Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6140

Search results for: wild life

6140 Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Authors: Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu, Mehmet Celik, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Ladine Celik, Yusuf Uzun

Abstract:

A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked and no signs of viral, microbial or ecto-parasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and warmed fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextrose solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextrose solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living creature has right and deserves a chance to live.

Keywords: wild life, barn owl, Tyto alba, rescue, life support, feeding

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6139 Appraisal of the Nutritional Potential and Safety of Wild Vegetables of South Africa

Authors: Thozama Kwinana-Mandindi

Abstract:

The contribution made by wild edible plants to the livelihoods, food baskets and diets of the indigenous people, particularly among the rural dwellers is invaluable. These wild vegetables are among the non-conventional crops which are widely distributed throughout the wild regions in South Africa, indigenous communities have always exploited for micro-nutrient supply. They also supply significant complex, recently discovered compounds, naturally occurring phytonutrients. In order to protect and promote sustainable use of these plants for household food security, there is a need to better understand them through studies and innovations. Assessment of the wild edible plants’ safety is very key to the promotion as an agricultural product which can be utilised during dry seasons and periods of food scarcity to alleviate nutrient insecurity. Through the use of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), the study is seen as the vital step in taking a holistic view of the value of the four most consumed wild vegetables in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa as they were analysed for safety and appraised for components that can influence utilisation. Results indicate that they can be relied upon and cultivation be promoted.

Keywords: nature’s resource, wild vegetables, appraisal for safety, SEM

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6138 Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Free-Living Wild Birds by Using Carbol Fuchsin Staining Methods in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik

Abstract:

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common parasitic infection in domesticated, caged, wild birds. Cryptosporidium sp. has been reported in over 30 avian species worldwide. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium galli are recognised avian species of Cryptosporidium. This study was carried out to determine the prevalance of Cryptosporidium sp. in wild birds in Konya province, Turkey. Faecal samples were collected from 65 wild birds including 52 Podicipedidae (Podiceps cristatus), 11 Rallidae (Fulicia Atra), 2 Anitadia (Aytha ferina). Faecal samples were stained with Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technigue, they were examined under light microscope for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyts. Among the 65 faecal samples, 11 (16.9%) were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results of this study indicate that wild birds may play an important role in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, Cryptosporidiosis has suggested zoonotic potential and thus warrant further attention. In addition, biological and genetic studies are required to provide more information on Cryptosporidiosis.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium sp, wild birds, Konya, Turkey

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6137 Proximate Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Striped Sea Bream (Lithognathus mormyrus)

Authors: Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Oguz Tasbozan, Celal Erbas, Zafer Akpinar, S. Surhan Tabakoglu, Mehmet Celik, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of marketable size striped sea bream of obtained from fish cages of aquaculture companies and fishermen. Ten fish samples were used for both groups. The average total weight of farmed and wild samples was 252,75 ± 36,78 g and 193,0 ± 32 g respectively. While the protein level of farmed samples was (23,49±0,15) higher than that of wild fish (21,80±0,18), lipid level was less (1,55±0,08) in farmed group than wild fish samples (2,52±0,07). Amount of Σ SFA was significantly higher in wild group (44,09±0,9) than the farmed (32,79±1,13) group. Total MUFA were 36,38±29,91 in wild and 29,91±1,52 in farmed fish. However, Σ PUFA (27,89±1,53) and EPA+DHA values (15,73±1,63) of farmed samples were significantly higher than the wild (14,06 ±3,67 and 9,7±0,86) counterparts. Σώ3/ώ6 rate was better in farmed group with 2,54±0,84 in comparison with (1,59±0,06) the other group. As a result, it can be speculated that the farmed striped sea bream can be preferred by the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5073.

Keywords: striped sea bream, Litognathus mormyrus, proximate composition, fatty acid profile

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6136 Wild Rice (Zizania sp.): A Potential Source for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Authors: Farooq Anwar, Gokhan Zengin, Khalid M. Alkharfy

Abstract:

Wild rice (Zizania sp.) is an annual cross-pollinated, emergent, aquatic grass that mainly grows naturally in the Great Lakes region of the North America. The nutritional quality attributes of wild rice are superior to the conventional brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of higher contents of important minerals (especially phosphorous, potassium, magnesium and calcium), B-complex vitamins, vitamin E and amino acids. In some parts of the world, wild rice is valued as a primary food source. The lipids content of wild rice is reported to be low in the range of 0.7 and 1.1%, however, the lipids are recognized as a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (including linoleic and α-linolenic acid) and phytosterols in addition to containing reasonably good amount of tocols. Besides, wild rice is reported to contain an appreciable amount of high-value compounds such as phenolics with antioxidant properties. Presence of such nutritional bioactives contributes towards medicinal benefits and multiple biological activities of this specialty rice. The present lecture is mainly designed to focus on the detailed nutritional attributes, profile of high-value bioactive components and pharmaceutical/biological activities of wild rice leading to exploring functional food and nutraceutical potential of this food commodity.

Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, phenolics, phytosterols, tocols, wild rice lipids

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6135 Strategies for a Sustainable Future of Forest and Tribal Peoples on This Planet

Authors: Dharmpal Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this proposed project is to relocation and resettlement of carnivores tribal communities who are currently residing in the protected forest land in all over the world just like resettlement project of the carnivores tribal families of Mongia who at past were residing in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) and had caused excess damage of endangered species of wildlife including Tigers. At present several tribal communities are residing in the another national parks and they not only consuming the wild animals but also involved in illegal trading of vital organs, skin and bones with National and international traders. Tribal are ideally suited for the job because they are highly skilled game trackers and due to having had a definite source of income over the years, they easily drawn in to the illegal wildlife trade and slaughter of wild animals. Their income is increasing but wild animals are on the brink of extinction. For the conservation of flora and fauna the rehabilitation process should be thought out according to the RTR project (which not only totally change the quality of life of mongia tribal community but also increased the conopy cover of forest and grass due to reduced the biotic pressure on protected land of forest in Rajasthan state) with appropriate understanding of the sociology of the people involved, their culture, education standard and the need of different skills to be acquired by them for sustenance such as agriculture, dairy, poultry, social forestry, job as forest guard and others eco-development programmes. Perhaps, the dimensions presented by me may generate discussion among the international wild life lovers and conservationists and remedies may be result oriented in the field of management of forest and conservation of wildlife on this planet.

Keywords: strategies, rehablety of tribals, conservation of forest, eco-development Programmes, wildlife

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6134 Investigating the Environmental Impact of Tourists Activities on Yankari Resort and Safari

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Sanusi Abubakar Sadiq

Abstract:

Habitat can be degraded by tourism leisure activities for example wildlife viewing can bring abrupt stress for animals and alter their natural behaviors when tourist come too close and wildlife watching have degradation effects on the habitats as they often are accompanied by the noise and commotion created by tourist as they chase wild animals. It is observed that Jos Wild Life Park is usually congested during on-peak periods which causes littering and contamination of the environment by tourist which may lead to changes in the soil nutrient. The issue of unauthorized feeding of animals by a tourist in which the food might be dangerous and harmful to their health and making them be so aggressive is also observed. The aim of the study is to investigate the environmental impact of tourists’ activities in Jos Wild Life Park, Nigeria. The study used survey questionnaires to both tourists and the staff of the wildlife park. One hundred questionnaires were self-administered to randomly selected tourists as the visit the park and some staff. The average mean score of the response was used to show agreement or disagreement. Major findings show the negative impact of tourist’s activities to the environment as air pollution, overcrowding, and congestion, solid littering of the environment, distress to animals and alteration of the ecosystem. Furthermore, the study found the positive impact of tourists activities on the environment to be income generation through tourists activities and infrastructural development. It is recommended that the impact of tourism should be minimized through admitting the right carrying capacity and impact assessment.

Keywords: environmental, impact, investigation, tourists, activities

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6133 Detection of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpes Virus in a Wild Asian Elephant Calf in Thailand by Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Bopit Puyati, Anchittha Kaewchana, Nuntita Ruksachat

Abstract:

In January 2018, a male wild elephant, approximately 2 years old, was found dead in Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei province. The elephant was likely to die around 2 weeks earlier. The carcass was decayed without any signs of attack or bullet. No organs were removed. A deadly viral disease was suspected. Different organs including lung, liver, intestine and tongue were collected and submitted to the veterinary research and development center, Surin province for viral detection. The samples were then examined with real-time PCR for detecting U41 Major DNA binding protein (MDBP) gene and with conventional PCR for the presence of specific polymerase gene. We used tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene as the internal control. In our real-time PCR, elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) was recovered from lung, liver, and tongue whereas only tongue provided a positive result in the conventional PCR. All samples were positive with TNF gene detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of EEHV detection in wild elephant in Thailand. EEHV surveillance in this wild population is strongly suggested. Linkage between EEHV in wild and domestic elephants should be further explored.

Keywords: elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus, PCR, Thailand, wild Asian elephant

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6132 Assessment of the Efficacy of Oral Vaccination of Wild Canids and Stray Dogs against Rabies in Azerbaijan

Authors: E. N. Hasanov, K. Y. Yusifova, M. A. Ali

Abstract:

Rabies is a zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis in domestic and wild carnivores. The goal of our investigation was to analyze the data on oral vaccination of wild canids and stray dogs in Azerbaijan. Before the start of the vaccination campaign conducted by the International Dialogue for Environmental Action (IDEA) Animal Care Center (IACC), all rabies cases in Azerbaijan for the period of 2017-2020 were analyzed. So, 30 regions for oral immunization with the Rabadrop vaccine were selected. In total, 95.9 thousand doses of baits were scattered in 30 regions, 970 (0.97%) remained intact. In addition, a campaign to sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs and cats undoubtedly had a positive impact on reducing the dynamics of rabies incidence. During the period 2017-2020, 2339 dogs and 2962 cats were sterilized and vaccinated under this program. It can be noted that the risk of rabies infection can be reduced through special preventive measures against disease reservoirs, which include oral immunization of wild and stray animals.

Keywords: rabies, vaccination, oral immunization, wild canids, stray dogs, baits, disease reservoirs

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6131 Characteristics Flakes Product with Dry Residue of Wild Orenago

Authors: Kosutic Milenko, Filipovic Jelena

Abstract:

Cereals constitute the staple food of the human race. In accordance with the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products, flakes and snack products are the most common foods in the daily diet, such as ready to eat breakfast cereal, flakes, and snacks. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snacks products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health, therefore attracting the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of simultaneous addition of dry residue of wild oregano (0.5% and 1%), on the physical and colour properties of corn flakes to obtain new products with altered nutritional properties. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Addition of dry residue wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2%, increased expansion rate 44.9%), influenced of decrease hardness 38.1% and work of compression 40.3% also significantly change the color of flakes product. Presented data point that investigated corn flakes is a new product with good physical and sensory properties due to higher level of dry residue of wild oregano.

Keywords: flakes product, wild oregano, phisical properties, colour, sensory properties

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6130 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: least square, neighbor joining, phylogenetic tree, wild dog pack

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6129 Economic Benefit of Wild Animals: A Possible Threat to Conservation in Ovia Southwest, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: B. G. Oguntuase, M. O. Olofinsae

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess the contribution of bush meat to Edo people’s livelihood and the consequence of utilization on conservation. Five markets were selected in Ovia Southwest local government area of Edo State, twenty bush meat sellers were selected from each market. Direct observations were made to document the composition of wild animals under sale in the study area. A total of one hundred questionnaires were administered to the respondents. The questionnaires were all retrieved and analyzed using descriptive analysis. The results show that thirteen animal species are being traded in the area. The price for the animal species (whole animal) ranged from N200 to N9,520. Respondents reported that there is a decline in the animal population over time. Between 64% and 95% of the respondents acknowledged population decline in seven of the thirteen animal species available for sale compared to what it used to be some ten years ago. Sales of wild animal species could be regarded as a profitable business in the rural community, supporting livelihood of the community, but could have devastating effect on conservation as already observed in this study if harvesting of wild animals is not regulated on controlled or sustainable basis.

Keywords: conservation, economic benefits, hunting, population, wild animals

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6128 Evaluation of Nutritional Potential of Five Unexplored Wild Edible Food Plants from Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot Region (India)

Authors: Pallabi Kalita, Hui Tag, Loxmi Jamoh, H. N. Sarma, A. K. Das

Abstract:

Wild edible food plants contain a number of organic phytochemical that have been linked to the promotion of good health. These plants used by the local people of Arunachal Pradesh (Northeast India) are found to have high nutritional potential to maintain general balance diet. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of five commonly found, unexplored wild food plants namely, Piper pedicellatum C. DC (leaves), Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. (leaves), Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. (leaves), Solanum spirale Roxb. (leaves and fruits) and Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook. (pith portion and tender rachis) from East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh Northeast (India) for ascertaining their suitability for utilization as supplementary food. Results of study revealed that P. pedicellatum, C. spinulosa, and S. spirale (leaves) are the most promising species which have high nutritional content out of the five wild food plants investigated which is required for the normal growth and development of human.

Keywords: wild edible plants, gross energy, Gonostegia hirta, Cyathea spinulosa

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6127 Marketing Parameters on Consumer's Perceptions of Farmed Sea Bass in Greece

Authors: Sophia Anastasiou, Cosmas Nathanailides, Fotini Kakali, Kostas Karipoglou

Abstract:

Wild fish are considered as testier and in fish restaurants are offered at twice the price of farmed fish. Several chemical and structural differences can affect the consumer's attitudes for farmed fish. The structure and chemical composition of fish muscle is also important for the performance of farmed fish during handling, storage and processing. In the present work we present the chemical and sensory parameters which are used as indicators of fish flesh quality and we investigated the perceptions of consumers for farmed sea bass and the organoleptic differences between samples of wild and farmed sea bass. A questionnaire was distributed to a group of various ages that were regular consumers of sea bass. The questionnaire included a survey on the perceptions on taste and appearance differences between wild and farmed sea bass. A significant percentage (>40%) of the participants stated their perception of superior taste of wild sea bass versus the farmed fish. The participants took part in an organoleptic assessment of wild and farmed sea bass prepared and cooked by a local fish restaurant. Portions were evaluated for intensity of sensorial attributes from 1 (low intensity) to 5 (high intensity). The results indicate that contrary to the assessor's perception, farmed sea bass scored better in al organoleptic parameters assessed with marked superiority in texture and taste over the wild sea bass. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: fish marketing, farmed fish, seafood quality, wild fish

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6126 ISSR-PCR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Copper Tolerant versus Wild Type Strains of Unicellular alga Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, which is located in the Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia. Two different isolates were sub-cultured under laboratory conditions. The wild type was grown under a regular concentration of copper, whereas the other isolate was grown under a progressively increasing copper concentration. An Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) analysis was performed using DNA isolated from the wild type and tolerant strains. The sum of the scored bands of the wild type was 155, with 100 (64.5%) considered to be polymorphic bands, whereas the resistant strain displayed 147 bands, with 92 (62.6%) considered to be polymorphic bands. The sum of the scored bands of a mixed sample was 117 bands, of which only 4 (3.4%) were considered to be polymorphic. The average Nei's genetic diversity (h) and Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (I) were 0.3891 and 0.5394, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the adaptation to a high level of copper in Chlorella vulgaris is not merely physiological but rather driven by modifications at the genomic level.

Keywords: chlorella vulgaris, copper tolerance, genetic diversity, green algae

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6125 Understanding the Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance among Wild Animals, Livestock and Associated Environment in a Rural Ecosystem in Sri Lanka

Authors: B. M. Y. I. Basnayake, G. G. T. Nisansala, P. I. J. B. Wijewickrama, U. S. Weerathunga, K. W. M. Y. D. Gunasekara, N. K. Jayasekera, A. W. Kalupahana, R. S. Kalupahana, A. Silva- Fletcher, K. S. A. Kottawatta

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has attracted significant attention worldwide as an emerging threat to public health. Understanding the role of livestock and wildlife with the shared environment in the maintenance and transmission of AMR is of utmost importance due to its interactions with humans for combating the issue in one health approach. This study aims to investigate the extent of AMR distribution among wild animals, livestock, and environment cohabiting in a rural ecosystem in Sri Lanka: Hambegamuwa. One square km area at Hambegamuwa was mapped using GPS as the sampling area. The study was conducted for a period of five months from November 2020. Voided fecal samples were collected from 130 wild animals, 123 livestock: buffalo, cattle, chicken, and turkey, with 36 soil and 30 water samples associated with livestock and wildlife. From the samples, Escherichia coli (E. coli) was isolated, and their AMR profiles were investigated for 12 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method following the CLSI standard. Seventy percent (91/130) of wild animals, 93% (115/123) of livestock, 89% (32/36) of soil, and 63% (19/30) of water samples were positive for E. coli. Maximum of two E. coli from each sample to a total of 467 were tested for the sensitivity of which 157, 208, 62, and 40 were from wild animals, livestock, soil, and water, respectively. The highest resistance in E. coli from livestock (13.9%) and wild animals (13.3%) was for ampicillin, followed by streptomycin. Apart from that, E. coli from livestock and wild animals revealed resistance mainly against tetracycline, cefotaxime, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid at levels less than 10%. Ten cefotaxime resistant E. coli were reported from wild animals, including four elephants, two land monitors, a pigeon, a spotted dove, and a monkey which was a significant finding. E. coli from soil samples reflected resistance primarily against ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline at levels less than in livestock/wildlife. Two water samples had cefotaxime resistant E. coli as the only resistant isolates out of 30 water samples tested. Of the total E. coli isolates, 6.4% (30/467) was multi-drug resistant (MDR) which included 18, 9, and 3 isolates from livestock, wild animals, and soil, respectively. Among 18 livestock MDRs, the highest (13/ 18) was from poultry. Nine wild animal MDRs were from spotted dove, pigeon, land monitor, and elephant. Based on CLSI standard criteria, 60 E. coli isolates, of which 40, 16, and 4 from livestock, wild animal, and environment, respectively, were screened for Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers. Despite being a rural ecosystem, AMR and MDR are prevalent even at low levels. E. coli from livestock, wild animals, and the environment reflected a similar spectrum of AMR where ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and cefotaxime being the predominant antimicrobials of resistance. Wild animals may have acquired AMR via direct contact with livestock or via the environment, as antimicrobials are rarely used in wild animals. A source attribution study including the effects of the natural environment to study AMR can be proposed as this less contaminated rural ecosystem alarms the presence of AMR.

Keywords: AMR, Escherichia coli, livestock, wildlife

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6124 Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus)) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Penang Island, Malaysia

Authors: A. H. Maimusa, A. Abu Hassan, Nur Faeza A. Kassim

Abstract:

In this study, we report on the main life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The raw life history data of the two species were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage and two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development times were 9.47 days (Ae. albopictus) and 8.76 days (Ae. aegypti). The adult pre-oviposition periods (APOP) was 1.61 day for Ae. albopictus and 2.02 for Ae. aegypti. The total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of Ae. albopictus is significantly longer (11.66 days) than (10.75 days) for Ae. aegypti. The mean intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.124 days (Ae. albopictus) and 1.151 days (Ae. aegypti) while the mean finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.13 day (Ae. albopictus) and (1.16 d) (Ae. aegypti). The net reproductive rates (Ro) were 8.10 and 10.75 for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The mean generation time (T) for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, were 16.81 days and 15.77 days respectively. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature (r = -0.208, p > 0.05) and (r = -0.312, p > 0.05) for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The life expectancy was 19.01 and 19.94 days for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage and ranged between 0.01 and 0.07%. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategist characterized by a high r, a large Ro, and short T. This kind of information is crucial in understanding mosquito population dynamics in disease transmission and control.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, age-stage, life table, two-sex

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6123 Status of Reintroduced Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Zafar-ul Islam

Abstract:

The breeding programme of Houbara bustard was started in Saudi Arabia in 1986 to undertake the restoration of native species such as Houbara through a programme of re-introduction, involving the release of captive-bred birds in the wild. Two sites were selected for houbara re-introduction, i.e., Mahazat as-Sayd and Saja Umm Ar-Rimth protected areas in 1988 and 1998 respectively. Both the areas are fenced fairly level, sandy plain with a few rock outcrops. Captive bred houbara have been released in Mahazat since 1992 by NWRC and those birds have been successfully breeding since then. The nesting season of the houbara at Mahazat recorded from February to May and on an average 20-25 nests are located each year but no nesting recorded in Saja. Houbara are monitored using radio transmitters through aerial tracking technique and also a vehicle for terrestrial tracking. Total population of houbara in Mahazat is roughly estimated around 300-400 birds, using the following: N = n1+n2+n3+n4+n5 (n1 = released or wild-born, radio, regularly monitored/checked; n2 = radio tagged missing; n3 = wild born chicks not recorded; n4 = wild born chicks, recorded but not tagged; n5 = immigrants). However, in Saja only 4-7 individuals of houbara have been survived since 2001 because most of the birds are predated immediately after the release. The mean annual home was also calculated using Kernel and Convex polygons methods with Range VII software. The minimum density of houbara was also calculated. In order to know the houbara movement or their migration to other regions, two captive-reared male houbara that were released into the wild and one wild born female were fitted with Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTT). The home range shows that wild-born female has larger movement than two males. More areas need to be selected for reintroduction programme to establish the network of sites to provide easy access to move these birds and mingle with the wild houbara. Some potential sites have been proposed which require more surveys to check the habitat suitability.

Keywords: re-introduction, survival rate, home range, Saudi Arabia

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6122 Evaluation of the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenol Content of the Wild and Cultivated Variety of Aegle Marmelos (L) Correa Leaves Used in the Treatment of Diabetes

Authors: V. Nigam, V. Nambiar

Abstract:

Aegle Marmelos leaf has been used as a remedy for various gastrointestinal infections and lowering blood sugar level in traditional system of medicine in India due to the presence of various constituents such as flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids (eg. Aegelin, Marmelosin, Luvangetin).The objective of the present study was to evaluate the total antioxidant activity, total and individual phenol content of the wild and cultivated variety of Aegle marmelos leaves to assess the role of this plant in ethanomedicine in India. The methanolic extracts of the leaves were screened for total antioxidant capacity through Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay; Total Phenol content (TPC) through spectrophotometric technique based on Folin Ciocalteau assay and for qualitative estimation of phenols, High performance Liquid Chromatography was used. The TPC of wild and cultivated variety was 7.6% and 6.5% respectively whereas HPLC analysis for quantification of individual polyphenol revealed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and Ferullic acid in wild variety whereas gallic acid, Ferullic acid and pyrocatechol in cultivated variety. FRAP values and IC 50 value (DPPH) for wild and cultivated variety was 14.65 μmol/l and 11.80μmol/l; 437 μg/ml and 620μg/ml respectively and thus it can be used as potential inhibitor of free radicals. The wild variety was having more antioxidant capacity than the cultivated one it can be exploited further for its therapeutic application. As Aegle marmelos is rich in antioxidant, it can be used as food additives to delay the oxidative deterioration of foods and as nutraceutical in medicinal formulation against degenerative diseases like diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, aegle marmelos, antidiabetic, nutraceutical

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6121 Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha

Authors: Arun Kharate, Sarata Kumar Sahu, Susen Kumar Panda, Niranjan Sahoo, H. K. Panda

Abstract:

In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.

Keywords: Feline panleukopenia, fluorescent antibody test, hemagglutination test, indirect-ELISA, Nandankanan zoo

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6120 Nutritional Potential and Traditional Uses of High Altitude Wild Edible Plants in Eastern Himalayas, India

Authors: Hui Tag, Jambey Tsering, Pallabi Kalita Hui, Baikuntha Jyoti Gogoi, Vijay Veer

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The food security issues and its relevance in High Mountain regions of the world have been often neglected. Wild edible plants have been playing a major role in livelihood security among the tribal Communities of East Himalayan Region of the world since time immemorial. The Eastern Himalayan Region of India is one of the mega diverse regions of world and rated as top 12th Global Biodiversity Hotspots by IUCN and recognized as one of the 200 significant eco-regions of the Globe. The region supports one of the world’s richest alpine floras and about one-third of them are endemic to the region. There are at least 7,500 flowering plants, 700 orchids, 58 bamboo species, 64 citrus species, 28 conifers, 500 mosses, 700 ferns and 728 lichens. The region is the home of more than three hundred different ethnic communities having diverse knowledge on traditional uses of flora and fauna as food, medicine and beverages. Monpa, Memba and Khamba are among the local communities residing in high altitude region of Eastern Himalaya with rich traditional knowledge related to utilization of wild edible plants. The Monpas, Memba and Khamba are the followers Mahayana sect of Himalayan Buddhism and they are mostly agrarian by primary occupation and also heavily relaying on wild edible plants for their livelihood security during famine since millennia. In the present study, we have reported traditional uses of 40 wild edible plant species and out of which 6 species were analysed at biochemical level for nutrients contents and free radical scavenging activities. The results have shown significant free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity and nutritional potential of the selected 6 wild edible plants used by the local communities of Eastern Himalayan Region of India.

Keywords: East Himalaya, local community, wild edible plants, nutrition, food security

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6119 Efficacy of Three Different Herbicides to the Control of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) in Relation to Plant Growth Stage and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additive

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, M. Moeeni, A. Farahbakhsh

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To study the effect of nitrogenous additive spray solution on the efficacy of three herbicides i.e. pinoxaden (Trade name: Axial), sulfosulfuron+metsulfuron-methyl (Trade name: Total) and sulfosulfuron (Trade name: Apirus) in controlling wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch), in different growth stages, a greenhouse experiment as a split plot in a completely randomized design in three replications was conducted. One month after treatments, all plants were harvested and growth parameters were determined. The data were analyzed with computer. The results showed that the herbicide applications with and without nitrogen additive caused significant reductions in growth parameters of wild barley at 2-4 leaf stage. However, the plants were not killed by this herbicide. Plants were killed completely due to applications of the two other herbicides i.e. Apirus and Total at 2-4 leaf. There was no significant difference between the effect of these two herbicides. There was no significant difference between the highest rate of each herbicide used alone and that of the lowest rate with nitrogenous additive.

Keywords: growth stage, herbicide, nitrogen, wild barley

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6118 Nutritional Evaluation and the Importance of Traditional Vegetables That Sustain the Indigenous People of Malaysia

Authors: Rachel Thomas Tharmabalan

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The growing unease over the matter of food security in the world is the result of a maturing realization that the genetic base of most human caloric intake from plants is dangerously narrow. Malaysia’s tropical rainforests have the potential to contribute to diet diversification and provide a source of nutrient-rich food as the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia have relied almost entirely on the jungle for food, fodder, medicine and fuel antithetical to what is happening today. This segregation of the Orang Asli from traditional lands and resources leads to severe loss of knowledge of biodiversity. In order to preserve these wild edibles, four different types of vegetables that are frequently consumed by the Orang Asli which consists of Rebu, Meranti, Saya and Pama were selected. These vegetables were then analysed to determine its proximate and mineral content to help ascertain claims and reaffirm the impact it can play in ensuring food and nutrition security, in addition to combating chronic diseases. From the results obtained, the Meranti had the highest crude fiber, iron and calcium content. Other minerals such as potassium, magnesium and copper were also found in varying content. These wild edibles could also contribute to education and bring awareness to younger generations as well as urban populations to start consuming more of these in their daily life as it could prevent various chronic diseases in Malaysia.

Keywords: food and nutrition security, Orang Asli, underutilized plants, wild edible food systems

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6117 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand

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The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

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6116 Genetic Variation among the Wild and Hatchery Raised Populations of Labeo rohita Revealed by RAPD Markers

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Shakeela Parveen

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The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita by using molecular markers were carried out to investigate the genetic structure by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The samples were collected from different five locations as representatives of wild and hatchery raised populations. RAPAD data for Jaccard’s coefficient by following the un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated divided the randomly selected individuals of the five populations into three classes/clusters. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 52.11% for within class variation, while 47.89% for the between class differences. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primers indicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The Kaiser Criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 58.177% of cumulative variability.

Keywords: variation, clustering, PCA, wild, hatchery, RAPAD, Labeo rohita

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6115 Fillet Chemical Composition of Sharpsnout Seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) from Wild and Cage-Cultured Conditions

Authors: Oğuz Taşbozan, Celal Erbaş, Şefik Surhan Tabakoğlu, Mahmut Ali Gökçe

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and particularly the levels and ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are important for biological functions in humans and recognized as essential components of human diet. According to the terms of many different points of view, the nutritional composition of fish in culture conditions and caught from wild are wondered by the consumers. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cage-cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream which has been preferred by the consumers as an economical important fish species in Turkey. The fish were caught from wild and obtained from cage-cultured commercial companies. Eight fish were obtained for each group, and their average weights of the samples were 245.8±13.5 g for cultured, 149.4±13.3 g for wild samples. All samples were stored in freezer (-18 °C) and analyses were carried out in triplicates, using homogenized boneless fish fillets. Proximate compositions (protein, ash, moisture and lipid) were determined. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by a GC Clarous 500 with auto sampler (Perkin–Elmer, USA). Proximate compositions of cage-cultured and wild samples of sharpsnout seabream were found statistical differences in terms of proximate composition between the groups. The saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and PUFA amounts of cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream were significantly different. ω3/ω6 ratio was higher in the cultured group. Especially in protein level and lipid level of cultured samples was significantly higher than wild counterparts. One of the reasons for this, cultured species exposed to continuous feeding. This situation had a direct effect on their body lipid content. The fatty acid composition of fish differs depending on a variety of factors including species, diet, environmental factors and whether they are farmed or wild. The higher levels of MUFA in the cultured fish may be explained with the high content of monoenoic fatty acids in the feed of cultured fish as in some other species. The ω3/ω6 ratio is a good index for comparing the relative nutritional value of fish oils. In our study, the cultured sharpsnout seabream appears to be better nutritious in terms of ω3/ω6. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5780.

Keywords: Diplodus puntazo, cage cultured, PUFA, fatty acid

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6114 Bioethanol Production from Wild Sorghum (Sorghum arundinacieum) and Spear Grass (Heteropogon contortus)

Authors: Adeyinka Adesanya, Isaac Bamgboye

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There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economic, political, and environmental concerns associated with fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass is an excellent renewable feedstock because it is both abundant and inexpensive. This project aims at producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic plants (Sorghum Arundinacieum and Heteropogon Contortus) by biochemical means, computing the energy audit of the process and determining the fuel properties of the produced ethanol. Acid pretreatment (0.5% H2SO4 solution) and enzymatic hydrolysis (using malted barley as enzyme source) were employed. The ethanol yield of wild sorghum was found to be 20% while that of spear grass was 15%. The fuel properties of the bioethanol from wild sorghum are 1.227 centipoise for viscosity, 1.10 g/cm3 for density, 0.90 for specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was found to be below -30 °C. That of spear grass was 1.206 centipoise for viscosity, 0.93 g/cm3 for density 1.08 specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was also found to be below -30 °C. The energy audit shows that about 64 % of the total energy was used up during pretreatment, while product recovery which was done manually demanded about 31 % of the total energy. Enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation total energy input were 1.95 %, 1.49 % and 1.04 % respectively, the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from wild sorghum was found to be 47 % and the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from spear grass was 72 %. Also, the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production for both grasses was 3.85 %.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, wild sorghum, spear grass, biochemical conversion

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6113 Heamatological and Biochemical Changes in Cockerels Fed Graded Levels of Wild Sunflower Leaf Meal

Authors: Siyanbola Mojisola Funmilayo, Amao Emmanuel Ayodele

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The poultry industry in Nigeria has been played by a variety of problems, which include the search for feed ingredients that are not competed for by man. This has resulted in a reduced interest of farmers in the industry leading to a reduction in animal protein availability for human consumption as a consequence of a high cost of production. The incorporation of wild sunflower meal (Tithonia diversfolia, Hemsl A. Gray) (WSF Meal) and some others in poultry diets have been reported to result in compounded feed with nutrient profiles that compare favourable with feeds of conventional feedstuff and reduce feed cost as they reduce competition with humans. A 98-day feeding trial was used to evaluate the effect of Wild sunflower leaf (WSL) at varying levels on the hematology and biochemistry of cockerels. A total of one hundred and twenty(120) cockerel birds were randomly allotted into four experimental diets with three replicates per experimental diet (ten birds per replicate). Wild sunflower leaf was included in four graded levels ; 0, 5, 10, and 15%. Packed cell volume, Red blood cell count, White blood cell count, Hemoglobin count, Lymphocyte count, Neutrophil count, Platelets, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Glucose, Urea, Chloride, Sodium, and Potassium ion values were significantly different (p<0.05) among the treatments. Mean values obtained for Creatinine, Total Protein, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Albumin, and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the treatment. WSL could be included up to 15% in the diet of cockerel without any deleterious effect on the birds. Based on the results, up to 15% Wild sunflower meal (WSL) can be included in the diet of cockerel without any adverse effect on the hematology and biochemical indices of birds.

Keywords: biochemical changes, cockerels, hematology, wild sunflower leaf

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6112 Emotion Recognition in Video and Images in the Wild

Authors: Faizan Tariq, Moayid Ali Zaidi

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Facial emotion recognition algorithms are expanding rapidly now a days. People are using different algorithms with different combinations to generate best results. There are six basic emotions which are being studied in this area. Author tried to recognize the facial expressions using object detector algorithms instead of traditional algorithms. So, two object detection have been choosen for algorithms which are Faster R-CNN and YOLO. For pre-processing we used image rotation and batch normalization. The dataset, we choosed, the experiments that is Static Facial Expression in Wild (SFEW). Our approach worked well but there is still a lot of room to improve it, which will be a future direction.

Keywords: face recognition, emotion recognition, deep learning, CNN

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6111 Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Raden Suhartono, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Patrianef Darwis, S. Dwi Anita, Luluk Yunaini, Kemas Dahlan

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Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene shows association with various angiogenesis conditions including Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) disease. In this study, we performed this study to examine VEGF gene polymorphism associated with DFU. Methods: Case-control study of polymorphism of VEGF gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C, of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 with Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients without DFU. Forty-nine point 8 percent of total samples is male and 50,2% female with mean age 56,06 years. Distribution of the wild-type genotype VEGF +405 C>G wild type CC was found in 6,9% of respondents, the number of mutant heterozygote CG was 69,5% and mutant homozygote GG was 19,7%. Cumulatively, there were 6,9% wild-type and 85,2% mutant and 3,9% of total blood samples could not be detected on PCR-RFLP. Distribution of VEGF allele +405 C>G C alleles were 43% and G alleles were 57%. Distribution of genotype from VEGF gene -460 T>C is wild type TT 42,9%, mutant heterozygote TC 37,9% and mutant homozygote CC 13,3%. Cumulatively, there were 42,9% wild-type and 51% mutant type. Distribution of VEGF -460 T>C were 62% T allele and 38% C allele. Conclusion: In this study we found the distribution of alleles from VEGF +405 C>G is C 43% and G 57% and from VEGF -460 T>C; T 62% and C 38%. We propose that G allele in VEGF +405 C>G can act as a protective allele and on the other hands T allele in VEGF -460 T>C could be acted as a risk factor for DFU in diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, VEGF

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