions for a lightning protection system: the terrain is volcanic and has resistivities well above 1 kOhm·m. In addition, the environment often exhibits humidities well below 5%. On the other hand, the high complexity of a Cherenkov telescope structure does not allow a straightforward application of lightning protection standards. CTA-N has been conceived as an array of fourteen Cherenkov Telescopes of two different sizes, which will be constructed in La Palma Island, Spain. Cherenkov Telescopes can provide valuable information on different astrophysical sources from the gamma rays reaching the Earth’s atmosphere. The largest telescopes of CTA are called LST’s, and the construction of the first one was finished in October 2018. The LST has a shape which resembles a large parabolic antenna, with a 23-meter reflective surface supported by a tubular structure made of carbon fibers and steel tubes. The reflective surface has 400 square meters and is made of an array of segmented mirrors that can be controlled individually by a subsystem of actuators. This surface collects and focuses the Cherenkov photons into the camera, where 1855 photo-sensors convert the light in electrical signals that can be processed by dedicated electronics. We describe here how the risk assessment of direct strike impacts was made and how down conductors and ground system were both tested. The verification protocols which should be applied for the commissioning and operation phases are then explained. We stress our attention on the ground resistance quality assessment. Downloads 50

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186 Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Recycled Aggregates and its Use in Masonry Mortar Fabrication

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Construction sector incessant activity of the last years preceding the crisis has originated a high waste generation and an increased use of raw materials. The main aim of this research is to compare three types of recycled aggregates and the feasibility to incorporate them into masonry mortar fabrication. The tests were developed using two types of binders: CEM II/B-L 32.5 N and CEM IV/B (V) 32.5 N. 50%, 75% and 100% of natural sand were replaced with three types of recycled aggregates. Cement-to-aggregate by dry weight proportions were 1:3 and 1:4. Physical and chemical characterization of recycled aggregates showed continues particle size distribution curve, lower density and higher absorption, which was the reason to use additive to obtain required mortar consistency. Main crystalline phases determined in the X-Ray diffraction test were calcite, quartz, and gypsum. Performed tests show that cement-based mortars fabricated with CEM IV/B (V) 32. 5 N can incorporate recycled aggregates coming from ceramic, concrete and mixed recycling processes, using 1:3 and 1:4 cement-to-aggregate proportions, complying with the limits established by the Spanish standards. It was concluded that recycled mortar coming from concrete recycling process is the one which presents better characteristics. Downloads 289
185 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

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The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: dietary supplements, food, health, functional food, Colombia

184 Strategies for the Optimization of Ground Resistance in Large Scale Foundations for Optimum Lightning Protection

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In this paper, we discuss the standard improvements which can be made to reduce the earth resistance in difficult terrains for optimum lightning protection, what are the practical limitations, and how the modeling can be refined for accurate diagnostics and ground resistance minimization. Ground resistance minimization can be made via three different approaches: burying vertical electrodes connected in parallel, burying horizontal conductive plates or meshes, or modifying the own terrain, either by changing the entire terrain material in a large volume or by adding earth-enhancing compounds. The use of vertical electrodes connected in parallel pose several practical limitations. In order to prevent loss of effectiveness, it is necessary to keep a minimum distance between each electrode, which is typically around five times larger than the electrode length. Otherwise, the overlapping of the local equipotential lines around each electrode reduces the efficiency of the configuration. The addition of parallel electrodes reduces the resistance and facilitates the measurement, but the basic parallel resistor formula of circuit theory will always underestimate the final resistance. Numerical simulation of equipotential lines around the electrodes overcomes this limitation. The resistance of a single electrode will always be proportional to the soil resistivity. The electrodes are usually installed with a backfilling material of high conductivity, which increases the effective diameter. However, the improvement is marginal, since the electrode diameter counts in the estimation of the ground resistance via a logarithmic function. Substances that are used for efficient chemical treatment must be environmentally friendly and must feature stability, high hygroscopicity, low corrosivity, and high electrical conductivity. A number of earth enhancement materials are commercially available. Many are comprised of carbon-based materials or clays like bentonite. These materials can also be used as backfilling materials to reduce the resistance of an electrode. Chemical treatment of soil has environmental issues. Some products contain copper sulfate or other copper-based compounds, which may not be environmentally friendly. Carbon-based compounds are relatively inexpensive and they do have very low resistivities, but they also feature corrosion issues. Typically, the carbon can corrode and destroy a copper electrode in around five years. These compounds also have potential environmental concerns. Some earthing enhancement materials contain cement, which, after installation acquire properties that are very close to concrete. This prevents the earthing enhancement material from leaching into the soil. After analyzing different configurations, we conclude that a buried conductive ring with vertical electrodes connected periodically should be the optimum baseline solution for the grounding of a large size structure installed on a large resistivity terrain. In order to show this, a practical example is explained here where we simulate the ground resistance of a conductive ring buried in a terrain with a resistivity in the range of 1 kOhm·m. Downloads 51
183 European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive Applied to Astronomical Observatories

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver

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182 Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia

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Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices. Downloads 107
181 Comparison of the Results of a Parkinson’s Holter Monitor with Patient Diaries, in Real Conditions of Use: A Sub-Analysis of the MoMoPa-EC Clinical Trial

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Background: Monitoring motor symptoms in Parkinson's patients is often a complex and time-consuming task for clinicians, as Hauser's diaries are often poorly completed by patients. Recently, new automatic devices (Parkinson's holter: STAT-ON®) have been developed capable of monitoring patients' motor fluctuations. The MoMoPa-EC clinical trial (NCT04176302) investigates which of the two methods produces better clinical results. In this sub-analysis, the concordance between both methods is analyzed. Methods: In the MoMoPa-EC clinical trial, 164 patients with moderate-severe Parkinson's disease and at least two hours a day of Off will be included. At the time of patient recruitment, all of them completed a seven-day motor fluctuation diary at home (Hauser’s diary) while wearing the Parkinson's holter. In this sub-analysis, 71 patients with complete data for the purpose of this comparison were included. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated between the patient diary entries and the Parkinson's holter data in terms of time On, Off, and time with dyskinesias. Results: The intra-class correlation coefficient of both methods was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.3-0.74) for daily time in Off (%), 0.48 (95% CI: 0.14-0.68) for daily time in On (%), and 0.37 (95% CI %: -0.04-0.62) for daily time with dyskinesias (%). Conclusions: Both methods have a moderate agreement with each other. We will have to wait for the results of the MoMoPa-EC project to estimate which of them has the greatest clinical benefits. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by AbbVie S.L.U, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III [DTS17/00195], and the European Fund for Regional Development, 'A way to make Europe'.

Keywords: Parkinson, sensor, motor fluctuations, dyskinesia

180 Healing the Scars of the Past: The Great Challenge and Failed Attempt of European Union to Create a Supranational Identity

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After more than half a century that the first treaty of European cooperation was created, the final result of a difficult and long historical process, which is the current European Union, is facing economical and social challenges. The barriers of policies differences and national sovereignties seem to be being defeated in the last and present decades. However, the last crisis of 2008 brought back problems as xenophobia and nationalism. In this ambit of identity, European Union has made many efforts to reinforce a European identity and leave behind the radical nationalisms which generated World Wars. Nevertheless, these social problems are increasing and becoming more present in the life of many Europeans. Even, in the last Euro Parliamentarian Elections of the present year, 2014, the extreme right parties, in favor of xenophobic and anti European ideals, got more seats and are increasing their presence in Euro Parliament. This essay approaches to this controversial topic of European identity. Taking as start point the nationalist divisions that are causing internal divergences in Europe, the authors of this research study the role and contributions of the Memorials of the fallen soldiers and heroes of World Wars, present in many cities as Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, to the impossibility to reach an European identity, it means that Europeans feel first part of Europe in place to feel first part of a nation. The objective of this essay is to reaffirm the thesis that establishes that the European Union won´t reach the longed supranational identity with just with the current strategies, because yet there are many cultural elements in its member states societies which exalt the heroes and soldiers of the past wars, increasing nationalism feelings. Besides, in it are promoted some interesting ideas that could change the course in this quest of a European social identity. Downloads 346
179 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

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Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them. Downloads 371
178 Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico

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This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity. Downloads 355
177 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

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This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity. Downloads 361
176 Case Study: Throughput Analysis over PLC Infrastructure as Last Mile Residential Solution in Colombia

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Powerline Communications (PLC) as last mile solution to provide communication services, has the advantage of transmitting over channels already used for electrical distribution. However these channels have been not designed with this purpose, for that reason telecommunication companies in Colombia want to know how good would be using PLC in costs and network performance in comparison to cable modem or DSL. This paper analyzes PLC throughput for residential complex scenarios using a PLC network scenarios and some statistical results are shown. Downloads 189
175 Characterization of an Almond Shell Composite Based on PHBH

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The utilization of almond crop by-products to obtain PHBH-based composites was carried out by using an extrusion process followed by an injection to obtain test samples. To improve the properties of the resulting composite, the incorporation of OLA 8 as a coupling agent and plasticizer was additionally considered. A characterization process was carried out by the measurement of mechanical properties, thermal properties, surface morphology, and water absorption ability. The use of the almond residue allows obtaining composites based on PHBH with a higher environmental interest and lower cost.

Keywords: almond shell, PHBH, composites, compatibilization

174 Using a Mobile App to Foster Children Active Travel to School in Spain

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In recent decades, family habits related to children’s displacements to school have changed, increasing motorized travels against active modes. This entails a major negative impact on the urban environment, road safety in cities and the physical and psychological development of children. One of the more common actions used to reverse this trend is Walking School Bus (WSB), which consists of a predefined adult-scorted pedestrian route to school with several stops along the path where schoolchildren are collected. At Tirso de Molina School in Cordoba (Spain), a new ICT-based methodology to deploy WSB has been tested. A mobile app that allows the geoposition of the group, the notification of the arrival and real-time communication between the WSB participants have been presented to the families in order to organize and register the daily participation. After an initial survey to know the travel mode and the spatial distribution of the interested families, three WSB routes have been established and the families have been trained in the app usage. During nine weeks, 33 children have joined the WSB and their parents have accompanied the groups in turns. A high recurrence in the attendance has been registered. Through a final survey, participants have valued highly the tool and the methodology designed, emphasizing as most useful features of the mobile app: notifications system, chat and real-time monitoring. It has also been found that the tool has had a major impact on the degree of confidence of parents regarding the autonomous on foot displacement of their children to school. Moreover, 37,9% of the participant families have reported a total or partial modal shift from car to walking, and the benefits more reported are an increment of the parents available time and less problems in the travel to school daily organization. As a consequence, It has been proved the effectiveness of this user-centric innovative ICT-based methodology to reduce the levels of private car drop offs, minimize barriers of time constraints, volunteer recruitment, and parents’ safety concerns, while, at the same time, increase convenience and time savings for families. This pilot study can offer guidance for community coordinated actions and local authority interventions to support sustainable school travel outcomes. Downloads 252
173 Seismic Assessment of a Pre-Cast Recycled Concrete Block Arch System

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This study aims to assess the seismic performance of arch and dome structural systems made from easy to assemble precast blocks of recycled concrete. These systems have been developed by Lock Block Ltd. Company from Vancouver, Canada, as an extension of their currently used retaining wall system. The characterization of the seismic behavior of these structures is performed by a combination of experimental static and dynamic testing, and analytical modeling. For the experimental testing, several tilt tests, as well as a program of shake table testing were undertaken using small scale arch models. A suite of earthquakes with different characteristics from important past events are chosen and scaled properly for the dynamic testing. Shake table testing applying the ground motions in just one direction (in the weak direction of the arch) and in the three directions were conducted and compared. The models were tested with increasing intensity until collapse occurred; which determines the failure level for each earthquake. Since the failure intensity varied with type of earthquake, a sensitivity analysis of the different parameters was performed, being impulses the dominant factor. For all cases, the arches exhibited the typical four-hinge failure mechanism, which was also shown in the analytical model. Experimental testing was also performed reinforcing the arches using a steel band over the structures anchored at both ends of the arch. The models were tested with different pretension levels. The bands were instrumented with strain gauges to measure the force produced by the shaking. These forces were used to develop engineering guidelines for the design of the reinforcement needed for these systems. In addition, an analytical discrete element model was created using 3DEC software. The blocks were designed as rigid blocks, assigning all the properties to the joints including also the contribution of the interlocking shear key between blocks. The model is calibrated to the experimental static tests and validated with the obtained results from the dynamic tests. Then the model can be used to scale up the results to the full scale structure and expanding it to different configurations and boundary conditions. Downloads 142
172 Undocumented Migrants on the Northern Border of Mexico: Social Imaginary, and Social Representations

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In the present work, the phenomenon of undocumented migration in the northern border of Mexico is analyzed through the graphic representation of the experience of people who migrate in an undocumented way to the United States. 33 of them drew what it meant for them to migrate. Our objective is to analyze the social phenomenon of migration through the drawings of migrants, using the concepts of social imaginary and social representations, identifying the different significant elements with which this symbolically builds their experience. Drawing, as a methodological tool, will help us to understand the migratory experience beyond words. Downloads 87
171 Land Suitability Analysis Based on Ecosystems Service Approach for Wind Farm Location in South-Central Chile: Net Primary Production as Proxy

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Wind power constitutes a cleaner energy source with smaller unfavorable impacts on the environment than fossil fuels. Its development could be an alternative to fight climate change while meeting energy demands. However, wind energy development requires first determining the existing potential and areas with aptitude. Also, potential socio-economic and environmental impacts should be analyzed to prevent social rejection of this technology. In this context, this work performs a suitability assessment on a GIS environment to locate suitable areas for wind energy expansion in South-Central Chile. In addition, suitable areas were characterized in terms of potential goods and services to be produced as a proxy for analyzing potential impacts and trade-offs. First, layers of annual wind speed were generated as they represent the resource potential and layers representing previous defined territorial constraints were created. Zones depicting territorial constraints were removed from resource measurement layers to identify suitable sites. Then, the appropriation of the primary production in suitable sites was determined to measure potential ecosystem services derived from human interventions in those areas. Results show that approximately 52% of the total surface of the study area has a good aptitude to install wind farms. In this area, provisioning services like food crops production, timber, and other forest resources like firewood play a key role in the regional economy and thus are the main cause of human interventions. This is reflected by human appropriation of the primary production values of 0.71 KgC/m2.yr, 0.36 KgC/m2.yr and 0.14 KgC/m2.yr respectively. In this sense, wind energy development could be compatible with croplands, which is the predominant land use in suitable areas and provide farmers with cheaper energy and extra incomes. Also, studies have reported changes in local temperature associated with wind turbines, which could be beneficial to crop growth. The results obtained in this study prove to be useful for identifying available areas for wind development, which could be very useful in decision-making processes related to energy planning. Downloads 87
170 Prioritizing Ecosystem Services for South-Central Regions of Chile: An Expert-Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Approach

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The ecosystem services (ES) concept has contributed to draw attention to the benefits ecosystems generate for people and how necessary natural resources are for human well-being. The identification and prioritization of the ES constitute the first steps to undertake conservation and valuation initiatives on behalf of people. Additionally, mapping the supply of ES is a powerful tool to support decision making regarding the sustainable management of landscape and natural resources. In this context, the present study aimed to identify, prioritize and map the primary ES in Biobio and Nuble regions using a methodology that combines expert judgment, multi-attribute evaluation methods, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Firstly, scores about the capacity of different land use/cover types to supply ES and the importance attributed to each service were obtained from experts and stakeholders via an online survey. Afterward, the ES assessment matrix was constructed, and the weighted linear combination (WLC) method was applied to mapping the overall capacity of supply of provisioning, regulating and maintenance, and cultural services. Finally, prioritized ES for the study area were selected and mapped. The results suggest that native forests, wetlands, and water bodies have the highest supply capacities of ES, while urban and industrial areas and bare areas have a very low supply of services. On the other hand, fourteen out of twenty-nine services were selected by experts and stakeholders as the most relevant for the regions. The spatial distribution of ES has shown that the Andean Range and part of the Coastal Range have the highest ES supply capacity, mostly regulation and maintenance and cultural ES. This performance is related to the presence of native forests, water bodies, and wetlands in those zones. This study provides specific information about the most relevant ES in Biobio and Nuble according to the opinion of local stakeholders and the spatial identification of areas with a high capacity to provide services. These findings could be helpful as a reference by planners and policymakers to develop landscape management strategies oriented to preserve the supply of services in both regions. Downloads 48
169 Language Transfer in Graduate Candidates’ Essays

Authors: Erika Martínez Lugo

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Candidates to some graduate studies are asked to write essays in English to prove their competence to write essays and to do it in English. In the present study, language transfer (LT) in 15 written essays is identified, documented, analyzed, and classified. The essays were written in 2019, and the graduate program is a Masters in Modern Languages in a North-Western Mexican city border with USA. This study is of interest since it is important to determine whether or not some errors have been fossilized and have become mistakes, or if it is part of the candidates’ interlanguage. The results show that most language transfer is negative and syntactic, where the influence of candidates L1 (Spanish) is evident in their use of L2 (English). Downloads 82
168 Anthropometric Profile and Its Influence on the Vital Signs of Baja California College Students

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An anthropometric study applied to 1,115 students of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering of the Autonomous University of California. Thirteen individual measurements were taken in a sitting position. The results obtained allow forming a reliable anthropometric database for statistical studies and analysis and inferences of specific distributions, so the opinion of experts in occupational medicine recommendations may emit to reduce risks resulting in an alteration of the vital signs during the execution of their school activities. Another use of these analyses is to use them as a reliable reference for future deeper research, to the design of spaces, tools, utensils, workstations, with anthropometric dimensions and ergonomic characteristics suitable to use.

Keywords: anthropometry, vital signs, students, medicine

167 Design and Construction of Temperature and Humidity Control Channel for a Bacteriological Incubator

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This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of research in Microbiology, in particular during studies of bacterial growth in biological samples, with the help of optic methods (Turbidimetry) and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of sensors and analogue components of every channel, controlled with help of a microcontroller AT89C51 (ATMEL) with adequate benefits for this type of application. Downloads 304
166 A Long Tail Study of eWOM Communities

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Electronic Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) communities represent today an important source of information in which more and more customers base their purchasing decisions. They include thousands of reviews concerning very different products and services posted by many individuals geographically distributed all over the world. Due to their massive audience, eWOM communities can help users to find the product they are looking for even if they are less popular or rare. This is known as the long tail effect, which leads to a larger number of lower-selling niche products. This paper analyzes the long tail effect in a well-known eWOM community and defines a tool for finding niche products unavailable through conventional channels. Downloads 323
165 Preliminary Analysis of a Phylogeography Study of Dendropsophus minutus in the Guiana Shield

Authors: Mera-Martínez Daniela

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Dendropsophus minutus, is a species distributed in South America including the slopes of the Andes, the Amazon basin, forests of southeastern Brazil and in Guyana where tropical forests are characteristic. The relationship of amphibians found in this locality is evidenced by molecular markers, with the objective of analyzing if the geographic distance is influencing the structure of the populations of D. minutus in Guyana; we analyzed 65 sequences from the 3 localities of Guyana where haplotype networks, Mantel Test and phylogeny were realized to know the influence. It was evidenced that there is a haplotypic difference in the locality of Guyana compared to Suriname and French Guyana, but this does not have a correlation with the geographic distance, but this one can be influenced by the conditions of the places. Downloads 130
164 A Quantitative Study of the Evolution of Open Source Software Communities

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Typically, virtual communities exhibit the well-known phenomenon of participation inequality, which means that only a small percentage of users is responsible of the majority of contributions. However, the sustainability of the community requires that the group of active users must be continuously nurtured with new users that gain expertise through a participation process. This paper analyzes the time evolution of Open Source Software (OSS) communities, considering users that join/abandon the community over time and several topological properties of the network when modeled as a social network. More specifically, the paper analyzes the role of those users rejoining the community and their influence in the global characteristics of the network. Downloads 429
163 Different Levels of Mixed Reality: Mixed Reality as a Tool to Change the Visitor's Experience in the Museum

Authors: Hector Valverde Martínez

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In this text, the application possibilities of developments in MR are explored as an element within the museographic space that affects the visitor-museum relationship to satisfy the needs of knowledge and recreation that visitors have to improve the experience. The emphasis points out the way in which it is thinking from the digital to understand the possibilities in the design of museum experiences, and are analyzed the strategies used inside and outside the museum space are exemplified from the use of MR and their impact on the visitors' experience to reach different levels of depth of knowledge in an exhibition; the exploration of limits in the creation of atmospheres that allow visitors to feel immersed in a completely different reality from the one they live to better understand the topics addressed in the exhibition, and strategies that are used to encourage museum audiences to actively participate and extend the experience of the museum beyond its walls.

Keywords: mixed realities, experience, visitor, museums