Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: microwaves

34 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel


In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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33 Propellant Less Propulsion System Using Microwave Thrusters

Authors: D. Pradeep Mitra, Prafulla


Looking to the word propellant-less system it makes us to believe that it is an impossible one, but this paper demonstrates the use of microwaves to create a system which makes impossible to be possible, it means a propellant-less propulsion system using microwaves. In these thrusters, microwaves are radiated into a sealed parabolic cavity through a waveguide, which act on the surface of the cavity and follow the axis of the thrusters to produce thrust. The advantages of these thrusters are: (1) Producing thrust without propellant; without erosion, wear, and thermal stress from the hot exhaust gas; and at the same time increasing quality. (2) If the microwave output power is stable, the performance of thrusters is not affected by its working environment. This paper is demonstrated from general maxwell equations. These equations are used to create the mathematical model of the thrusters. These mathematical model helps us to calculate the Q factor and calculate the approximate thrust which would be generated in the system.

Keywords: propellant less, microwaves, parabolic wave guide, propulsion system

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32 Fabricating an Infrared-Radar Compatible Stealth Surface with Frequency Selective Surface and Structured Radar-Absorbing Material

Authors: Qingtao Yu, Guojia Ma


Approaches to microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity are often conflicting, as the low-emissivity layer, usually consisting of metals, increases the reflection of microwaves, especially in high frequency. In this study, an infrared-radar compatible stealth surface was fabricated by first depositing a layer of low-emissivity metal film on the surface of a layer of radar-absorbing material. Then, ultrafast laser was used to generate patterns on the metal film, forming a frequency selective surface. With proper pattern design, while the majority of the frequency selective surface is covered by the metal film, it has relatively little influence on the reflection of microwaves between 2 to 18 GHz. At last, structures on the radar-absorbing layer were fabricated by ultra-fast laser to further improve the absorbing bandwidth of the microwave. This study demonstrates that the compatibility between microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity can be achieved by properly designing patterns and structures on the metal film and the radar-absorbing layer accordingly.

Keywords: frequency selective surface, infrared-radar compatible, low infrared emissivity, radar-absorbing material, patterns, structures

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31 Elaboration and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Environmental Applications

Authors: Manel Bouloudenine, Karima Djeddou, Hadjer Ben Manser, Hana Soualah Alila, Mohmed Bououdina


This survey research involves the elaboration and characterization of silver nanoparticles for therapeutic and environmental applications. The silver nanoparticles "Ag NPs" were synthesized by reducing AgNO3 with microwaves. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by using Transmission Electron Microscopy " TEM ", Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS", Selected Area Electron Diffraction "SEAD", UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering "DLS". Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction have confirmed the nanoscale, the shape, and the crystalline quality of as synthesized silver nanoparticles. Elementary analysis has proved the purity of Ag NPs and the presence of the Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon "SPR". A strong absorption shift was observed in the visible range of the UV-visible spectrum of as synthesized Ag NPs, which indicates the presence of metallic silver. When the strong absorption in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum has revealed the presence of ionic Ag NPs ionic Ag aggregates species. The autocorrelation function measured by the Dynamic Light Scattering has shown a strong monodispersed character of Ag NPs, which is indicated by the presence of a single size population, with a minima and a maxima laying between 40 and 111 nm. Related to other research, our results confirm the performance properties of as synthesized Ag NPs, which allows them to be performing in many technological applications, including therapeutic and environmental ones.

Keywords: silvers nanoparticles, microwaves, EDS, TEM

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30 The High Precision of Magnetic Detection with Microwave Modulation in Solid Spin Assembly of NV Centres in Diamond

Authors: Zongmin Ma, Shaowen Zhang, Yueping Fu, Jun Tang, Yunbo Shi, Jun Liu


Solid-state quantum sensors are attracting wide interest because of their high sensitivity at room temperature. In particular, spin properties of nitrogen–vacancy (NV) color centres in diamond make them outstanding sensors of magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature under ambient conditions. Much of the work on NV magnetic sensing has been done so as to achieve the smallest volume, high sensitivity of NV ensemble-based magnetometry using micro-cavity, light-trapping diamond waveguide (LTDW), nano-cantilevers combined with MEMS (Micro-Electronic-Mechanical System) techniques. Recently, frequency-modulated microwaves with continuous optical excitation method have been proposed to achieve high sensitivity of 6 μT/√Hz using individual NV centres at nanoscale. In this research, we built-up an experiment to measure static magnetic field through continuous wave optical excitation with frequency-modulated microwaves method under continuous illumination with green pump light at 532 nm, and bulk diamond sample with a high density of NV centers (1 ppm). The output of the confocal microscopy was collected by an objective (NA = 0.7) and detected by a high sensitivity photodetector. We design uniform and efficient excitation of the micro strip antenna, which is coupled well with the spin ensembles at 2.87 GHz for zero-field splitting of the NV centers. Output of the PD signal was sent to an LIA (Lock-In Amplifier) modulated signal, generated by the microwave source by IQ mixer. The detected signal is received by the photodetector, and the reference signal enters the lock-in amplifier to realize the open-loop detection of the NV atomic magnetometer. We can plot ODMR spectra under continuous-wave (CW) microwave. Due to the high sensitivity of the lock-in amplifier, the minimum detectable value of the voltage can be measured, and the minimum detectable frequency can be made by the minimum and slope of the voltage. The magnetic field sensitivity can be derived from η = δB√T corresponds to a 10 nT minimum detectable shift in the magnetic field. Further, frequency analysis of the noise in the system indicates that at 10Hz the sensitivity less than 10 nT/√Hz.

Keywords: nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers, frequency-modulated microwaves, magnetic field sensitivity, noise density

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29 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Analysis of Rapidly Heat Treated M-42 High Speed Steel

Authors: R. N. Karthik Babu, R. Sarvesh, A. Rajendra Prasad, G. Swaminathan


M42 is a molybdenum-series high-speed alloy steel widely used because of its better hot-hardness and wear resistance. These steels are conventionally heat treated in a salt bath furnace with up to three stages of preheating with predetermined soaking and holding periods. Such methods often involve long periods of processing with a large amount of energy consumed. In this study, the M42 steel samples were heat-treated by rapidly heating the specimens to the austenising temperature of 1260 °C and cooled conventionally by quenching in a neutral salt bath at a temperature of 550 °C with the aid of a hybrid microwave furnace. As metals reflect microwaves, they cannot directly be heated up when placed in a microwave furnace. The technology used herein requires the specimens to be placed in a crucible lined with SiC which is a good absorber of microwaves and the SiC lining heats the metal through radiation which facilitates the volumetric heating of the metal. A sample of similar dimensions was heat treated conventionally and cooled in the same manner. Conventional tempering process was then carried out on both these samples and analysed for various parameters such as micro-hardness, processing time, etc. Microstructure analysis and scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. The objective of the study being that similar or better properties, with substantial time and energy saving and cost cutting are achievable by rapid heat treatment through hybrid microwave furnaces. It is observed that the heat treatment is done with substantial time and energy savings, and also with minute improvement in mechanical properties of the tool steel heat treated.

Keywords: rapid heating, heat treatment, metal processing, microwave heating

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28 A Time and Frequency Dependent Study of Low Intensity Microwave Radiation Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Alteration of Autophagy in Rat Brain

Authors: Ranjeet Kumar, Pravin Suryakantrao Deshmukh, Sonal Sharma, Basudev Banerjee


With the tremendous increase in exposure to radiofrequency microwaves emitted by mobile phones, globally public awareness has grown with regard to the potential health hazards of microwaves on the nervous system in the brain. India alone has more than one billion mobile users out of 4.3 billion globally. Our studies have suggested that radio frequency able to affect neuronal alterations in the brain, and hence, affecting cognitive behaviour. However, adverse effect of low-intensity microwave exposure with endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy has not been evaluated yet. In this study, we explore whether low-intensity microwave induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy with varying frequency and time duration in Wistar rat. Ninety-six male Wistar rat were divided into 12 groups of 8 rats each. We studied at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz frequency with reference to sham-exposed group. At the end of the exposure, the rats were sacrificed to collect brain tissue and expression of CHOP, ATF-4, XBP-1, Bcl-2, Bax, LC3 and Atg-4 gene was analysed by real-time PCR. Significant fold change (p < 0.05) of gene expression was found in all groups of 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz exposure group in comparison to sham exposure group. In conclusion, the microwave exposure able to induce ER stress and modulate autophagy. ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and autophagy vary with increasing frequency as well as the duration of exposure. Our results suggested that microwave exposure is harmful to neuronal health as it induces ER stress and hampers autophagy in neuron cells and thereby increasing the neuron degeneration which impairs cognitive behaviour of experimental animals.

Keywords: autophagy, ER stress, microwave, nervous system, rat

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27 Preservation of High Quality Fruit Products: Microwave Freeze Drying as a Substitute for the Conventional Freeze Drying Process

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik


Berries such as blue- and raspberries belong to the most valuable fruits. To preserve the characteristic flavor and the high contents of vitamins and anthocyanins, the very sensitive berries are usually dried by lyophilization. As this method is very time- and energy-consuming, the dried fruit is extremely expensive. However, healthy snack foods are growing in popularity. Especially dried fruit free of any additives or additional sugar are more and more asked for. To make these products affordable, the fruits have to be dried by a method that is more energy-efficient than freeze drying but reveals the same high product quality. The additional insertion of microwaves to a freeze drying process was examined in this work to overcome the inconveniences of freeze drying. As microwaves penetrate the product volumetrically, sublimation takes place simultaneously all over the product and leads to a many times shorter process duration. A range of microwave and pressure settings was applied to find the optimum drying condition. The influence of the process parameters microwave power and chamber pressure on drying kinetics, product temperature and product quality was investigated to find the best condition for an energy-efficient process with high product quality. The product quality was evaluated by rehydration capacitiy, crispiness, shrinkage, color, vitamin C content and antioxidative capacity. The conclusion could be drawn that microwave freeze dried berries were almost equal to freeze dried fruit in all measured quality parameters or even could overcome it. Additionally, sensory evaluations could confirm the analytical studies. Drying time could be reduced by more than 75% at much lower energy consumption rates. Thus, an energy-efficient and cost saving method compared to the conventional freeze drying technique for the gentle production of tasty fruit or vegetable snacks has been found. This technique will make dried high-quality snacks available for many of consumers.

Keywords: blueberries, freeze drying, microwave freeze drying, process parameters, product quality

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26 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee


Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

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25 FZP Design Considering Spherical Wave Incidence

Authors: Sergio Pérez-López, Daniel Tarrazó-Serrano, José M. Fuster, Pilar Candelas, Constanza Rubio


Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) are widely used in many areas, such as optics, microwaves or acoustics. On the design of FZPs, plane wave incidence is typically considered, but that is not usually the case in ultrasounds, especially in applications where a piston emitter is placed at a certain distance from the lens. In these cases, having control of the focal distance is very important, and with the usual Fresnel equation a focal displacement from the theoretical distance is observed due to the plane wave supposition. In this work, a comparison between FZP with plane wave incidence design and FZP with point source design in the case of piston emitter is presented. Influence of the main parameters of the piston in the final focalization profile has been studied. Numerical models and experimental results are shown, and they prove that when spherical wave incidence is considered for the piston case, it is possible to have a fine control of the focal distance in comparison with the classical design method.

Keywords: focusing, Fresnel zone plates, FZP, ultrasound

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24 Optimized Microwave Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Conversion into Lignin free and High Crystalline Cellulose

Authors: Mohd Ishfaq Bhat, Navin Chandra Shahi, Umesh Chandra Lohani


The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of microwave application in synergy with the conventional sodium chlorite delignification of rice straw biomass. For the study, Box-Behnken experimental design involving four independent parameters, each with three levels viz. microwave power (480-800 W), irradiation time (4-12 min), bleaching solution concentration (0.4-3.0%), and bleaching time (1-5h) was used. The response was taken in the form of delignification percentage. The optimization of process parameters was done through response surface methodology. The respective optimum parameters of microwave power, irradiation time, bleaching solution concentration and bleaching time were obtained as 671 W, 8.66 min, 2.67% and 1h. The delignification percentage achieved at optimum condition was 93.51%. The spectral, morphological and the x-ray diffraction characteristics of the rice straw powder after delignification showed a complete absence of lignin peaks, deconstruction of lignocellulose complex and an increase of crystallinity (from 39.8 to 61.6 %).

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, delignification, microwaves, rice straw, characterization

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23 Sulfamethaxozole (SMX) Removal by Microwave-Assisted Heterogenous Fenton Reaction Involving Synthetic Clay (LDHS)

Authors: Chebli Derradji, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, S. Nacef, A. Amrane


Antibiotics are major pollutants of wastewater not only due to their stability in biological systems, but also due to their impact on public health. Their degradation by means of hydroxyl radicals generated through the application of microwave in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and two solid catalysts, iron-based synthetic clay (LDHs) and goethite (FeOOH) have been examined. A drastic reduction of the degradation yield was observed above pH 4, and hence the optimal conditions were found to be a pH of 3, 0.1 g/L of clay, a somewhat low amount of H2O2 (1.74 mmol/L) and a microwave intensity of 850 W. It should be observed that to maintain an almost constant temperature, a cooling with cold water was always applied between two microwaves running; and hence the ratio between microwave heating time and cooling time was 1. The obtained SMX degradation was 98.8 ± 0.2% after 30 minutes of microwave treatment. It should be observed that in the absence of the solid catalyst, LDHs, no SMX degradation was observed. From this, the use of microwave in the presence of a solid source of iron (LDHs) appears to be an efficient solution for the treatment of wastewater containing SMX.

Keywords: microwave, fenton, heterogenous fenton, degradation, oxidation, antibiotics

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22 Controlled Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots via Microwave-Enhanced Process: A Green Approach for Mass Production

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang


A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: average life time, CdSe QDs, microwave (MW), mass production oleic acid, Na2SeSO3

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21 Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Process for Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots for Large Scale Production and Manipulation of Optical Properties

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang


A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, Na2SeSO3, microwave (MW), oleic acid, mass production, average life time

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20 Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount

Authors: Zarrin Nasri


Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.

Keywords: asphaltene, microwave, upgrading, vacuum residue, viscosity

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19 Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Citrus fruits Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed Amine, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). SFME and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with SFME was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by SFME and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by SFME, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, essential oil, microwave, orange peel, solvent free microwave, extraction SFME

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18 Renewable and Functional Biopolymers Using Green Chemistry

Authors: Aman Ullah


The use of renewable resources in supplementing and/or replacing traditional petrochemical products, through green chemistry, is becoming the focus of research. The utilization of oils can play a primitive role towards sustainable development due to their large scale availability, built-in-functionality, biodegradability and no net CO2 production. Microwaves, being clean, green and environmentally friendly, are emerging as an alternative source for product development. Solvent free conversion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) derived from canola oil and waste cooking oil under microwave irradiation demonstrated dramatically enhanced rates. The microwave-assisted reactions lead to the most valuable terminal olefins with enhanced yields, purities and dramatic shortening of reaction times. Various monomers/chemicals were prepared in high yield in very short time. The complete conversions were observed at temperatures as low as 40 ºC within less than five minutes. The products were characterized by GC-MS, GC-FID and NMR. The monomers were separated and polymerized into different polymers including biopolyesthers, biopolyesters, biopolyamides and biopolyolefins. The polymers were characterized in details for their structural, thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties. The ability for complete conversion of oils under solvent free conditions and synthesis of different biopolymers is undoubtedly an attractive concept from both an academic and an industrial point of view.

Keywords: monomers, biopolymers, green chemistry, bioplastics, biomaterials

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17 GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mékaoui, G. Scholl, G. Eppe


The new methods as accelerated steam distillation assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions as hydrolysis of oils. Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the extraction operations from the yields and high content in major component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one of essential parameters of artifacts formation. The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material.

Keywords: microwave, steam distillation, caraway, cumin, cryogrinding, GC-MS, GCxGC-MS

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16 Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Sugar Extraction from Phoenix dactylifera L.

Authors: Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Kahina Djaoud, Myriam Tazarourte, Samir Hadjal, Khodir Madani


In Algeria, important quantities of secondary date variety (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are generated in each campaign; their chemical composition is similar to that of commercial dates. The present work aims to valorize this common date variety (Degla-Beida) which is often poorly exploited. In this context, we tried to prepare syrup from the secondary date variety and to evaluate the effect of conventional extraction (CE) or water bath extraction (WBE) and alternative extraction (microwaves assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasounds assisted extraction (UAE)) on its total sugar content (TSC), using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the analysis of individual sugars was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maximum predicted TSC recoveries under the optimized conditions for MAE, UAE and CE were 233.248 ± 3.594 g/l, 202.889 ± 5.797 g/l, and 233.535 ± 5.412 g/l, respectively, which were close to the experimental values: 233.796 ± 1.898 g/l; 202.037 ± 3.401 g/l and 234.380 ± 2.425 g/l. HPLC analysis revealed high similarity in the sugar composition of date juices obtained by MAE (60.11% sucrose, 16.64% glucose and 23.25% fructose) and CE (50.78% sucrose, 20.67% glucose and 28.55% fructose), although a large difference was detected for that obtained by UAE (0.00% sucrose, 46.94% glucose and 53.06% fructose). Microwave-assisted extraction was the best method for the preparation of date syrup with an optimal recovery of total sugar content. However, ultrasound-assisted extraction was the best one for the preparation of date syrup with high content of reducing sugars.

Keywords: dates, extraction, RSM, sugars, syrup

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15 Optimizing Microwave Assisted Extraction of Anti-Diabetic Plant Tinospora cordifolia Used in Ayush System for Estimation of Berberine Using Taguchi L-9 Orthogonal Design

Authors: Saurabh Satija, Munish Garg


Present work reports an efficient extraction method using microwaves based solvent–sample duo-heating mechanism, for the extraction of an important anti-diabetic plant Tinospora cordifolia from AYUSH system for estimation of berberine content. The process is based on simultaneous heating of sample matrix and extracting solvent under microwave energy. Methanol was used as the extracting solvent, which has excellent berberine solubilizing power and warms up under microwave attributable to its great dispersal factor. Extraction conditions like time of irradition, microwave power, solute-solvent ratio and temperature were optimized using Taguchi design and berberine was quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography. The ranked optimized parameters were microwave power (rank 1), irradiation time (rank 2) and temperature (rank 3). This kind of extraction mechanism under dual heating provided choice of extraction parameters for better precision and higher yield with significant reduction in extraction time under optimum extraction conditions. This developed extraction protocol will lead to extract higher amounts of berberine which is a major anti-diabetic moiety in Tinospora cordifolia which can lead to development of cheaper formulations of the plant Tinospora cordifolia and can help in rapid prevention of diabetes in the world.

Keywords: berberine, microwave, optimization, Taguchi

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14 Dispersion Effects in Waves Reflected by Lossy Conductors: The Optics vs. Electromagnetics Approach

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver, Jose Miguel Miranda


The study of dispersion phenomena in electromagnetic waves reflected by conductors at infrared and lower frequencies is a topic which finds a number of applications. We aim to explain in this work what are the most relevant ones and how this phenomenon is modeled from both optics and electromagnetics points of view. We also explain here how the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave reflected by a lossy conductor could depend on both the frequency of the incident wave, as well as on the electrical properties of the conductor, and we illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example. The mathematical analysis made by a specialist in electromagnetics or a microwave engineer is apparently very different from the one made by a specialist in optics. We show here how both approaches lead to the same physical result and what are the key concepts which enable one to understand that despite the differences in the equations the solution to the problem happens to be the same. Our study starts with an analysis made by using the complex refractive index and the reflectance parameter. We show how this reflectance has a dependence with the square root of the frequency when the reflecting material is a good conductor, and the frequency of the wave is low enough. Then we analyze the same problem with a less known approach, which is based on the reflection coefficient of the electric field, a parameter that is most commonly used in electromagnetics and microwave engineering. In summary, this paper presents a mathematical study illustrated with a worked example which unifies the modeling of dispersion effects made by specialists in optics and the one made by specialists in electromagnetics. The main finding of this work is that it is possible to reproduce the dependence of the Fresnel reflectance with frequency from the intrinsic impedance of the reflecting media.

Keywords: dispersion, electromagnetic waves, microwaves, optics

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13 Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods

Authors: W. Swiderski


Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.

Keywords: Non-destructive testing, IR thermography, composite material, thermal stimulation

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12 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann, Ulrich Kulozik


Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.

Keywords: foam drying, freeze drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying, raspberry

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11 Terahertz Glucose Sensors Based on Photonic Crystal Pillar Array

Authors: S. S. Sree Sanker, K. N. Madhusoodanan


Optical biosensors are dominant alternative for traditional analytical methods, because of their small size, simple design and high sensitivity. Photonic sensing method is one of the recent advancing technology for biosensors. It measures the change in refractive index which is induced by the difference in molecular interactions due to the change in concentration of the analyte. Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide, which is a metabolic source in many of the organisms. The terahertz waves occupies the space between infrared and microwaves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz waves are expected to be applied to various types of sensors for detecting harmful substances in blood, cancer cells in skin and micro bacteria in vegetables. We have designed glucose sensors using silicon based 1D and 2D photonic crystal pillar arrays in terahertz frequency range. 1D photonic crystal has rectangular pillars with height 100 µm, length 1600 µm and width 50 µm. The array period of the crystal is 500 µm. 2D photonic crystal has 5×5 cylindrical pillar array with an array period of 75 µm. Height and diameter of the pillar array are 160 µm and 100 µm respectively. Two samples considered in the work are blood and glucose solution, which are labelled as sample 1 and sample 2 respectively. The proposed sensor detects the concentration of glucose in the samples from 0 to 100 mg/dL. For this, the crystal was irradiated with 0.3 to 3 THz waves. By analyzing the obtained S parameter, the refractive index of the crystal corresponding to the particular concentration of glucose was measured using the parameter retrieval method. Refractive indices of the two crystals decreased gradually with the increase in concentration of glucose in the sample. For 1D photonic crystals, a gradual decrease in refractive index was observed at 1 THz. 2D photonic crystal showed this behavior at 2 THz. The proposed sensor was simulated using CST Microwave studio. This will enable us to develop a model which can be used to characterize a glucose sensor. The present study is expected to contribute to blood glucose monitoring.

Keywords: CST microwave studio, glucose sensor, photonic crystal, terahertz waves

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10 Millimeter-Wave Silicon Power Amplifiers for 5G Wireless Communications

Authors: Kyoungwoon Kim, Cuong Huynh, Cam Nguyen


Exploding demands for more data, faster data transmission speed, less interference, more users, more wireless devices, and better reliable service-far exceeding those provided in the current mobile communications networks in the RF spectrum below 6 GHz-has led the wireless communication industry to focus on higher, previously unallocated spectrums. High frequencies in RF spectrum near (around 28 GHz) or within the millimeter-wave regime is the logical solution to meet these demands. This high-frequency RF spectrum is of increasingly important for wireless communications due to its large available bandwidths that facilitate various applications requiring large-data high-speed transmissions, reaching up to multi-gigabit per second, of vast information. It also resolves the traffic congestion problems of signals from many wireless devices operating in the current RF spectrum (below 6 GHz), hence handling more traffic. Consequently, the wireless communication industries are moving towards 5G (fifth generation) for next-generation communications such as mobile phones, autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, and the Internet of Things (IoT). The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) proved on 14th July 2016 three frequency bands for 5G around 28, 37 and 39 GHz. We present some silicon-based RFIC power amplifiers (PA) for possible implementation for 5G wireless communications around 28, 37 and 39 GHz. The 16.5-28 GHz PA exhibits measured gain of more than 34.5 dB and very flat output power of 19.4±1.2 dBm across 16.5-28 GHz. The 25.5/37-GHz PA exhibits gain of 21.4 and 17 dB, and maximum output power of 16 and 13 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively, in the single-band mode. In the dual-band mode, the maximum output power is 13 and 9.5 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively. The 10-19/23-29/33-40 GHz PA has maximum output powers of 15, 13.3, and 13.8 dBm at 15, 25, and 35 GHz, respectively, in the single-band mode. When this PA is operated in dual-band mode, it has maximum output powers of 11.4/8.2 dBm at 15/25 GHz, 13.3/3 dBm at 15/35 GHz, and 8.7/6.7 dBm at 25/35 GHz. In the tri-band mode, it exhibits 8.8/5.4/3.8 dBm maximum output power at 15/25/35 GHz. Acknowledgement: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors

Keywords: Microwaves, Millimeter waves, Power Amplifier, Wireless communications

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9 Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid Formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies

Authors: Satya P. Dubey, Hrushikesh A Abhyankar, Veronica Marchante, James L. Brighton, Björn Bergmann


Aims: To develop a mathematical model that simulates the ROP of PLA taking into account the effect of alternative energy to be implemented in a continuous reactive extrusion production process of PLA. Introduction: The production of large amount of waste is one of the major challenges at the present time, and polymers represent 70% of global waste. PLA has emerged as a promising polymer as it is compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic polymer made from renewable sources. However, the main limitation for the application of PLA is the traces of toxic metal catalyst in the final product. Thus, a safe and efficient production process needs to be developed to avoid the potential hazards and toxicity. It has been found that alternative energy sources (LASER, ultrasounds, microwaves) could be a prominent option to facilitate the ROP of PLA via continuous reactive extrusion. This process may result in complete extraction of the metal catalysts and facilitate less active organic catalysts. Methodology: Initial investigation were performed using the data available in literature for the reaction mechanism of ROP of PLA based on conventional metal catalyst stannous octoate. A mathematical model has been developed by considering significant parameters such as different initial concentration ratio of catalyst, co-catalyst and impurity. Effects of temperature variation and alternative energies have been implemented in the model. Results: The validation of the mathematical model has been made by using data from literature as well as actual experiments. Validation of the model including alternative energies is in progress based on experimental data for partners of the InnoREX project consortium. Conclusion: The model developed reproduces accurately the polymerisation reaction when applying alternative energy. Alternative energies have a great positive effect to increase the conversion and molecular weight of the PLA. This model could be very useful tool to complement Ludovic® software to predict the large scale production process when using reactive extrusion.

Keywords: polymer, poly-lactic acid (PLA), ring opening polymerization (ROP), metal-catalyst, bio-degradable, renewable source, alternative energy (AE)

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8 Investigation of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Microwave Assisted Extraction and Headspace Gas Chromatographic Determination of Hexanal in Fat-Rich Food

Authors: Birute Bugelyte, Ingrida Jurkute, Vida Vickackaite


The most complicated step of the determination of volatile compounds in complex matrices is the separation of analytes from the matrix. Traditional analyte separation methods (liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction) require a lot of time and labour; moreover, there is a risk to lose the volatile analytes. In recent years, headspace gas chromatography has been used to determine volatile compounds. To date, traditional extraction solvents have been used in headspace gas chromatography. As a rule, such solvents are rather volatile; therefore, a large amount of solvent vapour enters into the headspace together with the analyte. Because of that, the determination sensitivity of the analyte is reduced, a huge solvent peak in the chromatogram can overlap with the peaks of the analyts. The sensitivity is also limited by the fact that the sample can’t be heated at a higher temperature than the solvent boiling point. In 2018 it was suggested to replace traditional headspace gas chromatographic solvents with non-volatile, eco-friendly, biodegradable, inexpensive, and easy to prepare deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Generally, deep eutectic solvents have low vapour pressure, a relatively wide liquid range, much lower melting point than that of any of their individual components. Those features make DESs very attractive as matrix media for application in headspace gas chromatography. Also, DESs are polar compounds, so they can be applied for microwave assisted extraction. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying deep eutectic solvents for microwave assisted extraction and headspace gas chromatographic determination of hexanal in fat-rich food. Hexanal is considered one of the most suitable indicators of lipid oxidation degree as it is the main secondary oxidation product of linoleic acid, which is one of the principal fatty acids of many edible oils. Eight hydrophilic and hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents have been synthesized, and the influence of the temperature and microwaves on their headspace gas chromatographic behaviour has been investigated. Using the most suitable DES, microwave assisted extraction conditions and headspace gas chromatographic conditions have been optimized for the determination of hexanal in potato chips. Under optimized conditions, the quality parameters of the prepared technique have been determined. The suggested technique was applied for the determination of hexanal in potato chips and other fat-rich food.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, headspace gas chromatography, hexanal, microwave assisted extraction

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7 Resonant Fluorescence in a Two-Level Atom and the Terahertz Gap

Authors: Nikolai N. Bogolubov, Andrey V. Soldatov


Terahertz radiation occupies a range of frequencies somewhere from 100 GHz to approximately 10 THz, just between microwaves and infrared waves. This range of frequencies holds promise for many useful applications in experimental applied physics and technology. At the same time, reliable, simple techniques for generation, amplification, and modulation of electromagnetic radiation in this range are far from been developed enough to meet the requirements of its practical usage, especially in comparison to the level of technological abilities already achieved for other domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. This situation of relative underdevelopment of this potentially very important range of electromagnetic spectrum is known under the name of the 'terahertz gap.' Among other things, technological progress in the terahertz area has been impeded by the lack of compact, low energy consumption, easily controlled and continuously radiating terahertz radiation sources. Therefore, development of new techniques serving this purpose as well as various devices based on them is of obvious necessity. No doubt, it would be highly advantageous to employ the simplest of suitable physical systems as major critical components in these techniques and devices. The purpose of the present research was to show by means of conventional methods of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and the theory of open quantum systems, that a thoroughly studied two-level quantum system, also known as an one-electron two-level 'atom', being driven by external classical monochromatic high-frequency (e.g. laser) field, can radiate continuously at much lower (e.g. terahertz) frequency in the fluorescent regime if the transition dipole moment operator of this 'atom' possesses permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements. This assumption contradicts conventional assumption routinely made in quantum optics that only the non-diagonal matrix elements persist. The conventional assumption is pertinent to natural atoms and molecules and stems from the property of spatial inversion symmetry of their eigenstates. At the same time, such an assumption is justified no more in regard to artificially manufactured quantum systems of reduced dimensionality, such as, for example, quantum dots, which are often nicknamed 'artificial atoms' due to striking similarity of their optical properties to those ones of the real atoms. Possible ways to experimental observation and practical implementation of the predicted effect are discussed too.

Keywords: terahertz gap, two-level atom, resonant fluorescence, quantum dot, resonant fluorescence, two-level atom

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6 A Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Transmit/Receive Switch Subsystem for Communication Systems

Authors: Donghyun Lee, Cam Nguyen


Multi-band systems offer a great deal of benefit in modern communication and radar systems. In particular, multi-band antenna-array radar systems with their extended frequency diversity provide numerous advantages in detection, identification, locating and tracking a wide range of targets, including enhanced detection coverage, accurate target location, reduced survey time and cost, increased resolution, improved reliability and target information. An accurate calibration is a critical issue in antenna array systems. The amplitude and phase errors in multi-band and multi-polarization antenna array transceivers result in inaccurate target detection, deteriorated resolution and reduced reliability. Furthermore, the digital beam former without the RF domain phase-shifting is less immune to unfiltered interference signals, which can lead to receiver saturation in array systems. Therefore, implementing integrated front-end architecture, which can support calibration function with low insertion and filtering function from the farthest end of an array transceiver is of great interest. We report a dual K/Ka-band T/R/Calibration switch module with quasi-elliptic dual-bandpass filtering function implementing a Q-enhanced metamaterial transmission line. A unique dual-band frequency response is incorporated in the reception and calibration path of the proposed switch module utilizing the composite right/left-handed meta material transmission line coupled with a Colpitts-style negative generation circuit. The fabricated fully integrated T/R/Calibration switch module in 0.18-μm BiCMOS technology exhibits insertion loss of 4.9-12.3 dB and isolation of more than 45 dB in the reception, transmission and calibration mode of operation. In the reception and calibration mode, the dual-band frequency response centered at 24.5 and 35 GHz exhibits out-of-band rejection of more than 30 dB compared to the pass bands below 10.5 GHz and above 59.5 GHz. The rejection between the pass bands reaches more than 50 dB. In all modes of operation, the IP1-dB is between 4 and 11 dBm. Acknowledgement: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: microwaves, millimeter waves, T/R switch, wireless communications, wireless communications

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5 Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Pesaru Vigneshwar Reddy, Parvathaneni Pavan


Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.

Keywords: energy, e-factor, carbon foot print, micro-wave, sono-chemistry, advancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 223