Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 908

Search results for: electrostatic discharge

908 Investigation Particle Behavior in Gas-Solid Filtration with Electrostatic Discharge in a Hybrid System

Authors: Flávia M. Oliveira, Marcos V. Rodrigues, Mônica L. Aguiar


Synthetic fibers are widely used in gas filtration. Previous attempts to optimize the filtration process have employed mixed fibers as the filter medium in gas-solid separation. Some of the materials most frequently used this purpose are composed of polyester, polypropylene, and glass fibers. In order to improve the retention of cement particles in bag filters, the present study investigates the use of synthetic glass fiber filters and polypropylene fiber for particle filtration, with electrostatic discharge of 0 to -2 kV in cement particles. The filtration curves obtained showed that charging increased the particle collection efficiency and lowered the pressure drop. Particle diameter had a direct influence on the formation of the dust cake, and the application of electrostatic discharge to the particles resulted in the retention of more particles, hence increasing the lifetime of fabric filters.

Keywords: glass fiber filter, particle, electrostatic discharge, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
907 Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez


This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges.

Keywords: human body model, electrostatic discharge, sensitivity tests, static charge monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
906 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh


This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
905 Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator

Authors: H. Nouri, I. E. Achouri, A. Grimes, H. Ait Said, M. Aissou, Y. Zebboudj


This paper aims to analysis the behaviour of DC corona discharge in wire-to-plate electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Current-voltage curves are particularly analysed. Experimental results show that discharge current is strongly affected by the applied voltage. The proposed method of current identification is to use the method of least squares. Least squares problems that of into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution (or closed form expression) is any formula that can be evaluated in a finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative.

Keywords: electrostatic precipitator, current-voltage characteristics, least squares method, electric field, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
904 Noise Mitigation Techniques to Minimize Electromagnetic Interference/Electrostatic Discharge Effects for the Lunar Mission Spacecraft

Authors: Vabya Kumar Pandit, Mudit Mittal, N. Prahlad Rao, Ramnath Babu


TeamIndus is the only Indian team competing for the Google Lunar XPRIZE(GLXP). The GLXP is a global competition to challenge the private entities to soft land a rover on the moon, travel minimum 500 meters and transmit high definition images and videos to Earth. Towards this goal, the TeamIndus strategy is to design and developed lunar lander that will deliver a rover onto the surface of the moon which will accomplish GLXP mission objectives. This paper showcases the various system level noise control techniques adopted by Electrical Distribution System (EDS), to achieve the required Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of the spacecraft. The design guidelines followed to control Electromagnetic Interference by proper electronic package design, grounding, shielding, filtering, and cable routing within the stipulated mass budget, are explained. The paper also deals with the challenges of achieving Electromagnetic Cleanliness in presence of various Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and In-House developed components. The methods of minimizing Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) by identifying the potential noise sources, susceptible areas for charge accumulation and the methodology to prevent arcing inside spacecraft are explained. The paper then provides the EMC requirements matrix derived from the mission requirements to meet the overall Electromagnetic compatibility of the Spacecraft.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, electrostatic discharge, electrical distribution systems, grounding schemes, light weight harnessing

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
903 Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications

Authors: Kyoung-Il Do, Jun-Geol Park, Hee-Guk Chae, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo


A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge (ESD), low voltage trigger silicon controlled rectifier (LVTSCR), MVTSCR, power clamp, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), latch-up

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902 Analysis of Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuits with Electrical Characteristics for the 5V Power Clamp

Authors: Jun-Geol Park, Kyoung-Il Do, Min-Ju Kwon, Kyung-Hyun Park, Yong-Seo Koo


This paper analyzed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuits with the turn-on time characteristics. The structures are the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Triggered SCR), the ZTSCR (Zener Triggered SCR) and the PTSCR (P-Substrate Triggered SCR). The three structures are for the 5V power clamp. In general, the structures with the low trigger voltage structure can have the fast turn-on characteristics than other structures. All the ESD protection circuits have the low trigger voltage by using the N+ bridge region of LVTSCR, by using the zener diode structure of ZTSCR, by increasing the trigger current of PTSCR. The simulation for the comparison with the turn-on time was conducted by the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As the simulation results, the LVTSCR has the turn-on time of 2.8 ns, ZTSCR of 2.1 ns and the PTSCR of 2.4 ns. The HBM simulation results, however, show that the PTSCR is the more robust structure of 430K in HBM 8kV standard than 450K of LVTSCR and 495K of ZTSCR. Therefore the PTSCR is the most effective ESD protection circuit for the 5V power clamp.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, turn-on time, trigger voltage, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
901 Non-Contact Human Movement Monitoring Technique for Security Control System Based 2n Electrostatic Induction

Authors: Koichi Kurita


In this study, an effective non-contact technique for the detection of human physical activity is proposed. The technique is based on detecting the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion under non-contact and non-attached conditions. A theoretical model for the electrostatic induction current generated because of a change in the electric potential of the human body is proposed. By comparing the obtained electrostatic induction current with the theoretical model, it becomes obvious that this model effectively explains the behavior of the waveform of the electrostatic induction current. The normal walking motions are recorded using a portable sensor measurement located in a passageway of office building. The obtained results show that detailed information regarding physical activity such as a walking cycle can be estimated using our proposed technique. This suggests that the proposed technique which is based on the detection of the walking signal, can be successfully applied to the detection of human walking motion in a secured building.

Keywords: human walking motion, access control, electrostatic induction, alarm monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
900 Detecting Trends in Annual Discharge and Precipitation in the Chott Melghir Basin in Southeastern Algeria

Authors: M. T. Bouziane, A. Benkhaled, B. Achour


In this study, data from 30 catchments in the Chott Melghir basin in the semiarid region of southern East Algeria were analyzed to investigate changes in annual discharge, annual precipitation over the 1965-2005 period. These data were analyzed with the aid of Kendall test trend and regression analysis. The results indicate that the major variations in all catchments discharge in Chott Melghir correspond well to the precipitation. Changes in total annual discharge of Chott Melghir were lower than changes in annual precipitation. Annual precipitation decreased by 66 percent and annual discharge decreased by 4 percent. No significant trend is detected for annual discharge and precipitation at major catchments up to 95% confidence level. The decreasing trend in Chott Melghir discharge is mainly attributed to the decrease of precipitation.

Keywords: trends, climate change, precipitation, discharge, Kendall test, regression analysis, Chott Melghir catchments

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
899 Cepstrum Analysis of Human Walking Signal

Authors: Koichi Kurita


In this study, we propose a real-time data collection technique for the detection of human walking motion from the charge generated on the human body. This technique is based on the detection of a sub-picoampere electrostatic induction current, generated by the motion, flowing through the electrode of a wireless portable sensor attached to the subject. An FFT analysis of the wave-forms of the electrostatic induction currents generated by the walking motions showed that the currents generated under normal and restricted walking conditions were different. Moreover, we carried out a cepstrum analysis to detect any differences in the walking style. Results suggest that a slight difference in motion, either due to the individual’s gait or a splinted leg, is directly reflected in the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion. The proposed wireless portable sensor enables the detection of even subtle differences in walking motion.

Keywords: human walking motion, motion measurement, current measurement, electrostatic induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
898 Theoretical and Experimental Electrostatic Potential around the M-Nitrophenol Compound

Authors: Drissi Mokhtaria, Chouaih Abdelkader, Fodil Hamzaoui


Our work is about a comparison of experimental and theoretical results of the electron charge density distribution and the electrostatic potential around the M-Nitrophenol Molecule (m-NPH) kwon for its interesting physical characteristics. The molecular experimental results have been obtained from a high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Theoretical investigations were performed under the Gaussian program using the Density Functional Theory at B3LYP level of theory at 6-31G*. The multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens was used for the experimental electron charge density distribution around the molecule, while we used the DFT methods for the theoretical calculations. The electron charge density obtained in both methods allowed us to find out the different molecular properties such us the electrostatic potential and the dipole moment which were finally subject to a comparison leading to an outcome of a good matching results obtained in both methods.

Keywords: electron charge density, m-nitrophenol, nonlinear optical compound, electrostatic potential, optimized geometric

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
897 Predicting Trapezoidal Weir Discharge Coefficient Using Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: K. Roushanger, A. Soleymanzadeh


Weirs are structures often used in irrigation techniques, sewer networks and flood protection. However, the hydraulic behavior of this type of weir is complex and difficult to predict accurately. An accurate flow prediction over a weir mainly depends on the proper estimation of discharge coefficient. In this study, the Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) approach was used for predicting trapezoidal and rectangular sharp-crested side weirs discharge coefficient. Three different performance indexes are used as comparing criteria for the evaluation of the model’s performances. The obtained results approved capability of GEP in prediction of trapezoidal and rectangular side weirs discharge coefficient. The results also revealed the influence of downstream Froude number for trapezoidal weir and upstream Froude number for rectangular weir in prediction of the discharge coefficient for both of side weirs.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, genetic expression programming, trapezoidal weir

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896 Chaotic Response of Electrical Insulation System with Gaseous Dielectric under High AC and DC Voltages

Authors: Arijit Basuray


It is well known that if an electrical insulation system is stressed under high voltage then discharge may occur in various form and if the system is made of composite dielectric having interfaces of materials having different dielectric constant discharge may occur due to gross mismatch of dielectric constant causing intense local field in the interfaces. Here author has studied, firstly, behavior of discharges in gaseous dielectric circuit under AC and DC voltages. A gaseous dielectric circuit is made such that a pair of electrode of typical geometry is used to make the discharges occur under application of AC and DC voltages. Later on, composite insulation system with air gap is also studied. Discharge response of the dielectric circuit is measured across a typically designed impedance. The time evolution of the discharge characteristics showed some interesting chaotic behavior. Author here proposed some analysis of such behavior of the discharge pattern and discussed about the possibility of presence of such discharge circuit in lumped electric circuit.

Keywords: electrical insulation system, EIS, composite dielectric, discharge, chaos

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895 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu


Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
894 Estimation of Coefficient of Discharge of Side Trapezoidal Labyrinth Weir Using Group Method of Data Handling Technique

Authors: M. A. Ansari, A. Hussain, A. Uddin


A side weir is a flow diversion structure provided in the side wall of a channel to divert water from the main channel to a branch channel. The trapezoidal labyrinth weir is a special type of weir in which crest length of the weir is increased to pass higher discharge. Experimental and numerical studies related to the coefficient of discharge of trapezoidal labyrinth weir in an open channel have been presented in the present study. Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) with the transfer function of quadratic polynomial has been used to predict the coefficient of discharge for the side trapezoidal labyrinth weir. A new model is developed for coefficient of discharge of labyrinth weir by regression method. Generalized models for predicting the coefficient of discharge for labyrinth weir using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network have also been developed. The prediction based on GMDH model is more satisfactory than those given by traditional regression equations.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, group method of data handling, open channel, side labyrinth weir

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893 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid


One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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892 A One Dimensional Particle in Cell Model for Excimer Lamps

Authors: W. Benstaali, A. Belasri


In this work we study a planar lamp filled with neon-xenon gas. We use a one-dimensional particle in a cell with Monte Carlo simulation (PIC-MCC) to investigate the effect xenon concentration on the energy deposited on excitation, ionization and ions. A Xe-Ne discharge is studied for a gas pressure of 400 torr. The results show an efficient Xe20-Ne mixture with an applied voltage of 1.2KV; the xenon excitation energy represents 65% form total energy dissipated in the discharge. We have also studied electrical properties and the energy balance a discharge for Xe50-Ne which needs a voltage of 2kv; the xenon energy is than more important.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge, efficiency, excitation, lamps

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891 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: Fathiah Mohamed Zuki, Robert George Edyvean


Electrostatic interaction energy (∆EEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (∆EVDW) and acid base (∆EAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential, however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focuses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: XDLVO, electrostatic interaction energy, zeta potential, P. putida, mineral

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
890 New Features for Copy-Move Image Forgery Detection

Authors: Michael Zimba


A novel set of features for copy-move image forgery, CMIF, detection method is proposed. The proposed set presents a new approach which relies on electrostatic field theory, EFT. Solely for the purpose of reducing the dimension of a suspicious image, firstly performs discrete wavelet transform, DWT, of the suspicious image and extracts only the approximation subband. The extracted subband is then bijectively mapped onto a virtual electrostatic field where concepts of EFT are utilised to extract robust features. The extracted features are shown to be invariant to additive noise, JPEG compression, and affine transformation. The proposed features can also be used in general object matching.

Keywords: virtual electrostatic field, features, affine transformation, copy-move image forgery

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889 The Effects of Stoke's Drag, Electrostatic Force and Charge on Penetration of Nanoparticles through N95 Respirators

Authors: Jacob Schwartz, Maxim Durach, Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Glen Sage, Atin Adhikari


NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) approved N95 respirators are commonly used by workers in construction sites where there is a large amount of dust being produced from sawing, grinding, blasting, welding, etc., both electrostatically charged and not. A significant portion of airborne particles in construction sites could be nanoparticles created beside coarse particles. The penetration of the particles through the masks may differ depending on the size and charge of the individual particle. In field experiments relevant to this current study, we found that nanoparticles of medium size ranges are penetrating more frequently than nanoparticles of smaller and larger sizes. For example, penetration percentages of nanoparticles of 11.5 – 27.4 nm into a sealed N95 respirator on a manikin head ranged from 0.59 to 6.59%, whereas nanoparticles of 36.5 – 86.6 nm ranged from 7.34 to 16.04%. The possible causes behind this increased penetration of mid-size nanoparticles through mask filters are not yet explored. The objective of this study is to identify causes behind this unusual behavior of mid-size nanoparticles. We have considered such physical factors as Boltzmann distribution of the particles in thermal equilibrium with the air, kinetic energy of the particles at impact on the mask, Stoke’s drag force, and electrostatic forces in the mask stopping the particles. When the particles collide with the mask, only the particles that have enough kinetic energy to overcome the energy loss due to the electrostatic forces and the Stokes’ drag in the mask can pass through the mask. To understand this process, the following assumptions were made: (1) the effect of Stoke’s drag depends on the particles’ velocity at entry into the mask; (2) the electrostatic force is proportional to the charge on the particles, which in turn is proportional to the surface area of the particles; (3) the general dependence on electrostatic charge and thickness means that for stronger electrostatic resistance in the masks and thicker the masks’ fiber layers the penetration of particles is reduced, which is a sensible conclusion. In sampling situations where one mask was soaked in alcohol eliminating electrostatic interaction the penetration was much larger in the mid-range than the same mask with electrostatic interaction. The smaller nanoparticles showed almost zero penetration most likely because of the small kinetic energy, while the larger sized nanoparticles showed almost negligible penetration most likely due to the interaction of the particle with its own drag force. If there is no electrostatic force the fraction for larger particles grows. But if the electrostatic force is added the fraction for larger particles goes down, so diminished penetration for larger particles should be due to increased electrostatic repulsion, may be due to increased surface area and therefore larger charge on average. We have also explored the effect of ambient temperature on nanoparticle penetrations and determined that the dependence of the penetration of particles on the temperature is weak in the range of temperatures in the measurements 37-42°C, since the factor changes in the range from 3.17 10-3K-1 to 3.22 10-3K-1.

Keywords: respiratory protection, industrial hygiene, aerosol, electrostatic force

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888 Molecular Electrostatic Potential in Z-3N(2-Ethoxyphenyl), 2-N'(2-Ethoxyphenyl) Imino Thiazolidin-4-one Molecule by Ab Initio and DFT Methods

Authors: Manel Boulakoud, Abdelkader Chouaih, Fodil Hamzaoui


In the present work we are interested in the determination of the Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) in Z-3N(2-Ethoxyphenyl), 2-N’(2-Ethoxyphenyl) imino thiazolidin-4-one molecule by ab initio and Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the ground state. The MEP is related to the electronic density and is a very useful descriptor in understanding sites for electrophilic attack and nucleophilic reactions as well as hydrogen bonding interactions. First, geometry optimization was carried out using Hartree–Fock (HF) and DFT methods with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In order to get more information on the molecule, its stability has been analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mulliken population analyses have been calculated. Finally, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels have been performed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show also the charge transfer within the molecule. The energy gap obtained is about 4 eV which explain the stability of the studied compound. The obtained molecular electrostatic potential from the two methods confirms the nature of the electron charge transfer at the molecular shell and locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.

Keywords: DFT, ab initio, HOMO-LUMO, organic compounds

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887 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit


Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarns

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886 Optical Diagnostics of Corona Discharge by Laser Interferometry

Authors: N. Bendimerad, M. Lemerini, A. Guen


In this work, we propose to determine the density of neutral particles of an electric discharge peak - Plan types performed in air at atmospheric pressure by applying a technique based on laser interferometry. The experimental methods used so far as the shadowgraph or stereoscopy, give rather qualitative results with regard to the determination of the neutral density. The neutral rotational temperature has been subject of several studies but direct measurements of kinetic temperature are rare. The aim of our work is to determine quantitatively and experimentally depopulation with a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. This purely optical appearance of the discharge is important when looking to know the refractive index of any gas for any physicochemical applications.

Keywords: laser source, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, refractive index, corona discharge

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885 Electrostatic and Dielectric Measurements for Hair Building Fibers from DC to Microwave Frequencies

Authors: K. Y. You, Y. L. Then


In the recent years, the hair building fiber has become popular, in other words, it is an effective method which helps people who suffer hair loss or sparse hair since the hair building fiber is capable to create a natural look of simulated hair rapidly. In the markets, there are a lot of hair fiber brands that have been designed to formulate an intense bond with hair strands and make the hair appear more voluminous instantly. However, those products have their own set of properties. Thus, in this report, some measurement techniques are proposed to identify those products. Up to five different brands of hair fiber are tested. The electrostatic and dielectric properties of the hair fibers are macroscopically tested using design DC and high-frequency microwave techniques. Besides, the hair fibers are microscopically analysis by magnifying the structures of the fiber using scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the SEM photos, the comparison of the uniformly shaped and broken rate of the hair fibers in the different bulk samples can be observed respectively.

Keywords: hair fiber, electrostatic, dielectric properties, broken rate, microwave techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
884 Theoretical and Experimental Electrostatic Parameters Determination of 4-Methyl-N-[(5- Nitrothiophen-2-Ylmethylidene)] Aniline Compound

Authors: N. Boukabcha, Y. Megrouss, N. Benhalima, S. Yahiaoui, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui


We present the electron density analysis of organic compound 4-methyl-N-[(5- nitrothiophen-2-ylmethylidene)] aniline with chemical formula C12H10N2O2S. Indeed, determining the electrostatic properties of nonlinear optical organic compounds requires knowledge of the distribution of the electron density with high precision. On the other hand, a structural analysis is performed. Two methods are used to obtain the structure, X-ray diffraction and theoretical calculation with density functional theory (DFT). The electron density study is performed using the Mopro program1503 based on the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. Electron density analysis allows determination of the value and orientation of the dipole moment. The net atomic charges, electrostatic potential and the molecular dipole moment have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer. The study reveals the nature of intermolecular interactions including charge transfer and hydrogen bonds in the title compound. Crystallographic data: monoclinic system - space group P21 / n. Celle parameters: a = 4.7606 (4) Å, b = 22.415 (2) Å, c = 10.7008 (15) Å, β = 92.566 (13) 0, V = 1140.7 (2) Å3, Z = 4, R = 0.0034 for 2693 observed reflections.

Keywords: electron density, dipole moment, electrostatic potential, DFT, Mopro

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883 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Cross Flow on Discharge Coefficient of an Orifice

Authors: Mathew Saxon A, Aneeh Rajan, Sajeev P


Many fluid flow applications employ different types of orifices to control the flow rate or to reduce the pressure. Discharge coefficients generally vary from 0.6 to 0.95 depending on the type of the orifice. The tabulated value of discharge coefficients of various types of orifices available can be used in most common applications. The upstream and downstream flow condition of an orifice is hardly considered while choosing the discharge coefficient of an orifice. But literature shows that the discharge coefficient can be affected by the presence of cross flow. Cross flow is defined as the condition wherein; a fluid is injected nearly perpendicular to a flowing fluid. Most researchers have worked on water being injected into a cross-flow of water. The present work deals with water to gas systems in which water is injected in a normal direction into a flowing stream of gas. The test article used in the current work is called thermal regulator, which is used in a liquid rocket engine to reduce the temperature of hot gas tapped from the gas generator by injecting water into the hot gas so that a cooler gas can be supplied to the turbine. In a thermal regulator, water is injected through an orifice in a normal direction into the hot gas stream. But the injection orifice had been calibrated under backpressure by maintaining a stagnant gas medium at the downstream. The motivation of the present study aroused due to the observation of a lower Cd of the orifice in flight compared to the calibrated Cd. A systematic experimental investigation is carried out in this paper to study the effect of cross-flow on the discharge coefficient of an orifice in water to a gas system. The study reveals that there is an appreciable reduction in the discharge coefficient with cross flow compared to that without cross flow. It is found that the discharge coefficient greatly depends on the ratio of momentum of water injected to the momentum of the gas cross flow. The effective discharge coefficient of different orifices was normalized using the discharge coefficient without cross-flow and it is observed that normalized curves of effective discharge coefficient of different orifices with momentum ratio collapsing into a single curve. Further, an equation is formulated using the test data to predict the effective discharge coefficient with cross flow using the calibrated Cd value without cross flow.

Keywords: cross flow, discharge coefficient, orifice, momentum ratio

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882 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad


In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: partial discharges, condition monitoring, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA

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881 Estimation of Snow and Ice Melt Contributions to Discharge from the Glacierized Hunza River Basin, Karakoram, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Hammad Ali, Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Danial Hashmi, Richard Armstrong, Ahuti Shrestha, Iram Bano, Javed Hassan


This paper presents the results of a semi-distributed modified positive degree-day model (MPDDM) for estimating snow and ice melt contributions to discharge from the glacierized Hunza River basin, Pakistan. The model uses daily temperature data, daily precipitation data, and positive degree day factors for snow and ice melt. The model is calibrated for the period 1995-2001 and validated for 2002-2013, and demonstrates close agreements between observed and simulated discharge with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. Furthermore, the Weather Research and Forecasting model projected temperature, and precipitation data from 2016-2050 are used for representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, and bias correction was done using a statistical approach for future discharge estimation. No drastic changes in future discharge are predicted for the emissions scenarios. The aggregate snow-ice melt contribution is 39% of total discharge in the period 1993-2013. Snow-ice melt contribution ranges from 35% to 63% during the high flow period (May to October), which constitutes 89% of annual discharge; in the low flow period (November to April) it ranges from 0.02% to 17%, which constitutes 11 % of the annual discharge. The snow-ice melt contribution to total discharge will increase gradually in the future and reach up to 45% in 2041-2050. From a sensitivity analysis, it is found that the combination of a 2°C temperature rise and 20% increase in precipitation shows a 10% increase in discharge. The study allows us to evaluate the impact of climate change in such basins and is also useful for the future prediction of discharge to define hydropower potential, inform other water resource management in the area, to understand future changes in snow-ice melt contribution to discharge, and offer a possible evaluation of future water quantity and availability.

Keywords: climate variability, future discharge projection, positive degree day, regional climate model, water resource management

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880 Static Charge Control Plan for High-Density Electronics Centers

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez, Jose Miguel Miranda


Ensuring a safe environment for sensitive electronics boards in places with high limitations in size poses two major difficulties: the control of charge accumulation in floating floors and the prevention of excess charge generation due to air cooling flows. In this paper, we discuss these mechanisms and possible solutions to prevent them. An experiment was made in the control room of a Cherenkov Telescope, where six racks of 2x1x1 m size and independent cooling units are located. The room is 10x4x2.5 m, and the electronics include high-speed digitizers, trigger circuits, etc. The floor used in this room was antistatic, but it was a raised floor mounted in floating design to facilitate the handling of the cables and maintenance. The tests were made by measuring the contact voltage acquired by a person who was walking along the room with different footwear qualities. In addition, we took some measurements of the voltage accumulated in a person in other situations like running or sitting up and down on an office chair. The voltages were taken in real time with an electrostatic voltage meter and dedicated control software. It is shown that peak voltages as high as 5 kV were measured with ambient humidity of more than 30%, which are within the range of a class 3A according to the HBM standard. In order to complete the results, we have made the same experiment in different spaces with alternative types of the floor like synthetic floor and earthenware floor obtaining peak voltages much lower than the ones measured with the floating synthetic floor. The grounding quality one achieves with this kind of floors can hardly beat the one typically encountered in standard floors glued directly on a solid substrate. On the other hand, the air ventilation used to prevent the overheating of the boards probably contributed in a significant way to the charge accumulated in the room. During the assessment of the quality of the static charge control, it is necessary to guarantee that the tests are made under repeatable conditions. One of the major difficulties which one encounters during these assessments is the fact the electrostatic voltmeters might provide different values depending on the humidity conditions and ground resistance quality. In addition, the use of certified antistatic footwear might mask deficiencies in the charge control. In this paper, we show how we defined protocols to guarantee that electrostatic readings are reliable. We believe that this can be helpful not only to qualify the static charge control in a laboratory but also to asses any procedure oriented to minimize the risk of electrostatic discharge events.

Keywords: electrostatics, ESD protocols, HBM, static charge control

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879 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles

Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering


Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is combined with a proportion of glass fiber, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled without sizing agent was identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste.

Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composites, recycling, short fiber composites

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