Search results for: Alba Hernández.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 233

Search results for: Alba Hernández.

233 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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232 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
231 Total Phenols, Total Flavonoids Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Seeds Extracts of Lawsonia alba (henna) from Algeria

Authors: Rekia. Cherbi, Mokhtar. Saidi, Mohamed. Yousfi, Zhor. Rahmani

Abstract:

Lawsonia alba (Henna) is widely used in folkloric medicinal for a treatment of various skin diseases such as Eczema (atopic dermatitis), boils and sores. The aim of the present study is to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba grown in Algeria and selected from three different regions (Adrar, Biskra, and Ouargla). Total phenolics content ranged from 68,42 ± 0,54 to 88,31 ± 0,78mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight, the flavonoids content varied from 1,13 ± 0,0035 to 1,367 ± 0,002mg quercetin equivalents (Q)/ g dry weight and condensed tannins (14,47 ± 0,138 to 25,50 ± 0,076 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that all extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba seem to be good trappers of radicals, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 0,00826 and 0,01 g/l.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Lawsonia. alba, phenolic compounds, seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
230 Study on the Expression of Drought Tolerant Genes in Water-Stressed Basella Alba and Basella Rubra

Authors: T. O. Ajewole, K. S. Olorunmiaye, D. A. Animasaun, M. Okpeku

Abstract:

Drought impact on the production of food crops for the benefit of mankind cannot be overemphasized. This study shows the different kind of genes expressed at various level of drought regimes on Basella alba and rubra using a real-time PCR machine. The planting was done in the screen house while the gene expression study was carried out in the laboratory. Sandy-loamy soil was collected and four levels of drought regime was used as treatment and a control experiment was set up for the two vegetables. Drought interval of 5, 10, 15 and 20 days were used as treatments while a control experiment which was not starved of water at any point was also set up, five replicates were set up for each treatment. Stress was introduced at 12 Weeks after planting (WAP). From the result of this study, Basella alba shows the highest amplicon size of 34.6 and 52.32 for GmPCS5 and HVA1 respectively which by implication means these genes were expressed the more as the stress period interval increases.

Keywords: water stress, basella alba, basella rubra, HVA1

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229 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli

Abstract:

The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, canola, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
228 Development and Characterization of Soya Phosphatidylcholine Complex of Coumestans from Eclipta alba for the Management of Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Jain, Anki Jain, Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

The plant Eclipta alba Hassk. (Family: Compositae) contains coumestans (wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone) used in liver disorders. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a formulation of these coumestans in combination with the soya phosphatidylcholine (PC), in order to overcome the limitation of absorption and to investigate the protective effect of coumestans–phosphatidylcholine complex (C-PC) on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage in rats. Methanolic extract (ME) of the whole plant of Eclipta alba was fractionated with water and then with ehylacetate. Coumestans were characterized in the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic extract (EFME). The C-PC was prepared by dissolving EFME and PC in 1:1 ratio in dichloromethane and heating at 60°C for 2 h. The C-PC was characterized by DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro drug release from EFME and C-PC through egg membrane was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The hepatoprotective activity of C-PC (equivalent to 5.35 and 10.7 mg/kg body weight of EFME), ME 250 mg/kg and EFME 5.35 mg/kg was evaluated by measuring various enzymes level. C-PC significantly provided better protection to the liver by restoring the enzyme levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total billirubin with respect to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated group (P < 0.001). Histopathological studies were also performed. The C-PC provided better protection to rat liver than ME and EFME at similar doses as well as shown significant regeneration of hepatocytes, central vein, intact cytoplasm, and nucleus.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, wedelolactone, soya phosphatidylcholine, eclipta alba

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227 Influence of Organic Supplements on Shoot Multiplication Efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba

Authors: T. Punjansing, M. Nakkuntod, S. Homchan, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd

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The influence of organic supplements on growth and multiplication efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba seedlings was investigated. 12 week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 8 g/L agar and various concentrations of coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mL/L) combined with potato extract (0, 25 and 50 g/L) and the pH was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. The cultures were then kept under constant photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) at 25 ± 2 °C for 12 weeks. The highest number of shoots (3.0 shoots/explant) was obtained when cultured on the medium added with 50 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract whereas the highest number of leaves (5.9 leaves/explant) and roots (6.1 roots/explant) could receive on the medium supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. Additionally, plantlets of P. tankervilleae var. alba were transferred to grow into seven different substrates i.e. soil, sand, coconut husk chip, soil-sand mix (1: 1), soil-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1), sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1) and soil-sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1: 1) for four weeks. The results found that acclimatized plants showed 100% of survivals when sand, coconut husk chip and sand-coconut husk chip mix are used as substrates. The number of leaves induced by sand-coconut husk chip mix was significantly higher than that planted in other substrates (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant difference in new shoot formation among these substrates was observed (P < 0.05). This precursory developing protocol was likely to be applied for more large scale of plant production as well as conservation of germplasm of this orchid species.

Keywords: organic supplements, acclimatization, Phaius tankervilleae var. alba, orchid

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
226 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder on some growth parameters and phytomass of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment). The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL), fresh and dry weight of shoot and root (SFw, RFw, SDw and RDw, respectively and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of all the eight donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Bromus tectorum> Melilotus indica. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of sol the t-test indicated that the difference was insignificant between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: allelopathy, soil, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana, growth, weeds

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225 Essential Oil Encapsulated into Succinic Acid Modified Beta-Cyclodextrin: Characterization, Docking Study, and Antifungal Activity

Authors: Amine Ez-Zoubi, Abdellah Farah

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Because of their effectiveness and environmental safety, many essential oils have been investigated as biopesticides. Nevertheless, the encapsulation process is necessary to improve its physical, chemical, and biological properties. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to study the physicochemical characteristics, and antifungal activity of the Artemisia Herba-Alba essential oil (HAEO) encapsulated in succinic acid modified β-CD (SACD). A yellowish oil was obtained from plant A. Herba-Alba using hydrodistillation and GC-MS was used to identify the chemical composition, in which α-Thujone (65.0%) was the main component in HAEO. The succinic acid has been esterified via the hydroxyl groups in β-CD to produce SACD. In addition, the inclusion complex formation of HAEO and SACD was generated according to the co-precipitation method and was analyzed by several techniques. The antifungal activity in vitro was examined against Botrytis cinerea by direct contact with a potato dextrose agar culture medium. At a 0.1 % concentration, the HAEO in encapsulated form showed higher potential for the control of B. cinerea when compared to the EO in free form (38.34 to 12%). Thus, these results produced evidence that the encapsulation of EOs in SACD can be useful for the development of B.cinerea inhibitors and a promising alternative biopesticide.

Keywords: Artemisia Herba-Alba essential oil, succinic acid modified β-cyclodextrin, inclusion complex, co-precipitation, Botrytis cinerea, direct contact

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224 Impact of Gamma Irradiation on Biological Activities of Artemisia herba alba from Algeria

Authors: Abir Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim, Amina Titouche, Mohamed Hazzit

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Phytotherapy is based on use of plant natural products holding the main sources of drugs with healing properties for the treatment of human, animal or vegetable diseases. With these aims, and to replace chemical preservatives in natural products, we are interested to use essential oils from Algerian endemic plants belonging to the Asteraceae family: Artemisia herba alba Asso, which was undergoes a hydro-distillation after its irradiation by Gamma rays at frequencies: 10, 20, and 30 KGray which gave respectively the following essential oil yields: 1.087%, 1.087%, 1.085%, compared with that of the untreated sample giving a yield of 1.27 %. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro of essential oil for A. herba alba has been assessed by two different methods: inhibition of DPPH radical and measurement of reducing power. The first method has not revealed a very big difference regardless of the dose of irradiation, the IC50 is about 4000 mg/l, the maximum of inhibition was around 49.4%, likewise, the test of reducing power awarded us a maximum reducing capacity was of 0.76%; both of results were registered by the specimen irradiated at 20 KGy, it has a more better antioxidant power than no irradiated sample but slightly. To combat Fusarium culmorum, causing the wilts and rots, we are focused on the antifungal screening of this aromatic plant. The results obtained, followed by measurements of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC); showed promising inhibitory effect against pathogen tested. With a yield superior to l%, the essential oil has shown a remarkable efficiency on the stump, mainly for sample irradiate at 30KGray (MICs= 625 µg/ml; MICc= 1250 µg/ml) with MIC of 2%. These results demonstrate a good antifungal activity, to limit and even to stop the development of the pathogenic microorganism and also the positive effect of dose of irradiation to upgrade this capacity as well, to uphold the antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: artemisia herba alba Asso, essential oil yield, gamma ray, antioxidant activity, antifungal activity

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223 In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'

Authors: S. F. Afzali, W. L. Wong

Abstract:

The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, goldfish, organic extract, treatment

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222 Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Authors: Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu, Mehmet Celik, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Ladine Celik, Yusuf Uzun

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A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked and no signs of viral, microbial or ecto-parasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and warmed fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextrose solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextrose solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living creature has right and deserves a chance to live.

Keywords: wild life, barn owl, Tyto alba, rescue, life support, feeding

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221 Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality of Functional Bread Enriched with Morus Alba Leaf Extract during Storage

Authors: Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Daria Szymanowska, Piotr Szulc, Oskar Szczepaniak, Marcin Dziedzinski, Szymon Byczkiewicz

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A wide range of food products is offered on the market. However, increasing consumer awareness of the impact of food on health causes a growing interest in enriched products. Cereal products are an important element of the daily diet of man. In the literature, no data was found on the impact of Morus alba preparations on the content of active ingredients and properties of wholemeal bread. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L) are a rich source of bioactive compounds with multidirectional antioxidant activity, which means that they can be a component of new foods that prevent disease or support therapy and improve the patient's health. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the addition of white mulberry leaf extract on the antioxidant activity of bread. It has been shown that bread can be a carrier of biologically active substances from mulberry leaves, because the addition of mulberry at a sensory acceptable level and meeting microbiological requirements significantly influenced the increase in the content of bioactive ingredients and the antioxidant activity of bread. The addition of mulberry leaf water extract to bread increased the level of flavonols and phenolic acids, in particular protocatechic, chlorogenic gallic and caffeic acid and isoquercetin and rutine, and also increased the antioxidant potential, which were microbiological stable during 5 days storage. It has been shown also that the addition of Morus alba preparations has a statistically significant effect on anti-radical activity. In addition, there were no differences in activity in DPPH · and ABTS · + tests between post-storage samples. This means that the compounds responsible for the anti-radical activity present in the bread were not inactivated during storage. It was found that the tested bread was characterized by high microbiological purity, which is indicated by the obtained results of analyzes performed for the titers of indicator microorganisms and the absence of pathogens. In the tested products from the moment of production throughout the entire storage period, no undesirable microflora was found, which proves their safety and guarantees microbiological stability during the storage period.

Keywords: antioxidants, bread, extract, quality

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220 Analyzing the Factors That Influence Students' Professional Identity Using Hierarchical Regression Analysis to Ease Higher Education Transition

Authors: Alba Barbara-i-Molinero, Rosalia Cascon Pereira, Ana Beatriz Hernandez Lara

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Our general motivation in undertaking this study is to propose alternative measures to lighten students experienced tensions during the transitions from high school to higher education based on the concept of professional identity strength. In order to do so, we measured the influence that three different factors external motivational conditionals, educational experience conditionals and personal motivation conditionals exerted over students’ professional identity strength and proposed the measures considering the obtained results. By using hierarchical regression analysis we addressed this issue, across disciplines and bachelor degrees, allowing us to gain also deeper insight into first-year university students PID. Our findings suggest that students’ from the different disciplines are influenced by personal motivational conditionals; while students from sciences are also influenced by external motivational conditionals. Based on the obtained results we propose three different alternative educational and recruitment strategies which aim to increase students’ professional identity strength and reduce the tensions generated during high school-university transitions. From this study theoretical contributions regarding the differences in the influence of these factors on students from different bachelor degrees arise; and practical implications for universities, derived from the proposed strategies.

Keywords: professional identity, transitions, higher education, strategies

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219 A Comparative Case Study on Teaching Romanian Language to Foreign Students: Swedes in Lund versus Arabs in Alba Iulia

Authors: Lucian Vasile Bagiu, Paraschiva Bagiu

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The study is a contrastive essay on language acquisition and learning and follows the outcomes of teaching Romanian language to foreign students both at Lund University, Sweden (from 2014 to 2017) and at '1 Decembrie 1918' University in Alba Iulia, Romania (2017-2018). Having employed the same teaching methodology (on campus, same curricula) for the same level of study (beginners’ level: A1-A2), the essay focuses on the written exam at the end of the semester. The study argues on grammar exercises concerned with: the indefinite and the definite article; the conjugation of verbs in the present indicative; the possessive; verbs in the past tense; the subjunctive; the degrees of comparison for adjectives. Identifying similar errors when solving identical grammar exercises by different groups of foreign students is an opportunity to emphasize the major challenges any foreigner has to face and overcome when trying to acquire Romanian language. The conclusion draws attention to the complexity of the morphology of Romanian language in several key elements which may be insurmountable for a foreign speaker no matter if the language acquisition takes place in a foreign country or a Romanian university.

Keywords: Arab students, morphological errors, Romanian language, Swedish students, written exam

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
218 Paramecuim as a Model for the Evaluation of Toxicity (Growth, Total Proteins, Respiratory and GSH Bio Marker Changes) Observed after Treatment with Essential Oils Isolated from Artemisia herba-alba Plant of Algeria

Authors: Bouchiha Hanene, Rouabhi Rachid, Bouchama Khaled, Djebar Berrebbah Houraya, Djebar Mohamed Reda

Abstract:

Recently, some natural products such as essentials oils (EOs) have been used in the fields as alternative to synthetic compounds, to minimize the negative impacts to the environment. This fact has led to questions about the possible impact of EOs on ecosystems. Currently in toxicology, the use of alternative models can help to understand the mechanisms of toxic action, at different levels of organization of ecosystems. Algae, protozoa and bacteria form the base of the food chain and protozoan cells are used as bioindicators often of pollution in environment. Unicellular organisms offer the possibility of direct study of independent cells with specific characteristics of individual cells and whole organisms at the same time. This unicellular facilitates the study of physiological processes, and effects of pollutants at the cellular level, which makes it widely used to assess the toxic effects of various xenobiotics. This study aimed to verify the effects of EOs of one famous plant used tremendously in our folk medicine, namely Artemisia herba alba in causing acute toxicity (24 hours) and chronic (15 days) toxicity for model cellular (Paramecium sp). To this end, cellular’s of paramecium were exposed to various concentrations (Three doses were chosen) of EOs extracted from plant (Artemisia herba alba). In the first experiment, the cellular s cultures were exposed for 48 hours to different concentrations to determine the median lethal concentration (DL50). We followed the evolution of physiological parameters (growth), biochemical (total proteins, respiratory metabolism), as well as the variations of a bio marker the GSH. Our results highlighted a light inhibition of the growth of the protozoa as well as a disturbance of the contents of total proteins and a reduction in the reduced rate of glutathione. The polarographic study revealed a stimulation of the consumption of O2 and this at the treated cells.

Keywords: essential oils, protozoa, bio indicators, toxicity, Growth, bio marker, proteins, polarographic

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217 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress

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A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

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216 Collective Movement between Two Lego EV3 Mobile Robots

Authors: Luis Fernando Pinedo-Lomeli, Rosa Martha Lopez-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio Michel-Macarty, Cesar Cruz-Hernandez, Liliana Cardoza-Avendaño, Humberto Cruz-Hernandez

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Robots are working in industry and services performing repetitive or dangerous tasks, however, when flexible movement capabilities and complex tasks are required, the use of many robots is needed. Also, productivity can be improved by reducing times to perform tasks. In the last years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of collective control of mobile robots. This interest is justified as there are many advantages when two or more robots are collaborating in a particular task. Some examples are: cleaning toxic waste, transportation and manipulation of objects, exploration, and surveillance, search and rescue. In this work a study of collective movements of mobile robots is presented. A solution of collisions avoidance is developed. This solution is levered on a communication implementation that allows coordinate movements in different paths were avoiding obstacles.

Keywords: synchronization, communication, robots, legos

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
215 Determination of 1-Deoxynojirimycin and Phytochemical Profile from Mulberry Leaves Cultivated in Indonesia

Authors: Yasinta Ratna Esti Wulandari, Vivitri Dewi Prasasty, Adrianus Rio, Cindy Geniola

Abstract:

Mulberry is a plant that widely cultivated around the world, mostly for silk industry. In recent years, the study showed that the mulberry leaves have an anti-diabetic effect which mostly comes from the compound known as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). DNJ is a very potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. It will decrease the degradation rate of carbohydrates in digestive tract, leading to slower glucose absorption and reducing the post-prandial glucose level significantly. The mulberry leaves also known as the best source of DNJ. Since then, the DNJ in mulberry leaves had received a considerable attention, because of the increased number of diabetic patients and the raise of people awareness to find a more natural cure for diabetic. The DNJ content in mulberry leaves varied depend on the mulberry species, leaf’s age, and the plant’s growth environment. Few of the mulberry varieties that were cultivated in Indonesiaare Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The lack of data concerning phytochemicals contained in the Indonesian mulberry leaves are restraining their use in the medicinal field. The aim of this study is to fully utilize the use of mulberry leaves cultivated in Indonesia as a medicinal herb in local, national, or global community, by determining the DNJ and other phytochemical contents in them. This study used eight leaf samples which are the young leaves and mature leaves of both Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The DNJ content was analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The stationary phase was silica C18 column and the mobile phase was acetonitrile:acetic acid 0.1% 1:1 with elution rate 1 mL/min. Prior to HPLC analysis the samples were derivatized with FMOC to ensure the DNJ detectable by VWD detector at 254 nm. Results showed that the DNJ content in samples are ranging from 2.90-0.07 mg DNJ/ g leaves, with the highest content found in M. cathayana mature leaves (2.90 ± 0.57 mg DNJ/g leaves). All of the mature leaf samples also found to contain higher amount of DNJ from their respective young leaf samples. The phytochemicals in leaf samples was tested using qualitative test. Result showed that all of the eight leaf samples contain alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The presence of this phytochemicals contribute to the therapeutic effect of mulberry leaves. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analysis was also performed to the eight samples to quantitatively determine their phytochemicals content. The pyrolysis temperature was set at 400 °C, with capillary column Phase Rtx-5MS 60 × 0.25 mm ID stationary phase and helium gas mobile phase. Few of the terpenes found are known to have anticancer and antimicrobial properties. From all the results, all of four samples of mulberry leaves which are cultivated in Indonesia contain DNJ and various phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes which are beneficial to our health.

Keywords: Morus, 1-deoxynojirimycin, HPLC, Py-GC-MS

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214 Secondary True to Life Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanoplastics: Obtention, Characterization, and Hazard Evaluation

Authors: Aliro Villacorta, Laura Rubio, Mohamed Alaraby, Montserrat López Mesas, Victor Fuentes-Cebrian, Oscar H. Moriones, Ricard Marcos, Alba Hernández.

Abstract:

Micro and nano plastics (MNPLs) are emergent environmental pollutants requiring urgent information on their potential risks to human health. One of the problems associated with the evaluation of their undesirable effects is the lack of real samples matching those resulting from the environmental degradation of plastic wastes. To such end, we propose an easy method to obtain polyethylene terephthalate nano plastics from water plastic bottles (PET-NPLs) but, in principle, applicable to any other plastic goods sources. An extensive characterization indicates that the proposed process produces uniform samples of PET-NPLs of around 100 nm, as determined by using a multi-angle and dynamic light scattering methodology. An important point to be highlighted is that to avoid the metal contamination resulting from methods using metal blades/burrs for milling, trituration, or sanding, we propose to use diamond burrs to produce metal-free samples. To visualize the toxicological profile of the produced PET-NPLs, we have evaluated their ability to be internalized by cells, their cytotoxicity, and their ability to induce oxidative stress and induce DNA damage. In this preliminary approach, we have detected their cellular uptake, but without the induction of significant biological effects. Thus, no relevant increases in toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction, or DNA damage -as detected with the comet assay- have been observed. The use of real samples, as produced in this study, will generate relevant data in the discussion about the potential health risks associated with MNPLs exposures.

Keywords: nanoplastics, polyethylene terephthalate, physicochemical characterization, cell uptake, cytotoxicity

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213 Bioproduction of Phytohormones by Liquid Fermentation Using a Mexican Strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Hernandez Castillo Daniel, Martinez Hernandez José Luis, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Anguiano Cabello Julia Cecilia

Abstract:

Plant hormones are a group of molecules that control different processes ranging from the growth and development of the plant until their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the capacity of production of various phytohormones was evaluated from a strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid fermentation system using the modified Mierch medium added with a hydrolyzate compound of mead all in a reactor without agitation at 28 °C for 15 days. Quantification of the metabolites was performed using high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results showed that a microbial broth with at least five different types of plant hormones was obtained: gibberellic acid, zeatin, kinetin, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid, the last one was higher than the others metabolites produced. The production of such hormones using a single type of microorganism could be in the future a great alternative to reduce production costs and similarly reduce the use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: biosystem, plant hormones, Botryodiplodia theobromae, fermentation

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212 Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for Their Protective Properties against Oxidative DNA Damage and Mutagenecity

Authors: Karem H. Alzoubi, Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Omar F. Khabour, Nizar M. Mhaidat

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Herbal medicinal products represent a major focus for drug development and industry and it holds a significant share in drug-market all over the globe. In here, selected medicinal plant extracts from Jordan with high antioxidative capacity were tested for their protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using in vitro 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. The following plant extracts were tested Cupressus sempervirens L., Psidium guajava (L.) Gaerth., Silybum marianum L., Malva sylvestris L., Varthemia iphionoides Boiss., Eminium spiculatum L. Blume, Pistachia palaestina Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Ficus carica L., Morus alba Linn , Cucumis sativus L., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Salvia triloba L., Zizyphus spina-christi L. Desf., and Laurus nobilis L. A fractionation scheme for the active plant extracts of the above was followed. Plants extract fractions with best protective properties against DNA damage included hexane fraction of S. marianum L. (aerial parts), chloroform fractions of P. palaestina Boiss. (Fruits), ethanolic fractions of E. camaldulensis Dehnh (leaves), S. triloba L. (leaves), and ethanolic fractions of Z. spina-christi L. Desf. (Fruits/leaves). On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts of V. iphionoides Boiss was found to increase oxidative DNA damage. Results of the SCEs are undergoing. In conclusion, plant extracts with antioxidative DNA damage properties might have clinical applications in cancer prevention.

Keywords: medicinal plants extract, fractionation, oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine, SCEs, Jordan

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211 The Use of Ultrasound as a Safe and Cost-Efficient Technique to Assess Visceral Fat in Children with Obesity

Authors: Bassma A. Abdel Haleem, Ehab K. Emam, George E. Yacoub, Ashraf M. Salem

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Background: Obesity is an increasingly common problem in childhood. Childhood obesity is considered the main risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (diabetes type 2, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). Recent studies estimated that among children with obesity 30-60% will develop MetS. Visceral fat thickness is a valuable predictor of the development of MetS. Computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry are the main techniques to assess visceral fat. However, they carry the risk of radiation exposure and are expensive procedures. Consequently, they are seldom used in the assessment of visceral fat in children. Some studies explored the potential of ultrasound as a substitute to assess visceral fat in the elderly and found promising results. Given the vulnerability of children to radiation exposure, we sought to evaluate ultrasound as a safer and more cost-efficient alternative for measuring visceral fat in obese children. Additionally, we assessed the correlation between visceral fat and obesity indicators such as insulin resistance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 46 children with obesity (aged 6–16 years). Their visceral fat was evaluated by ultrasound. Subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), i.e., the measurement from the skin-fat interface to the linea alba, and visceral fat thickness (VFT), i.e., the thickness from the linea alba to the aorta, were measured and correlated with anthropometric measures, fasting lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and liver enzymes (ALT). Results: VFT assessed via ultrasound was found to strongly correlate with the BMI, HOMA-IR with AUC for VFT as a predictor of insulin resistance of 0.858 and cut off point of >2.98. VFT also correlates positively with serum triglycerides and serum ALT. VFT correlates negatively with HDL. Conclusions: Ultrasound, a safe and cost-efficient technique, could be a useful tool for measuring the abdominal fat thickness in children with obesity. Ultrasound-measured VFT could be an appropriate prognostic factor for insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated liver enzymes in obese children.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, pediatric obesity, sonography, visceral fat

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210 Identification of Three Strategies to Enhance University Students’ Professional Identity, Using Hierarchical Regression Analysis

Authors: Alba Barbara-i-Molinero, Rosalia Cascon-Pereira, Ana Beatriz Hernandez

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Students’ transitions from high school to the university have been challenged by the lack of continuity between both contexts. This mismatch directly affects students by generating feelings of anxiety and uncertainty, which increases the dropout rates and reduces students’ academic success. This discontinuity emanates because ‘transitions concern a restructuring of what the person does and who the person perceives him or herself to be’. Hence, identity becomes essential in these transitions. Generally, identity is the answer to questions such as who am I? or who are we? This is integrated by personal identity, and as many social identities as groups, the individual feels he/she is a part. A case in point to construct a social identity is the identification with a profession. For this reason, a way to lighten the generated tension during transitions is applying strategies orientated to enhance students’ professional identity in their point of entry to the higher education institution. That would create a sense of continuity between high school and higher education contexts, increasing their Professional Identity Strength. To develop the strategies oriented to enhance students Professional Identity, it is important to analyze what influences it. There exist several influencing factors that influence Professional Identity (e.g., professional status, the recommendation of family and peers, the academic environment, or the chosen bachelor degree). There is a gap in the literature analyzing the impact of these factors on more than one bachelor degree. In this regards, our study takes an additional step with the aim of evaluating the influence of several factors on Professional Identity using a cohort of university students from multiple degrees between the ages of 17-19 years. To do so, we used hierarchical regression analyses to assess the impact of the following factors: External Motivation Conditionals (EMC), Educational Experience Conditionals (EEC) and Personal Motivational Conditional (PMP). After conducting the analyses, we found that the assessed factors influenced students’ professional identity differently according to their bachelor degree and discipline. For example, PMC and EMC positively affected science students, while architecture, law and economics and engineering students were just influenced by PMC. Basing on that influences, we proposed three different strategies aimed to enhance students’ professional identity, in the short and long term. These strategies are: to enhance students’ professional identity before the incorporation to university through campuses and icebreaker activities; to apply recruitment strategies aimed to provide realistic information of the bachelor degree; and to incorporate different activities, such as in-vitro, in situ and self-directed activities aimed to enhance longitudinally students’ professional identity from the university. From these results, theoretical contributions and practical implications arise. First, we contribute to the literature by identifying which factors influence students from different bachelor degrees since there is still no evidence. And, second, using as a benchmark the obtained results, we contribute from a practical perspective, by proposing several alternative strategies to increase students’ professional identity strength aiming to lighten their transition from high school to higher education.

Keywords: professional identity, higher education, educational strategies , students

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209 Methylation Analysis of PHF20L1 and DACT2 Gene Promoters in Women with Breast Cancer

Authors: Marta E. Hernandez-Caballero, Veronica Borgonio-Cuadra, Antonio Miranda-Duarte, Xochitl Rojas-Toledo, Normand Garcia-Hernandez, Maura Cardenas-Garcia, Teresa Abad-Camacho

Abstract:

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common tumor in women over the world. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification critical in CpG sites, aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoters is a hallmark of cancer. So, gene expression can be regulated by alterations in DNA methylation. In cell lines DACT2 gene reduces the growth and migration of tumor cells by its participation in the suppression of TGFb/SMAD2/3. PHF20L1 is involved in histone acetylation therefore, it regulates transcription. Our aim was to analyze the methylation status of the DACT2 and PHF20L1 promoter regions in tumoral and healthy mammary tissue from women with BC in different progression states. The study included 77 patients from Centro Medico Nacional La Raza in Mexico City. After identifying a CpG island in DACT2 and PHF20L1 promoters, DNA methylation status was analyzed through sodium bisulfite with subsequent amplification using methylation-specific PCR. Results revealed no changes in methylation status of PHF20L1 and cancer stages (II y III) or in comparison to healthy tissues, it was demethylated. DACT2 promoter methylation was no significant between tumoral stages (II, P = 0.37; III, P = 0.17) or with healthy tissue. Previous data reported DACT2 methylated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma but in this study promoter methylation was not observed. PHF20L1 protein contains N-terminal Tudor and C-terminal plant homeodomain domains, it has been suggested that can stabilize DNMT1 regulating DNA methylation, therefore, was associated with poor prognostic in BC. We found no evidence of methylation in patients and controls in PHF20L1 promoter, so its association with BC may have no direct relation with promoter methylation. More studies including other methylation sites in these genes in BC are necessary.

Keywords: bisulfite conversion, breast cancer, DACT2, DNA methylation, PHF20L1, tumoral status

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208 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Medical Institution from the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Camilo Andres Agudelo-Velez, Lina María Martinez-Sanchez, Natalia Perilla-Hernandez, Maria De Los Angeles Rodriguez-Gazquez, Felipe Hernandez-Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero-Moreno, Camilo Ruiz-Mejia, Isabel Cristina Ortiz-Trujillo, Monica Maria Zuluaga-Quintero

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common condition, characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, partially reversible and progressive, that represents 5% of total deaths around the world, and it is expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Objective: To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a medical institution from the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with a sample of 50 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. The software SPSS vr. 20 was used for the statistical analysis. For the quantitative variables, averages, standard deviations, and maximun and minimun values were calculated, while for ordinal and nominal qualitative variables, proportions were estimated. Results: The average age was 73.5±9.3 years, 52% of the patients were women, 50% of them had retired, 46% ere married and 80% lived in the city of Medellín. The mean time of diagnosis was 7.8±1.3 years and 100% of the patients were treated at the internal medicine service. The most common clinical features were: 36% were classified as class D for the disease, 34% had a FEV1 <30%, 88% had a history of smoking and 52% had oxygen therapy at home. Conclusion: It was found that class D was the most common, and the majority of the patients had a history of smoking, indicating the need to strengthen promotion and prevention strategies in this regard.

Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary medicine, oxygen inhalation therapy

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207 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile in Patients with Preeclampsia in a Private Institution in Medellin, Colombia 2015

Authors: Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Evert Armando Jiménez Cotes, Natalia Perilla Hernández, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Duque Restrepo, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero Moreno, Juan José Builes Gómez, Camilo Ruiz Mejía, Ana Lucia Arango Gómez

Abstract:

Preeclampsia is a clinical complication during pregnancy with high incidence in Colombia; therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of external conditions and medical interventions, in order to promote measures that encourage improvements in the quality of life. Objective: Determine clinical and sociodemographic variables in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 50 patients with the diagnosis of preeclampsia, from a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. We used the software SPSS ver.20 for statistical analysis. For the qualitative variables, we calculated the mean and standard deviation, while, for ordinal and nominal levels of quantitative variables, ratios were estimated. Results: The average age was 26.8±5.9 years. The predominant characteristics were socioeconomic stratum 2 (48%), students (55%), mixed race (46%) and middle school as level of education (38%). As for clinical features, 72% of the cases were mild preeclampsia, and 22% were severe forms. The most common clinical manifestations were edema (46%), headache (62%), and proteinuria (55%). As for the Gyneco-obstetric history, 8% reported previous episodes of this disease and it was the first pregnancy for 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Preeclampsia is a frequent condition in young women; on the other hand, headache and edema were the most common reasons for consultation, therefore, doctors need to be aware of these symptoms in pregnant women.

Keywords: pre-eclampsia, hypertension, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, abdominal, edema

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206 Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modeling and Optimization of Conidiospore Production of Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Maria G. Serna-Diaz, Alejandro Tellez-Jurado, Juan C. Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Eva S. Hernandez-Gress, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Iaina P. Medina-Serna

Abstract:

Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that has been utilized as a low-cost fungicide for biological control of pests, and it is important to determine the optimal conditions to produce the highest amount of conidiospores of Trichoderma harzianum. In this work, the conidiospore production of Trichoderma harzianum is modeled and optimized by using Artificial Neural Networks (AANs). In order to gather data of this process, 30 experiments were carried out taking into account the number of hours of culture (10 distributed values from 48 to 136 hours) and the culture humidity (70, 75 and 80 percent), obtained as a response the number of conidiospores per gram of dry mass. The experimental results were used to develop an iterative algorithm to create 1,110 ANNs, with different configurations, starting from one to three hidden layers, and every hidden layer with a number of neurons from 1 to 10. Each ANN was trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, which is used to learn the relationship between input and output values. The ANN with the best performance was chosen in order to simulate the process and be able to maximize the conidiospores production. The obtained ANN with the highest performance has 2 inputs and 1 output, three hidden layers with 3, 10 and 10 neurons in each layer, respectively. The ANN performance shows an R2 value of 0.9900, and the Root Mean Squared Error is 1.2020. This ANN predicted that 644175467 conidiospores per gram of dry mass are the maximum amount obtained in 117 hours of culture and 77% of culture humidity. In summary, the ANN approach is suitable to represent the conidiospores production of Trichoderma harzianum because the R2 value denotes a good fitting of experimental results, and the obtained ANN model was used to find the parameters to produce the biggest amount of conidiospores per gram of dry mass.

Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum, modeling, optimization, artificial neural network

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205 Formulation and Evaluation of Ethosomes of Plumeria indica Linn. Flowers

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey

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The number of products based on new drug delivery systems has significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. These biopharmaceuticals present challenges to drug delivery scientists because of their unique nature and difficulty in delivery through conventional routes. Therefore, future research will focus on the delivery of these complex molecules through different routes, including oral, nasal, pulmonary, vaginal, rectal, etc. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate ethosomes of Plumeria indica flowers which may deliver the drug to targeted site more efficiently than marketed preparation and also overcome the problems related with oral administration of drug. The formulations were prepared with ethanol, lecithin, propylene glycol and were evaluated.

Keywords: ethosomes, herbal extract, plumeria alba, lecithin

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204 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla

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This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

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