Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: hepatotoxicity

42 Predictors of Post-marketing Regulatory Actions Concerning Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Salwa M. Almomen, Mona A. Almaghrabi, Saja M. Alhabardi, Adel A. Alrwisan

Abstract:

Background: Hepatotoxicity is a major reason for medication withdrawal from the markets. Unfortunately, serious adverse hepatic effects can occur after marketing with limited indicators during clinical development. Therefore, finding possible predictors for hepatotoxicity might guide the monitoring program of various stakeholders. Methods: We examined the clinical review documents for drugs approved in the US from 2011 to 2016 to evaluate their hepatic safety profile. Predictors: we assessed whether these medications meet Hy’s Law with hepatotoxicity grade ≥ 3, labeled hepatic adverse effects at approval, or accelerated approval status. Outcome: post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, including product withdrawal or updates to warning, precaution, or adverse effects sections. Statistical analysis: drugs were included in the analysis from the time of approval until the end of 2019 or the first post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, whichever occurred first. The hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using Cox-regression analysis. Results: We included 192 medications in the study. We classified 48 drugs as having grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicities, 43 had accelerated approval status, and 74 had labeled information about hepatotoxicity prior to marketing. The adjusted HRs for post-marketing regulatory action for products with grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicity was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-2.23), 0.92 (95%CI, 0.29-2.93) for a drug approved via accelerated approval program, and was 0.91 (95%CI, 0.33-2.56) for drugs with labeled hepatotoxicity information at approval time. Conclusion: This study does not provide conclusive evidence on the association between post-marketing regulatory action and grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicity, accelerated approval status, or availability of labeled information at approval due to sampling size and channeling bias.

Keywords: accelerated approvals, hepatic adverse effects, drug-induced liver injury, hepatotoxicity predictors, post-marketing withdrawal

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41 Attenuation of Endotoxin Induced Hepatotoxicity by Dexamethasone, Melatonin and Pentoxifylline in White Albino Mice: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ammara Khan

Abstract:

Sepsis is characterized by an overwhelming surge of cytokines and oxidative stress to one of many factors, gram-negative bacteria commonly implicated. Despite major expansion and elaboration of sepsis pathophysiology and therapeutic approach; death rate remains very high in septic patients due to multiple organ damages including hepatotoxicity.The present study was aimed to ascertain the adequacy of three different drugs delivered separately and collectively- low dose steroid-dexamethasone (3mg/kg i.p) ,antioxidant-melatonin(10 mg/kg i.p) ,and phosphodiesterases inhibitor - pentoxifylline (75 mg/kg i.p)in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides induced hepatotoxicity was reproduced in mice by giving lipopolysaccharide of serotype E.Coli intraperitoneally. The preventive role was questioned by giving the experimental agent half an hour prior to LPS injection whereas the therapeutic potential of the experimental agent was searched out via post-LPS delivering. The extent of liver damage was adjudged via serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) estimation along with a histopathological examination of liver tissue. Dexamethasone is given before (Group 3) and after LPS (group 4) significantly attenuated LPS generated liver injury.Pentoxifylline generated similar results and serum ALT; AST histological alteration abated considerably (p≤ 0.05) both in animals subjected to pentoxifylline pre (Group 5) and post-treatment(Group 6). Melatonin was also prosperous in aversion (Group 7) and curation (Group 8) of LPS invoked hepatotoxicity as evident by lessening of augmented ALT (≤0.01) and AST (≤0.01) along with restoration of pathological changes in liver sections (p≤0.05). Combination therapies with dexamethasone in conjunction with melatonin (Group 9), dexamethasone together with pentoxifylline (Group 10), and pentoxifylline along with melatonin (Group 11) after LPS administration tapered LPS evoked hepatic dysfunction statistically considerably. In conclusion, both melatonin and pentoxifylline set up promising results in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity and can be used therapeutic adjuncts to conventional treatment strategies in sepsis-induced liver failure.

Keywords: endotoxin/lipopolysacchride, dexamethasone, hepatotoxicity, melatonin, pentoxifylline

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40 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit

Abstract:

Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

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39 A Study of 3 Different Reintroduction Regimens in Anti-Tubercular Therapy-Induced Hepatitis in Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Alpana Meena

Abstract:

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the major causes of death in south-east nations. Anti-TB–induced hepatotoxicity (AIH) is associated with a mortality of 6%–12%. The risk is increased when the drugs are combined. Reintroduction of anti-tuberculosis drugs in patients with AIH has never been studied systematically. The present study was planned to see the clinical profile of patients of AIH and the response to reintroduction of therapy. Methods: The trial was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, on 32 patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis who developed AIH. Patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups. In group 1- Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) were given at full dosages (weight calculated) from day 1. In group 2- RIF was given at maximum dosage from day 1 and INH at maximum dosage from day 8. In group 3- INH was given at maximum dosage from day 1 and RIF at maximum dosage from day 8. Pyrazinamide was added when above regimens were tolerated. Results: The mean age of presentation was 29.37±13.497 years. The incidence was found to be highest in patients with tubercular meningitis (41%) followed by abdominal, pericardial, disseminated, spinal, and lymph nodes. The mean latent period for development of AIH was 7.84 days ± 6.149 days and the median normalization days for LFT’s was 8.81 ± 4.22 days (3-21). In the study, 21% patients had recurrence of AIH with majority of patients having tolerated the reintroduction of drugs. Pyrazinamide was introduced after establishing isoniazid and rifampicin safety, thus emphasizing the role of gradual reintroduction of ATT to avoid the combined effects of hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: To conclude, the recurrence rate of hepatotoxicity was not statistically significant between the three groups studied (p > 0.05), and thus all 3 hepatotoxic drugs can be reintroduced safely in patients developing AIH.

Keywords: anti-tubercular therapy induced hepatotoxicity, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, reintroduction regimens, risk factors

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38 Protective Effect of Nigella sativa Oil and Its Neutral Lipid Fraction on Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat Model

Authors: Asma Mosbah, Hanane Khither, Kamelia Mosbah, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche, Mustapha Benboubetra

Abstract:

In the present investigation, total oil (TO) and its neutral lipid fraction (NLF) extracted from the seed of the well know studied medicinal plant Nigella sativa were tested for their therapeutically effect on alcohol-induced liver injury in rat model. Male Albino rats were divided into five groups of eight animals each and fed a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for experimental groups and dextran for control group, for a period of six weeks. Afterwards, rats received, orally, treatments with Nigella sativa extracts (TO, NLF) and N- acetylcysteine (NAC) as a positive control for four weeks. Activities of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Biochemical parameters for kidney and liver functions, in treated and non treated rats, were evaluated throughout the time course of an experiment. Liver histological changes were taken into account. Enzymatic activities of both SOD and CAT increased significantly in rats treated with NLF and TO. While MDA level decreased in TO and NLF treated rats, GSH level increased significantly in TO and NLF treated rats. We noted equally a decrease in liver enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP. Microscopic observation of slides from the liver of ethanol treated rats showed a severe hepatotoxicity with lesions. Treatment with fractions leads to an improvement in liver lesions and a marked reduction in necrosis and infiltration. As a conclusion, both extracts of Nigella sativa seeds, TO and NLF, possess an important therapeutic protective potential against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity, antioxidant enzymes, Nigella sativa seeds, oil fractions

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37 Role of Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide in the Protective Effects of Simvastatine against Isoniazid-Rifampicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mabroka Omar Sherehe

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Despite the great efficacy of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicine (RIF) combination in the treatment of tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity is the most common serious complication. The potential protective effect of simvastatin (sim) against combination-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in the present study. The administration of INH-RIF combination (50mg/kg each for 14 days) resulted in a significant increased activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, such effects were further supported by histopathological studies. INH-RIF combination produced a significant increase in liver lipid, decreased SOD and CAT, and a significant depletion of GSH level. Additionally, treatment with INH-RIF combination resulted in a significant increase in liver MPO activity. The lipid-lowering drug, Sim demonstrated in the current study an evident antioxidant action, such effect was mediated via decreasing the elevated MDA, MPO, and restoring liver CAT activity. Additionally, Sim restored liver NO level to near basal value Furthermore, one cannot rule out the lipid-lowering effect of Sim that would probably add to its beneficial hepatoprotective antioxidant activity, where Sim decreased the elevated cholesterol, TGs and LDL cholesterol level and increased the serum HDL cholesterol level.

Keywords: isoniazid, rifampicine, oxidative stress, nitric oxide

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36 Protective Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

Abstract:

The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

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35 Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: hesperidin, cyclophosphamide, liver, rats

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34 Impact of Stress and Protein Malnutrition on the Potential Role of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Providing Protection from Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona G. Khalil, Hemat A. Elariny, Shereen S. El Shaer

Abstract:

Background: Aluminium (Al) is very abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It is a constituent of cooking utensils, medicines, cosmetics, some foods and food additives. Salts of Al are widely used in the treatment of drinking water for purification purposes. Excessive and prolonged exposure to Al causes oxidative stress and impairment of many physiological functions. Its accumulation in liver and kidney causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Social isolation (SI) or Protein malnutrition (PM) also increases oxidative stress and may enhance the toxicity of Al as well as the degeneration in liver and kidney. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities and can protect against oxidative stress-induced degenerations. Objective: To study the influence of stress or PM on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats, as well as on the potential role of EGCG in providing protection. Methods: Rats received daily AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for three weeks (Al-toxicity groups) except one normal control group received saline. Al-toxicity groups were divided into four treated and four untreated groups; treated rats received EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) together with AlCl3. One group of both treated and untreated rats served as control for each of them, and the others were subjected to either stress (mild using isolation or high using electric shock) or to PM (10% casein diet). Specimens of liver and kidney were used for assessment of levels of inflammatory mediators as TNF-α, IL6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), Caspase-3 and for DNA fragmentation as well as for histopathological examinations. Biochemical changes were also measured in the serum as total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea as well as the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate deshydrogenase (LDH). Results: Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by Al were enhanced in rats exposed to stress and to PM. The influence of stress was more pronounced than PM. Al-toxicity was indicated by the increase in liver and kidney MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels, together with the decrease in total proteins, SOD, TAC. EGCG provided protection against hazards of Al as indicated by the decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as well as in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver and kidney, together with the increase in total proteins, SOD, TAC and confirmed by histopathological examinations. It provided more pronounced protection in high stressful conditions than in mild one than in PM. Conclusion: Stress have a bad impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity more than PM. Thus it can clarify and maximize the role of EGCG in providing protection. Consequently, administration of EGCG is advised with excessive Al-exposure to avoid nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity especially in populations more subjected to stress or PM.

Keywords: aluminum, stress, protein malnutrition, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, rats

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33 Evaluating the Hepato-Protective Activities of Combination of Aqueous Extract of Roots of Tinospora cordifolia and Rhizomes of Curcuma longa against Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

Authors: Amberkar Mohanbabu Vittalrao, Avin, Meena Kumari Kamalkishore, Padmanabha Udupa, Vinaykumar Bavimane, Honnegouda

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the hepato-protective activity of Tinospora cordiofolia (Tc) against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods: The plant stem (test drug) was procured locally, shade dried, powdered and extracted with water. Silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective drugs and 2% gum acacia as a control (vehicle) against paracetamol (PCT) induced hepatotoxicity. Results and Discussion: The hepato-protective activity of aqueous stem extract was assessed by paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity preventive model in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested in both paracetamol treated and untreated groups. Paracetamol (3g/kg) had enhanced the AST, ALT, ALP and the lipid peroxides in the serum. Treatment of silymarin and aqueous stem extract of Tc (200 and 400mg/kg) extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity by altering biochemical marker levels to the near normal. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. Aqueous Tc extract showed presence of phenolic compound and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that Tc extract possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: Tc was found to possess significant hepatoprotective property when treated with PCT. This was evident by decreasing the liver enzymes significantly when treated with PCT as compared to PCT only treated group (P < 0.05). Hence Tinospora cardiofolia could be a good, promising, preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Tinospora cardiofolia, hepatoprotection, paracetamol, silymarin

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32 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in Adult Mice and Their Progeny

Authors: Bouaziz H., Soudania N., Essafia M., Ben Amara I., Hakim A., Jamoussi K., Zeghal Km, Zeghal N.

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In this investigation, we have evaluated the effects of arsenic trioxide on hepatic function in pregnant and lactating Swiss albino mice and their suckling pups. Experiments were carried out on female mice given 175 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Our results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride in As2O3 treated mice and their pups. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity suggested the presence of cholestasis. Transaminase activities as well as lactate deshydrogenase activity in plasma, known as biomarkers of hepatocellular injury, were elevated indicating hepatic cells’damage after treatment with As2O3. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and in glutathione.

Keywords: antioxidant status, arsenic trioxide, hepatotoxicity, mice, oxidative stress

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31 Protective Role of Fish Oil against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Fipronil on Female Rats

Authors: Amel A. Refaie, Amal Ramadan, Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

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This study was designed to evaluate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the fipronil on the liver of female rats at a dose equal to 400 mg /kg (1/10LD50) in drinking water and the protective role of fish oil at concentration 117.6 mg/Kg b.wt via oral routes daily for 28 days. Fipronil treatment caused a decrease in body weight gain and increase in relative liver weight. Fipronil induced a significant increase in the liver biomarkers enzymes such as alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total protein while fipronil caused a significant decrease in butyryl cholinesterase activity in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased in liver tissue, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly increased in fipronil treating rats in a dose-dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver of female rats. From our results, it can be reported that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver injury in female rats and fish oil used to protect animals against the adverse effect of pesticide exposure. These pathophysiological alterations in liver tissues could be due to the toxic effect of fipronil that associated with a generation of free radicals.

Keywords: fipronil (FPN), fish oil, hepatotoxicity, transaminases, antioxidant enzymes, female rats

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30 Development and Characterization of Soya Phosphatidylcholine Complex of Coumestans from Eclipta alba for the Management of Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Jain, Anki Jain, Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari

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The plant Eclipta alba Hassk. (Family: Compositae) contains coumestans (wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone) used in liver disorders. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a formulation of these coumestans in combination with the soya phosphatidylcholine (PC), in order to overcome the limitation of absorption and to investigate the protective effect of coumestans–phosphatidylcholine complex (C-PC) on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage in rats. Methanolic extract (ME) of the whole plant of Eclipta alba was fractionated with water and then with ehylacetate. Coumestans were characterized in the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic extract (EFME). The C-PC was prepared by dissolving EFME and PC in 1:1 ratio in dichloromethane and heating at 60°C for 2 h. The C-PC was characterized by DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro drug release from EFME and C-PC through egg membrane was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The hepatoprotective activity of C-PC (equivalent to 5.35 and 10.7 mg/kg body weight of EFME), ME 250 mg/kg and EFME 5.35 mg/kg was evaluated by measuring various enzymes level. C-PC significantly provided better protection to the liver by restoring the enzyme levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total billirubin with respect to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated group (P < 0.001). Histopathological studies were also performed. The C-PC provided better protection to rat liver than ME and EFME at similar doses as well as shown significant regeneration of hepatocytes, central vein, intact cytoplasm, and nucleus.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, wedelolactone, soya phosphatidylcholine, eclipta alba

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29 Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

Abstract:

Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w. day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, total protein, and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

Keywords: doxorubicin, purslane, hepatotoxicity, antioxidants

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28 Hepatoprotective Activity of Sharbat Deenar, against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Nazmul Huda, Ashik Mosaddik, Abdul Awal, Shafiqur Rahman, Rukhsana Shaheen, Mustofa Nabi

Abstract:

Polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar is a very popular unani medicine in Bangladesh. It is usually used for different kinds of liver disorders. In absence of reliable and inadequate hepatoprotective agents in conventional medicine, the herbal preparations are preferred for liver diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Sharbat Deenar on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in male Long-Evans albino rats. Group I served as normal control and received neither formulation nor carbon tetrachloride. Group II received only CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally for consecutive 14 days. Group III received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Silymarin, in dose 50mg/kg body weight of rat orally. Group IV received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Sharbat Deenar 1mL/kg body weight of rat for the same 14 consecutive days. At the end of the study, hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by the levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathological study of rat liver was also carried out. The results showed that polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect. Such an outcome seems to be the synergistic effect of all ingredients of tested herbal formulation. Although this study suggests that Sharbat Deenar may be used to cure or minimize various liver diseases, it needs further study to attain the clarity of mechanism and safety.

Keywords: polyherbal formulation, sharbat deenar, carbon tetrachloride, silymarin, hepatoprotective

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27 Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Potent Antioxidant Fraction from Urtica dioica L.: In vitro and In vivo Studies

Authors: Bhuwan C. Joshi, Atish Prakash, Ajudhia N. Kalia

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Ethnopharmacological relevance: The plant Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in various diseases including hepatic ailments. Traditionally, the leaves and roots of the plant are used in jaundice. Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica L. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo model. Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF) was subjected to in-vivo study. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s). Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Results and conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Urtica. dioica L. possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 µg/ml). The in-vitro cell line study showed EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and tissue. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF) leads to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

Keywords: Urtica dioica L., antioxidant, HepG2 cell line, hepatoprotective

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26 Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Extract on Propanil-Induced Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Chiagoziem A. Otuechere, Ebenezer O. Farombi

Abstract:

The protective effect of dichloromethane: methanol extract of Pterocarpus mildbraedii (PME), a widely consumed Nigerian leafy vegetable, on the toxicity of propanil was investigated in male rats. Animals were distributed into eight groups of five each. Group 1 served as control and received normal saline while rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 received 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg extract doses respectively. Group 5 rats were orally administered 200 mg/kg propanil while groups 6, 7, and 8 rats were given propanil plus extract. Oral administration of propanil elicited a 14.8%, 5%, 122%, and 78% increase in the activity of serum enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Alkaline phoshatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (ﻻGT). There were also increase in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, direct bilirubin and lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, PME significantly attenuated the marked hepatic oxidative damage that accompanied propanil treatment. The extract significantly decreased LDH activity and bilirubin levels following propanil treatment. Furthermore, propanil-induced alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in these rats were modulated by the extract. The percentage DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of the extract was determined as 55% and compared to those of Gallic acid (49%). Hepatic histology examination further confirmed the damage to the liver as it revealed severe periportal cellular infiltration of the hepatocytes. These biochemical and morphological alterations were attenuated in rats pre-treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of the extract. These results suggest that PME possesses protective effect against propanil-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: antioxidant, hepatoprotection, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, propanil

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25 The Hepatoprotective Effects of Aquatic Extract of Levesticum Officinale against Paraquat Toxicity of Hepatocytes

Authors: Hasan Afarnegan, Ali Shahraki, Jafar Shahraki

Abstract:

Paraquat is widely used as a strong nitrogen-based herbicide for controlling of weeds in agriculture. This poison is extremely toxic for humans which induces several – organ failure by accumulation in cells and many instances of death occurred due to its poisoning. Paraquat metabolized primarily in the liver. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of aquatic extract of levisticum officinale on oxidative status and biochemical factors in hepatocytes exposed to paraquat. Our results determined that hepatocytes destruction induced by paraquat is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) prevented by aquatic extract of Levisicum officinale (100, 200 and 300 µg/ml). These effects of paraquat also prevented via antioxidants and ROS scavengers (α-tocopherol, DMSO, manitol), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing compound (carnitine).MPT pore sealing compound inhibited the hepatotoxicity, indicating that paraquat induced cell death via mithochondrial pathway. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with aquatic extracts of Levisticum officinale, antioxidants and ROS scavengers also blocked hepatic cell death caused by paraquat, suggesting that oxidative stress may be directly induced decline of mithochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, paraquat hepatotoxicity can be attributed to oxidative stress and continued by mithochondrial membrane potential disruption. Levisticum officinale aquatic extract, presumably due to its strong antoxidant properties, could protect the destructive effects of paraquat on rat hepatocytes.

Keywords: hepatocyte protection, levisticum officinale, oxidative stress, paraquat

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24 Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Chronic Aluminium Exposure in Rats: Impact of Nutrients Combination versus Social Isolation and Protein Malnutrition

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Doaa M. Abd El-Latif, Amany M. Gad, Yasser M. A. Elnahas, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to Aluminium (Al) has been increased recently. It is found in food products, food additives, drinking water, cosmetics and medicines. Chronic consumption of Al causes oxidative stress and has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Liver is considered as the major site for detoxification while kidney is involved in the elimination of toxic substances and is a target organ of metal toxicity. Social isolation (SI) or protein malnutrition (PM) also causes oxidative stress and has negative impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity as well as hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a powerful intracellular antioxidant with mitochondrial membrane stabilizing ability while wheat grass is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and different protective activities, cocoa is also potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. They provide different degrees of protection from the impact of oxidative stress. Objective: To study the impact of social isolation together with Protein malnutrition on nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure in rats as well as to investigate the postulated protection using a combination of Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa. Methods: Eight groups of rats were used; four served as protected groups and four as un-protected. Each of them received daily for five weeks AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups except one group served as control. Al-toxicity model groups were divided to Al-toxicity alone, SI- associated PM (10% casein diet) and Al- associated SI&PM groups. Protection was induced by oral co-administration of CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg) and cocoa powder (24mg/kg) combination together with Al. Biochemical changes in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) were measured in serum of all groups. Specimens of kidney and liver were used for assessment of oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation in addition to evaluation of histopathological changes. Results: SI together with PM severely enhanced nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure. Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa combination showed clear protection against hazards of Al exposure either alone or when associated with SI&PM. Their protection were indicated by the significant decrease in Al-induced elevations in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels as well as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH. Liver and kidney of the treated groups also showed significant decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC. Biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathological examinations. Conclusion: SI together with PM represents a risk factor in enhancing nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. CoQ10, wheat grass and cocoa combination provide clear protection against nephro- and hepatotoxicity as well as the consequent degenerations induced by chronic Al-exposure even when associated with the risk of SI together with PM.

Keywords: aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, isolation and protein malnutrition, coenzyme Q10, wheatgrass, cocoa, nutrients combinations

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23 Protective Effects of Genistein against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Activities

Authors: Dina F. Mansour, Dalia O. Saleh, Rasha E. Mostafa

Abstract:

Cyclophosphamide (CP), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, was reported to cause many side effects including urotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity; this limits its clinical practice. In the present study, the protective effect of genistein (GEN), the major phytoestrogen in soy products that possesses various pharmacological activities, has been investigated against CP-induced acute liver damage in rats. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicles and act as normal control. In the other groups, rats were injected with a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, i.p). The last three groups were pretreated with subcutaneous GEN at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 15 consecutive days prior CP injection. Forty-eight hours following CP injection, rats of all groups were investigated for the serum levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase, as well as the liver contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitrite, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase. Histopathological examination of liver tissues was also conducted. CP resulted in acute liver damage in rats as evidenced by alteration of liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers; that was confirmed by the histopathological outcomes. Pretreatment of rats with GEN significantly protected against CP-induced deterioration of liver function and showed marked anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that were demonstrated by the biochemical and histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated the protective effects of GEN against CP-induced liver damage and suggested role of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, genistein, inflammation, interleukin-1β, liver, myeloperoxidase, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
22 Protective Effect of Rosemary Extract against Toxicity Induced by Egyptian Naja haje Venom

Authors: Walaa H. Salama, Azza M. Abdel-Aty, Afaf S. Fahmy

Abstract:

Background: Egyptian Cobra; Naja haje (Elapidae) is one of most common snakes, widely distributed in Egypt and its envenomation causes multi-organ failure leading to rapid death. Thus, Different medicinal plants showed a protective effect against venom toxicity and may complement the conventional antivenom therapy. Aim: The present study was designed to assess both the antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of rosemary leaves and evaluate the neutralizing ability of the extract against hepatotoxicity induced by Naja haje venom. Methods: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of the methanolic rosemary extract were estimated by DPPH and ABTS Scavenging methods. In addition, the rosemary extract were assessed for anti-venom properties under in vitro and in vivo standard assays. Results: The rosemary extract had high total phenolic and flavonoid content as 12 ± 2 g of gallic acid equivalent per 100 gram of dry weight (g GAE/100g dw) and 5.5 ± 0.8 g of catechin equivalent per 100 grams of dry weight (g CE/100g dw), respectively. In addition, the rosemary extract showed high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, The rosemary extract were inhibited in vitro the enzymatic activities of phospholipase A₂, L-amino acid oxidase, and hyaluronidase of the venom in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, indirect hemolytic activity, hepatotoxicity induced by venom were completely neutralized as shown by histological studies. Conclusion: The phenolic compounds of rosemary extract with potential antioxidant activity may be considered as a promising candidate for future therapeutics in snakebite therapy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, neutralization, phospholipase A₂ enzyme, snake venom

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21 Comparative Study on the Influence of Different Drugs against Aluminium- Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Toqa M. Elnahhas, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Environmental pollution with the different aluminium (Al) containing compounds especially those in industrial waste water exposes people to higher than normal levels of Al that represents an environmental risk factor. Cosmetics, Al ware, and containers are also sources of Al besides some foods and food additives. In addition to its known neurotoxicity, Al affects other body structures like skeletal system, blood cells, liver and kidney. Accumulation of Al in kidney and liver induces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a pseudo-vitamin substance primarily present in the mitochondria. It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as radical scavenger. Wheat grass is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular protection activities. Cocoa is an excellent source of iron, potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. Vinpocetine is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory while zinc is an essential trace element involved in cell division and its deficiency is observed in many types of liver disease. Objective: To evaluate and compare the potency of different drugs (CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc) against nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. Methods: Rats were divided to seven groups and received daily for three weeks either saline for control group or AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups. Five groups of Al-toxicity model (treated groups) were orally received together with Al each of the following; CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg), cocoa powder (24mg/kg), vinpocetine (20mg/kg) or zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the serum level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea were measured. Liver and kidney specimens from all groups were also collected for the assessment of hepatic and nephrotic level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3, oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO) and DNA fragmentation. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also evaluated. Results: Three weeks of AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) exposure induced nephro- and hepato-toxicity in rats. Treatment by the all used drugs showed protection against hazards of AlCl3. The protective effects were indicated by the significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels which were increased by Al. Liver and kidney of the treated groups showed decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation which were increased by Al, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC which were decreased by Al. The protection against both nephro- and hepato-toxicity was more pronounced especially with CoQ10 and wheat grass than the other used drugs. Histopathological examinations confirmed the biochemical results of toxicity and of protection. Conclusion: Protection from nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and the consequent degenerations induced by Al can be achieved by using different drugs as CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc, but CoQ10 as well as wheat grass possesses the most superior protection.

Keywords: aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, coenzyme Q10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine, zinc

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20 Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Flower Extract from Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Authors: Brahmanage S. Rangika, Dinithi C. Peiris

Abstract:

Boiled Aqueous Flower Extract (AFE) of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system to treat diabetes. However, this is not scientifically proven and the mechanisms by which the flowers reduce diabetes have not been investigated. The present study was carried out to examine the hypoglycemic potential and toxicity effects of aqueous flower extract of N. arbor-tristis. AFE was prepared and mice were treated orally either with 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg of AFE or distilled water (Control). Fasting and random blood glucose levels were determined. In addition, the toxicity of AFE was determined using chronic oral administration. In normoglycemic mice, mid dose (500mg/kg) of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 49% at 4h post treatment. Further, 500mg/kg of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) lowered random blood glucose level of non-fasted normoglycemic mice. AFE significantly lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels while increasing the HDL levels in the serum. Further, AFE significantly inhibited the glucose absorption from the lumen of the intestine and it increases the diaphragm uptake of glucose. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was also evident. However, AFE did not induce any overt signs of toxicity or hepatotoxicity. There were no adverse effects on food and water intake and body weight of mice during the experimental period. It can be concluded that AFE of N. arbor-tristis posses safe oral anti diabetic potentials mediated via multiple mechanisms. Results of the present study scientifically proved the claims made about the uses of N. arbor-tristis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system. Further, flowers can also be used for as a remedy to improve blood lipid profile.

Keywords: aqueous extract, hypoglycemic hypolipidemic, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flowers, hepatotoxicity

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19 MCD-017: Potential Candidate from the Class of Nitroimidazoles to Treat Tuberculosis

Authors: Gurleen Kour, Mowkshi Khullar, B. K. Chandan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Kushalava Reddy Yumpalla, Gurunadham Munagala, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed

Abstract:

New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). Apart from in-vitro potency against the target, physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetic properties play an imperative role in the process of drug discovery. We have identified novel nitroimidazole derivatives with potential activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis. One lead candidates, MCD-017, which showed potent activity against H37Rv strain (MIC=0.5µg/ml) and was further evaluated in the process of drug development. Methods: Basic physicochemical parameters like solubility and lipophilicity (LogP) were evaluated. Thermodynamic solubility was determined in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) using LC/MS-MS. The partition coefficient (Log P) of the compound was determined between octanol and phosphate buffered saline (PBS at pH 7.4) at 25°C by the microscale shake flask method. The compound followed Lipinski’s rule of five, which is predictive of good oral bioavailability and was further evaluated for metabolic stability. In-vitro metabolic stability was determined in rat liver microsomes. The hepatotoxicity of the compound was also determined in HepG2 cell line. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the compound after oral dosing was also obtained using balb/c mice. Results: The compound exhibited favorable solubility and lipophilicity. The physical and chemical properties of the compound were made use of as the first determination of drug-like properties. The compound obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five, with molecular weight < 500, number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) < 5 and number of hydrogen bond acceptors(HBA) not more then 10. The log P of the compound was less than 5 and therefore the compound is predictive of exhibiting good absorption and permeation. Pooled rat liver microsomes were prepared from rat liver homogenate for measuring the metabolic stability. 99% of the compound was not metabolized and remained intact. The compound did not exhibit cytoxicity in hepG2 cells upto 40 µg/ml. The compound revealed good pharmacokinetic profile at a dose of 5mg/kg administered orally with a half life (t1/2) of 1.15 hours, Cmax of 642ng/ml, clearance of 4.84 ml/min/kg and a volume of distribution of 8.05 l/kg. Conclusion : The emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis emphasize the requirement of novel drugs active against tuberculosis. Thus, the need to evaluate physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties in the early stages of drug discovery is required to reduce the attrition associated with poor drug exposure. In summary, it can be concluded that MCD-017 may be considered a good candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluations.

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, pharmacokinetics, physicochemical properties, hepatotoxicity

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18 Influence of Heliotropium Undulatum on Hepatic Glutathione Conjugating Enzymes System in Acetylhydrazide-Rats

Authors: S. Ameddah, O. Deffa, H. Aissaoui, A. Menad, R. Mekkiou, F. Benayache, S. Benayache

Abstract:

Acetylhydrazide (ACHD) is a metabolite of the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid (INH) that has been implicated in liver damage. This study was designed to evaluate hapatoprotective of n-BuOH extract of Heliotrpium undulatum (HUBE) in ACHD hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatic damage was induced by administration of ACHD (300 mg/Kg op). The protection was affected by the administration of HUBE (200 mg/Kg op) for 14 days before ACHD administration, caused a decrease in LPO levels and in the transaminase and ALP levels and restored the GSH and its related enzymes (GPx, GST, GR) (50-62 %). Simultaneous administration of HUBE afforded a partial protection in statue of hepatic GSH conjugating enzymes upon administration of ACHD.

Keywords: heliotrpium undulatum, acetylhydrazide, glutathione conjugating enzymes, oxydatif stress, heaptoprotectif effect

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17 Acute Hepatotoxicity of Nano and Micro-Sized Iron Particles in Adult Albino Rats

Authors: Ghada Hasabo, Mahmoud Saber Elbasiouny, Mervat Abdelsalam, Sherin Ghaleb, Niveen Eldessouky

Abstract:

In the near future, nanotechnology is envisaged for large scale use. Hence health and safety issues of nanoparticles should be promptly addressed. In the present study the acute hepatoxicity assessment due to high single oral dose of nano iron and micro iron particles were studied. The normal daily activities, biochemical alterations, blood coagulation, histopathological changes in Wister rats were the aspect of the toxicological assessment.This work found that significant alterations in biochemical enzymes (serum iron level, liver enzymes, albumin, and bilirubin levels), blood coagulation (PT, PC, INR), and histopathological changes occurred more prominently in the nano iron particle treated group.

Keywords: nanobiotechnology, nanosystems, nanomaterials, nanotechnology

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16 A Multifactorial Algorithm to Automate Screening of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Cases in Clinical and Post-Marketing Settings

Authors: Osman Turkoglu, Alvin Estilo, Ritu Gupta, Liliam Pineda-Salgado, Rajesh Pandey

Abstract:

Background: Hepatotoxicity can be linked to a variety of clinical symptoms and histopathological signs, posing a great challenge in the surveillance of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) cases in the safety database. Additionally, the majority of such cases are rare, idiosyncratic, highly unpredictable, and tend to demonstrate unique individual susceptibility; these qualities, in turn, lend to a pharmacovigilance monitoring process that is often tedious and time-consuming. Objective: Develop a multifactorial algorithm to assist pharmacovigilance physicians in identifying high-risk hepatotoxicity cases associated with DILI from the sponsor’s safety database (Argus). Methods: Multifactorial selection criteria were established using Structured Query Language (SQL) and the TIBCO Spotfire® visualization tool, via a combination of word fragments, wildcard strings, and mathematical constructs, based on Hy’s law criteria and pattern of injury (R-value). These criteria excluded non-eligible cases from monthly line listings mined from the Argus safety database. The capabilities and limitations of these criteria were verified by comparing a manual review of all monthly cases with system-generated monthly listings over six months. Results: On an average, over a period of six months, the algorithm accurately identified 92% of DILI cases meeting established criteria. The automated process easily compared liver enzyme elevations with baseline values, reducing the screening time to under 15 minutes as opposed to multiple hours exhausted using a cognitively laborious, manual process. Limitations of the algorithm include its inability to identify cases associated with non-standard laboratory tests, naming conventions, and/or incomplete/incorrectly entered laboratory values. Conclusions: The newly developed multifactorial algorithm proved to be extremely useful in detecting potential DILI cases, while heightening the vigilance of the drug safety department. Additionally, the application of this algorithm may be useful in identifying a potential signal for DILI in drugs not yet known to cause liver injury (e.g., drugs in the initial phases of development). This algorithm also carries the potential for universal application, due to its product-agnostic data and keyword mining features. Plans for the tool include improving it into a fully automated application, thereby completely eliminating a manual screening process.

Keywords: automation, drug-induced liver injury, pharmacovigilance, post-marketing

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15 Hepatoprotective Effect of Mycophenolate Mofetil against Tacrolimus Exposure in Rat

Authors: Ferjani Hanen, El Arem Amira, Boussema Ayed Imen, Bacha Hassen

Abstract:

Tacrolimus (TAC), a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in the transplant recipient, but its use associated-hepatotoxicity. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an anti-metabolite, is a potent immunosuppressive drug. MMF is not hepatotoxic and is the most common adjunctive immunosuppressant for TAC. The effects of TAC and MMF combination in the liver is still not well understood. This work aimed to investigate their combined effect against in liver in rats Wistar after 24 h. The oral median lethal doses (LD50) of TAC and MMF alone were evaluated in rats are 240 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. Oral administration of the MMF at 50 mg/kg to male Wistar intoxicated with TAC at 60 mg/kg, demonstrated a significant protective effect by lowering the levels of hepatic markers enzymes (AST, ALT) in the serum rat. MMF attenuated oxidative stress by restoring the activities of SOD, CAT and by reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels liver. This study provided evidence that MMF protects rat liver from TAC-induced injury and suggests a most combination use for organ transplantation.

Keywords: tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, combination, liver, rat

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14 Therapeutic Role of Polygonum bistorta and Zingiber roseum by in vivo and in vitro Study

Authors: Deepak Kumar Mittal, Alok Kumar Jena, Deepmala Joshi

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the roots of Polygonum bistorta (PB) (200 mg/kg) and Zingiber roseum (ZR) (250 mg/kg) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (0.15 ml/kg, i.p.). Extract of PB and ZR at the tested doses restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, significantly. The activities of MTT assay significantly recovered the damage and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that Zingiber roseum has a higher protective effect on liver, compared to Polygonum bistorta, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and possesses antioxidant activities. Also, extracts exhibited moderate anticancer activity towards cell viability at higher concentration.

Keywords: Polygonum bistorta, Zingiber roseum, hepatoprotective effect, carbon tetrachloride, anti-cancerous

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13 Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

Authors: Awad G. Abdellatif, Huda M. Gargoum, Abdelkader A. Debani, Mudafara Bengleil, Salmin Alshalmani, N. El Zuki, Omran El Fitouri

Abstract:

In this study, the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhgigraecorum (camel thorn) to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. The histopathological investigation also confirmed that camel thorn extract protects the liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand, the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycin was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with an unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity–induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Keywords: ethanolic, alhgigraecorum, tetrachloride, acetaminophen

Procedia PDF Downloads 327