Search results for: cell uptake
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4124

Search results for: cell uptake

4124 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
4123 An Increase in Glucose Uptake per se is Insufficient to Induce Oxidative Stress and Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

Authors: Heba Khader, Victor Solodushko, Brian Fouty

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of uncontrolled diabetes and causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. An increase in glucose uptake and metabolism by vascular endothelial cells is the presumed trigger for this hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction. Glucose uptake into vascular endothelial cells is mediated largely by Glut-1. Glut-1 is an equilibrative glucose transporter with a Km value of 2 mM. At physiologic glucose concentrations, Glut-1 is almost saturated and, therefore, increasing glucose concentration does not increase glucose uptake unless Glut-1 is upregulated. However, hyperglycemia downregulates Glut-1 and decreases rather than increases glucose uptake in vascular endothelial cells. This apparent discrepancy necessitates further study on the effect of increasing glucose uptake on the oxidative state and function of vascular endothelial cells. To test this, a Tet-on system was generated to conditionally regulate Glut-1 expression in endothelial cells by the addition and removal of doxycycline. Glut-1 overexpression was confirmed by Western blot and radiolabeled glucose uptake measurements. Upregulation of Glut-1 resulted in a 4-fold increase in glucose uptake into endothelial cells as determined by 3H deoxy-D-glucose uptake. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1 did not induce an oxidative stress nor did it cause endothelial dysfunction in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells determined by monolayer resistance, cell proliferation or advanced glycation end product formation. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1did not lead to an increase in glucose metabolism, due in part to inhibition of hexokinase in Glut-1 overexpressing cells. In summary, this study demonstrates that increasing glucose uptake and intracellular glucose by overexpression of Glut-1 does not alter the oxidative state of rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells or cause endothelial cell dysfunction. These results conflict with the current paradigm that hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells through an increase in glucose uptake.

Keywords: endothelial cells, glucose uptake, Glut1, hyperglycemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
4122 Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten on Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity in Pancreatic β Cell

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim

Abstract:

The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and have been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. However, very little information is currently available for their mechanism. The prikly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. Present study investigated the effects of OFS on pancreatic β-cell function using pancreatic islet β cells (HIT cell). Alpha-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell proliferation were determined. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of OFS stem on α-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Glucose uptake was determined using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA assay. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity as well as glucose uptake. Insulinotrophic effect of OFS extract was observed at high glucose media in pancreatic β-islet cells. Furthermore, pancreatic β cell regeneration was also observed.These results suggest that OFS mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and improved insulin sensitivity.

Keywords: prickly pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, pancreatic islet HIT cells, α-glucosidase, glucose uptake, insulinotrophic

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
4121 Modeling of the Cellular Uptake of Rigid Nanoparticles: Investigating the Influence of the Adaptation of the Cell’s Mechanical Properties during Endocytosis

Authors: Sarah Iaquinta, Christophe Blanquart, Elena Ishow, Sylvain Freour, Frederic Jacquemin, Shahram Khazaie

Abstract:

Nanoparticles have recently emerged as a possible cancer treatment tool. Several formulations have been used to enhance the uptake of these nanoparticles by cancer cells and avoid their immediate clearance when administrated in vivo. Most of the previous studies focus on the investigation of the influence of the mechanical properties of the cell membrane and the particle. However, these studies do not account for the variation of adhesion and tension during the wrapping of the nanoparticle by the membrane. These couplings should be considered since the cell adapts to the interaction with the nanoparticle by, e.g., increasing the number of interactions (consequently leading to an increase of the cell membrane/nanoparticle adhesion) and by reorganizing its cytoskeleton, leading to the releasing of the tension of the cell membrane. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a novel model for representing the cellular uptake of rigid circular nanoparticles based on an energetic model tailored to take into account the adaptation of the nanoparticle/cell membrane adhesion and of the membrane stress during wrapping. Several coupling models using sigmoidal functions are considered and compared. The study calculations revealed that the results considering constant parameters underestimated the final wrapping degree of the particle by up to 50%.

Keywords: adhesion, cellular adaptation, cellular uptake, mechanical properties, tension

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4120 Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2/PVA/ SPEEK Composite Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Yusuf Ansari, Asad Abbas

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a very efficient and promising energy conversion device. Although Nafion® is considered as benchmark materials for membrane used in PEM fuel cell, it has limitations that restrict its uses. Alternative materials for the membrane is always a challenging field for researchers. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is one of the promising material for membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability and lower cost. In this work, SPEEK is synthesized, and property booster such as silica nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are also added to analyse changes in properties such as water uptake, IEC, and conductivity. It has been found that adding PVA support high water uptake and proton conductivity but at large amount of PVA reduces the proton conductivity due to very high water uptake. Adding silica enhances water uptake and proton conductivity.

Keywords: PEM Membrane, sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), silica fumes (SiO2), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
4119 Mannosylated Oral Amphotericin B Nanocrystals for Macrophage Targeting: In vitro and Cell Uptake Studies

Authors: Rudra Vaghela, P. K. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The aim of the present research was to develop oral Amphotericin B (AmB) nanocrystals (Nc) grafted with suitable ligand in order to enhance drug transport across the intestinal epithelial barrier and subsequently, active uptake by macrophages. AmB Nc were prepared by liquid anti-solvent precipitation technique (LAS). Poloxamer 188 was used to stabilize the prepared AmB Nc and grafted with mannose for actively targeting M cells in Peyer’s patches. To prevent shedding of the stabilizer and ligand, N,N’-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) was used as a cross-linker. The prepared AmB Nc were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release and cell uptake studies using caco-2 cells. The particle size of stabilized AmB Nc grafted with WGA was in the range of 287-417 nm with negative zeta potential between -18 to -25 mV. XRD studies revealed crystalline nature of AmB Nc. SEM studies revealed that ungrafted AmB Nc were irregular in shape with rough surface whereas, grafted AmB Nc were found to be rod-shaped with smooth surface. In vitro drug release of AmB Nc was found to be 86% at the end of one hour. Cellular studies revealed higher invasion and uptake of AmB Nc towards caco-2 cell membrane when compared to ungrafted AmB Nc. Our findings emphasize scope on developing oral delivery system for passively targeting M cells in Peyer’s patches.

Keywords: leishmaniasis, amphotericin b nanocrystals, macrophage targeting, LAS technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
4118 Mechanism of in Vitro Inhibition of Alpha-Amylase, Alpha-Glucosidase by Ethanolic Extracts of Polyalthia Longifolia, Its in Vitro Cytotoxicity on L6, Vero Cell-Lines and Influence of Glucose Uptake by Rat Hemi-Diaphragm

Authors: P. Gayathri, G. P. Jeyanthi

Abstract:

The bark of Polyalthia longifolia is used in ayurvedic system of medicine for the manangement of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The bark of P. longifolia extracts was extracted using various polar and non-polar solvents and tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase among which the ethanolic extracts were found to be more potent. The ethanolic extracts of the bark were tested for the in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase using starch as substrate and alpha-glucosidase using p-nitro phenyl alpha-D-gluco pyranoside as substrate to establish its in vitro antidiabetic effect. The mechanism of inhibition was determined by Dixon plot and Cornish-Bowden plot. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was tested on L6 and Vero cell-lines. The extract was partially purified by TLC. The individual effect of the ethanolic extract, TLC fractions and its combinatorial effect with insulin and glibenclamide on glucose uptake by rat hemi-diaphragm were studied.Results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of Polyalthia longifolia bark exhibited competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The extracts were also found not to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of 1 mg/mL. Glucose uptake study revealed that the extract alone and when combined with insulin, decreased the glucose uptake when compared to insulin control, however the purified TLC fractions exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) glucose uptake by the rat hemi-diaphragm when compared to insulin. The study shows various possible mechanism of in vitro antidiabetic effect of the P. longifolia bark.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, dixon, cornish-bowden, L6 , Vero cell-lines, glucose uptake, polyalthia longifolia bark, ethanolic extract, TLC fractions

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
4117 Correlation between Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene (Vgb) and Cadmium Uptake in the Heterologous Host Enterobacter Aerogenes in Response to Metabolic Inhibitors

Authors: Khaled Khleifat, Muayyad Abboud, Ahmad Almustafa

Abstract:

The effect of metabolic inhibitor/uncoupler(s) (CCCP and NaN3) and sulfhydryl reagents (dithiothreitol, 2 mercaptoethanol glutathione) on cadmium uptake was investigated in Enterobacter aerogenes strains. They include a transformed strain bearing the Vitreoscillahemoglobin gene, vgb as well as control strains that lack this transformed gene. The vgb-harboring strains showed better uptake of cadmium than vgb-lacking strains. Under low aeration, there was 2 fold enhancement of Cd+2 uptake in vgb-harboring strains compared with 1.6-fold enhancement under high aeration. The CCCP caused 36, 40 and 58% inhibition in cadmium uptake of parental, pUC9 harboring and VHb expressing cells, respectively. Similarly, the sodium azide exerted 44, 38 and 55% inhibition in Cd+2 uptake of parental, pUC9 harboring and VHb expressing cells, respectively. Less extensive inhibition of Cd+2 uptake in the range of 11 to 39% was observed with sulfhydryl reagents.

Keywords: bacterial hemoglobin, VHb, Cd uptake, biosorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
4116 An Audit of the Process of Care in Surveillance Services for Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Wales

Authors: Charlie Jeffkins

Abstract:

Sickle cell disease is a serious life-limiting condition which can reduce the quality of life for many patients. Public Health England (PHE), in partnership with the Sickle Cell Society (SCS), has created guidelines to prevent severe complications from sickle cell disease. Data was collected from Children’s Hospital for Wales between 15/03/21-26/03/21. Methods: A manual search of patient records for children under the care of Rocket Ward and a key term search of online records was used. Results: Penicillin prophylaxis was given at 90 days for 89%, 77% of TCDs scans were done at 2-3 years, and 72% have had a scan in the last year. 53% of patients have had discussions about hydroxycarbamide, whilst 65% have started it. PPV vaccination was documented for 19%. Conclusion: Overall, none of the four standards were reached; however, TCD uptake has improved. There is a need for better documentation of treatment and annual re-audits.

Keywords: paediatric, haematology, sickle cell, audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4115 Development of Partial Sulphonated Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride - Hexafluoro Propylene)–Montmorillonite Nano-Composites as Proton Exchange Membranes

Authors: K. Selvakumar, J. Kalaiselvimary, B. Jansirani, M. Ramesh Prabhu

Abstract:

Proton conducting sulphonated poly (vinylidene fluoride- hexafluoro propylene) PVdF-HFP membranes were modified with nano – sized montmorillonite (MMT) through homogeneous dispersive mixing and solution casting technique for fuel cell applications. The prepared composite membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1HNMR technique. The suitability of the composite membranes for fuel cell application was evaluated in terms of water uptake, swelling behavior, and proton conductivity. These composites showed good conductivities and durability and expected to be used in the development of proton exchange membrane for fuel cells.

Keywords: composite, proton conduction, sulphonation, water uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4114 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: molybdenum, phosphorus, uptake, rice,

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
4113 Comparing Double-Stranded RNA Uptake Mechanisms in Dipteran and Lepidopteran Cell Lines

Authors: Nazanin Amanat, Alison Tayler, Steve Whyard

Abstract:

While chemical insecticides effectively control many insect pests, they also harm many non-target species. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) pesticides, in contrast, can be designed to target unique gene sequences and thus act in a species-specific manner. DsRNA insecticides do not, however, work equally well for all insects, and for some species that are considered refractory to dsRNA, a primary factor affecting efficacy is the relative ease by which dsRNA can enter a target cell’s cytoplasm. In this study, we are examining how different structured dsRNAs (linear, hairpin, and paperclip) can enter mosquito and lepidopteran cells, as they represent dsRNA-sensitive and refractory species, respectively. To determine how the dsRNAs enter the cells, we are using chemical inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of key proteins associated with different endocytosis processes. Understanding how different dsRNAs enter cells will ultimately help in the design of molecules that overcome refractoriness to RNAi or develop resistance to dsRNA-based insecticides. To date, we have conducted chemical inhibitor experiments on both cell lines and have evidence that linear dsRNAs enter the cells using clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while the paperclip dsRNAs (pcRNAs) can enter both species’ cells in a clathrin-independent manner to induce RNAi. An alternative uptake mechanism for the pcRNAs has been tentatively identified, and the outcomes of our RNAi-mediated knockdown experiments, which should provide corroborative evidence of our initial findings, will be discussed.

Keywords: dsRNA, RNAi, uptake, insecticides, dipteran, lepidopteran

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
4112 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of a Cyclodextrin-Based Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe

Abstract:

Drug delivery systems are proposed for use in cancer treatment to specifically target cancer cells and deliver a therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. For that purpose, the use of folate receptors (FR) can be considered a key strategy, since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells. In this study, cyclodextrins (CD) have being used as vehicles to target FR and deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within their cavities. Here, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR. Thus, this drug delivery system consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 15.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 16.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 10.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 16.1 and 288.1 µM ± 26.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that free MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug. The use of cell imaging by confocal microscopy has allowed visualisation of FR targeting in cancer cells, as well as the identification of the interlisation pathway of the drug. Hence, the cellular uptake and internalisation process of this drug delivery system is being addressed.

Keywords: cancer treatment, cyclodextrins, drug delivery, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4111 Understanding the Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 in Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages and Implication in Atherosclerosis Progression

Authors: Anjali Roy, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of lipid rich plaque enriched with necrotic core, modified lipid accumulation, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, leucocytes and macrophages. Macrophage foam cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Foam cells are the fat-laden macrophages in the initial stage atherosclerotic lesion formation. Foam cells are an indication of plaque build-up, or atherosclerosis, which is commonly associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke as a result of arterial narrowing and hardening. The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression remain largely unknown. Dissecting the molecular mechanism involved in process of macrophage foam cell formation will help to develop therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. To investigate the mechanism, we studied the role of nitric oxide synthase 1(NOS1)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Using confocal microscopy, we found that incubation of macrophages with NOS1 inhibitor, TRIM (1-(2-Trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole) or L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) prior to LDL treatment significantly reduces the LDL uptake by BMDM. Further, addition of NO donor (DEA NONOate) in NOS1 inhibitor treated macrophages recovers the LDL uptake. Our data strongly suggest that NOS1 derived NO regulates LDL uptake by macrophages and foam cell formation. Moreover, we also checked proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression through real time PCR in BMDM treated with LDL and copper oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in presences and absences of inhibitor. Normal LDL does not evoke cytokine expression whereas OxLDL induced proinflammatory cytokine expression which significantly reduced in presences of NOS1 inhibitor. Rapid NOS-1-derived NO and its stable derivative formation act as signaling agents for inducible NOS-2 expression in endothelial cells, leading to endothelial vascular wall lining disruption and dysfunctioning. This study highlights the role of NOS1 as critical players of foam cell formation and would reveal much about the key molecular proteins involved in atherosclerosis. Thus, targeting NOS1 would be a useful strategy in reducing LDL uptake by macrophages at early stage of disease and hence dampening the atherosclerosis progression.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, NOS1, inflammation, oxidized LDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
4110 Cyclic NGR Peptide Anchored Block Co-Polymeric Nanoparticles as Dual Targeting Drug Delivery System for Solid Tumor Therapy

Authors: Madhu Gupta, G. P. Agrawa, Suresh P. Vyas

Abstract:

Certain tumor cells overexpress a membrane-spanning molecule aminopeptidase N (CD13) isoform, which is the receptor for peptides containing the NGR motif. NGR-modified Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded PEG-b-PLGA polymeric nanoparticles (cNGR-DNB-NPs) were developed and evaluated for their in vitro potential in HT-1080 cell line. The cNGR-DNB-NPs containing particles were about 148 nm in diameter with spherical shape and high encapsulation efficiency. Cellular uptake was confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Both quantitatively and qualitatively results confirmed the NGR conjugated nanoparticles revealed the higher uptake of nanoparticles by CD13-overexpressed tumor cells. Free NGR inhibited the cellular uptake of cNGR-DNB-NPs, revealing the mechanism of receptor mediated endocytosis. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that cNGR-DNB-NPs, formulation was more cytotoxic than unconjugated one, which were consistent well with the observation of cellular uptake. Hence, the selective delivery of cNGR-DNB-NPs formulation in CD13-overexpressing tumors represents a potential approach for the design of nanocarrier-based dual targeted delivery systems for targeting the tumor cells and vasculature.

Keywords: solid Tumor, docetaxel, targeting, NGR ligand

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
4109 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade

Abstract:

Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
4108 Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizer on, Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Harvest Index of Rice

Authors: Azin Nasrollah Zadeh

Abstract:

A factorial experiment was applied to evaluate the effect of chemical and biological fertilizer on yield, total nitrogen uptake and NHI of rice. Four biological treatments including:(M1:no fertilizer),( M2:10 ton/ha cow dung ),(M3:20 ton/ha cow dung) and (M4:5 ton/ha azolla compost) and four chemical fertilizer treatments including: (S1: no fertilizer),(S2:40 kg N /ha),(S3:60 kg N /ha) and ( S4:80 kg N /ha ) were compared. Results showed that highest rate of yield (3387 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (81.4 kg/ha) were reached the highest value at M4. Among the chemical fertilizers the highest grain yield (3373 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (87.7) belonged to highest nitrogen level (S4).Also biological and chemical fertilizers were no significant on Harvest index (NHI). Interaction effect of chemical × biological fertilizers didn't show significant difference between all parameters except of yield, as the most grain yield were obtained in M4S4. So it can be concluded that using of bioilogical fertilizers at appropriate rate and type, considering plant requirement, may improve grain yield, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice.

Keywords: azolla, fertilizer, nitrogen uptake, rice, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
4107 Phosphorus Uptake of Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) Genotypes at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Imren Kutlu, Nurdilek Gulmezoglu

Abstract:

Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Triticale has until now been used mostly for animal feed; however, it can be consumed by humans in the form of biscuits, cookies, and unleavened bread. Moreover, one of the reasons for the development of triticale is that it is more efficient in nutrient deficient soil than wheat cultivars. After nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus (P) is the most used fertilizer for crop production because P fixation occurs highly when it is applied the soil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate P uptake of winter triticale genotypes under different P fertilizer rates in different growth stages. The experiment was conducted in Eskisehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Treatments consisted of five triticale lines and one triticale cultivars (Samursortu) with four rates of P fertilization (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹). Phosphorus uptake of triticale genotypes in tillering, heading, as well as grain and straw at harvest stage and yield of grain and straw were determined. The results showed that a P rate of 60 kg/ha and the TCL-25 genotype produced the highest yields of straw and grain at harvest. Phosphorus uptake was the highest in tillering stage, and it decreased towards to harvest time. Phosphorus uptake of all growth stage increased as P rates raised and the application of 120 kg/ha P₂O₅ had the highest P uptake. Phosphorus uptake of genotypes was found differently. The regression analyses indicated that P uptake at tillering stage was the most effective on grain yield. These results will provide useful information to triticale growers about suitable phosphorus fertilization for both forage and food usage.

Keywords: grain yield, growth stage, phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus uptake, triticale

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
4106 Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and has been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. The prickly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, the southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. The present study investigated the effects of OFS on adipogenesis, lipolysis, glucose uptake, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression using preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Adipogenesis was determined by preadipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipolysis was determined as the rate of glycerol release. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression were measured using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG, and ELISA, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to investigate the effects of OFS on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently enhanced adipocyte differentiation and cellular triglyceride levels indicating the enhancement of the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression were also dose-dependently increased by OFS treatment. Furthermore, OFS treatment also increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ. These effects of OFS on adipocytes suggest that OFS is potentially beneficial for type 2 diabetes by due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

Keywords: 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell, adipogenesis, GLUT4, lipolysis, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, PPARγ, prickly pear cactus

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
4105 Cell Patterns and Tissue Metamorphoses Based on Cell Surface Mechanism

Authors: Reyhane Hamed Kamran

Abstract:

Early stage morphogenesis requires the execution of complex systems that direct the nearby conduct of gatherings of cells. The organization of such instruments has been, for the most part, deciphered through the recognizable proof of moderated groups of flagging pathways that spatially and transiently control cell conduct. In any case, how this data is handled to control cell shape and cell elements is an open territory of examination. The structure that rises up out of differing controls, for example, cell science, material science, and formative science, focuses to bond and cortical actin arranges as controllers of cell surface mechanics. In this specific circumstance, a scope of formative marvels can be clarified by the guideline of cell surface pressure.

Keywords: cell, tissue damage, morphogenesis, cell conduct

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
4104 Cell Patterns and Tissue Metamorphoses Based on Cell Surface Mechanics

Authors: Narin Salehiyan

Abstract:

Early stage morphogenesis requires the execution of complex systems that direct the nearby conduct of gatherings of cells. The organization of such instruments has been, for the most part, deciphered through the recognizable proof of moderated groups of flagging pathways that spatially and transiently control cell conduct. In any case, how this data is handled to control cell shape and cell elements is an open territory of examination. The structure that rises up out of differing controls, for example, cell science, material science and formative science, focuses to bond and cortical actin arranges as controllers of cell surface mechanics. In this specific circumstance, a scope of formative marvels can be clarified by the guideline of cell surface pressure.

Keywords: cell, tissue damage, morphogenesis, cell conduct

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
4103 Cytotoxicological Evaluation of a Folate Receptor Targeting Drug Delivery System Based on Cyclodextrins

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe

Abstract:

For chemotherapy, a drug delivery system should be able to specifically target cancer cells and deliver the therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. Folate receptors (FR) can be considered key targets since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells and they are the molecular marker used in this study. Here, cyclodextrin (CD) has being studied as a vehicle for delivering the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within the CD cavity. In this study, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR molecular marker. Thus, the system studied here for drug delivery consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 9.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 10.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 8.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 12.1 and 288.1 µM ± 16.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug.

Keywords: cyclodextrins, cancer treatment, drug delivery, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
4102 Glucose Uptake Rate of Insulin-Resistant Human Liver Carcinoma Cells (IR/HepG2) by Flavonoids from Enicostema littorale via IR/IRS1/AKT Pathway

Authors: Priyanka Mokashi, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which will be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. The current line of treatment for the diabetes mellitus is oral antidiabetic drugs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones and alpha-glycosidase inhibitors) and insulin therapy depending upon the type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. But, these treatments have their disadvantages, ranging from the developing of resistance to the drugs and adverse effects caused by them. Alternative to these synthetic agents, natural products provides a new insight for the development of more efficient and safe drugs due to their therapeutic values. Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. It is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and South America. There are few reports on Swrtiamarin, major component of this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, the antidiabetic activity of flavonoids from E. littorale and their mechanism of action have not yet been elucidated. Flavonoids have a positive relationship with disease prevention and can act on various molecular targets and regulate different signaling pathways in pancreatic β-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and skeletal myofibers. They may exert beneficial effects in diabetes by (i) improving hyperglycemia through regulation of glucose metabolism in hepatocytes; (ii) enhancing insulin secretion and reducing apoptosis and promoting proliferation of pancreatic β-cells; (iii) increasing glucose uptake in hepatocytes, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (iv) reducing insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, we have isolated four flavonoid rich fractions, Fraction A (FA), Fraction B (FB), Fraction C (FC), Fraction D (FD) from crude alcoholic hot (AH) extract from E. littorale, identified by LC/MS. Total eight flavonoids were identified on the basis of fragmentation pattern. Flavonoid FA showed the presence of swertisin, isovitexin, and saponarin; FB showed genkwanin, quercetin, isovitexin, FC showed apigenin, swertisin, quercetin, 5-O-glucosylswertisin and 5-O-glucosylisoswertisin whereas FD showed the presence of swertisin. Further, these fractions were assessed for their antidiabetic activity on stimulating glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cell line model (IR/HepG2). The results showed that FD containing C-glycoside Swertisin has significantly increased the glucose uptake rate of IR/HepG2 cells at the concentration of 10 µg/ml as compared to positive control Metformin (0.5mM) which was determined by glucose oxidase- peroxidase method. It has been reported that enhancement of glucose uptake of cells occurs due the translocation of Glut4 vesicles to cell membrane through IR/IRS1/AKT pathway. Therefore, we have studied expressions of three genes IRS1, AKT and Glut4 by real-time PCR to evaluate whether they follow the same pathway or not. It was seen that the glucose uptake rate has increased in FD treated IR/HepG2 cells due to the activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) followed by protein kinase B (AKT) through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) leading to translocation of Glut 4 vesicles to cell membrane, thereby enhancing glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity of insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Hence, the up-regulation indicated the mechanism of action through which FD (Swertisin) acts as antidiabetic candidate in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: E. littorale, glucose transporter, glucose uptake rate, insulin resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4101 Anion Exchange Nanocomposite Membrane Doped with ZnO-Nanoparticles for Direct Methanol Alkaline Fuel Cell

Authors: Phumlani Msomi, Patrick Nonjola, Patrick Ndungu, James Ramontja

Abstract:

A series of quaternized poly (2.6 dimethyl – 1.4 phenylene oxide)/ polysulfone (QPPO/PSF) blend anion exchange membrane (AEM) were successfully fabricated and characterized for methanol alkaline fuel cell application. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were introduced in the polymer matrix to enhance the intrinsic properties of the AEM. To confirm successful fabrication, FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR and HMBC ¹⁵N NMR) were used. The membrane properties were enhanced by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles resulted to a higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 3.72 mmol.g⁻¹and a 30-fold ion conductivity (IC) increase of the nanocomposite due to no (zero (0)) methanol permeability at 30 °C and increased water uptake. The QPPO/PSF/2% ZnO composite retained over 80 % of its initial IC when evaluated for alkaline stability at room temperature. The maximum power output reached for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) constructed with QPPO/PSF/2%ZnO is 69 mW.cm⁻², which is about three times more than the parent QPPO membrane. The above results indicate that QPPO/PSF-ZnO is a good candidate as an anion exchange membrane for fuel cell application.

Keywords: anion exchange membrane, fuel cell, zinc oxide, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
4100 Intraspecific Response of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila to Copper and Thermal Stress

Authors: Doufoungognon Carine Kone

Abstract:

Heavy metals present in large quantities in ecosystems can alter biological and cellular functions and disrupt trophic functions. However, their toxicity can change according to thermal conditions, as toxicity depends on their bioavailability and thermal optimum of organisms. Organisms can develop different tolerance strategies to maintain themselves in a stressful environment, but these strategies are often studied in a single-stressor context. This study evaluates the responses of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila to copper, high temperature, and their interaction. Six genotypes were exposed to a gradient of copper concentrations ranging from 0 to 350mg/L in synthetic media at three temperatures: 15°C, 23°C, and 31°C. Cell density, cell shape and size (and their variance), swimming speed and trajectory, and copper uptake rate were measured. Depending on the genotype, swimming speed, trajectory, and cell size were highly affected by stress gradients. One gets bigger, while two genotypes get smaller and the other remain unchanged. Some genotypes swam less rapidly, while others speed up as copper and temperature increased. Concerning copper uptake, the two genotypes accumulating the best and the worst, whatever the copper concentration or temperature, were also those that had the highest densities. Finally, very few temperature x copper interactions were observed on phenotypic parameters. The diversity of phenotypic responses revealed in this study reflects the existence of divergent strategies adopted by Tetrahymena thermophila to resist to copper and thermal stress, which suggests an important role of intraspecific variability in biodiversity response to environmental stress. One general and the surprising pattern was a global absence of interactive effects between copper and high temperature exposure on the observed phenotypic responses.

Keywords: ciliate, copper, intraspecific variability, phenotype, temperature, tolerance, multiple stressors

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
4099 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash

Abstract:

Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
4098 Corrective Feedback and Uptake Patterns in English Speaking Lessons at Hanoi Law University

Authors: Nhac Thanh Huong

Abstract:

New teaching methods have led to the changes in the teachers’ roles in an English class, in which teachers’ error correction is an integral part. Language error and corrective feedback have been the interest of many researchers in foreign language teaching. However, the techniques and the effectiveness of teachers’ feedback have been a question of much controversy. This present case study has been carried out with a view to finding out the patterns of teachers’ corrective feedback and their impact on students’ uptake in English speaking lessons of legal English major students at Hanoi Law University. In order to achieve those aims, the study makes use of classroom observations as the main method of data collection to seeks answers to the two following questions: 1. What patterns of corrective feedback occur in English speaking lessons for second- year legal English major students in Hanoi Law University?; 2. To what extent does that corrective feedback lead to students’ uptake? The study provided some important findings, among which was a close relationship between corrective feedback and uptake. In particular, recast was the most commonly used feedback type, yet it was the least effective in terms of students’ uptake and repair, while the most successful feedback, namely meta-linguistic feedback, clarification requests and elicitation, which led to students’ generated repair, was used at a much lower rate by teachers. Furthermore, it revealed that different types of errors needed different types of feedback. Also, the use of feedback depended on the students’ English proficiency level. In the light of findings, a number of pedagogical implications have been drawn in the hope of enhancing the effectiveness of teachers’ corrective feedback to students’ uptake in foreign language acquisition process.

Keywords: corrective feedback, error, uptake, speaking English lesson

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
4097 Role of Male Partners in Postpartum Family Planning

Authors: Stephen Rulisa, Aimee Nyiramahirwe

Abstract:

Background: Strategies to increase the uptake of contraception services have been adopted in Rwanda, but the unmet need for family planning remains high. Women in the postpartum period are at higher risk for unintended pregnancy due to the silent conversion from lactational amenorrhea to reactivation of ovulatory cycles. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of male partners in the uptake of postpartum contraception. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among women who delivered at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali for a period of 3 months with random sampling. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and antenatal data, information on male companionship, and intent to use postpartum contraception at admission. Participants were contacted six weeks later to collect data on contraceptive use. The outcome variables were uptake of postpartum contraception and types of contraceptives taken (long-acting vs. short-acting), controlling for male companionship during the antenatal period. A Chi-square test was used and a p-value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 209 women were recruited with a mean age of 30.8±5.2 years. The majority (60.9%) were multigravida, and 66.5% were multiparous. More than half (55%) had male partner companionship, 18.3% had companionship for four antenatal visits, and 28.2% had education on contraception with their male partner. Factors significantly associated with uptake of postpartum contraception were: age above 30 years, owning or heading a business, multigravidity, multiparity, antenatal care at a health center or district hospital, cesarean delivery, and previous utilization of contraception. Male companionship significantly increased the intent to use contraception, uptake of modern contraception in general, and uptake of long active contraceptives but did not predict the uptake of short-acting contraceptives. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a positive association between male companionship during antenatal care, labor and delivery with the uptake of postpartum family planning. Our study suggests more sensitization to involve the male partners, improving the education on contraception during antenatal care and further research to assess the sustained uptake of contraception beyond the postpartum period.

Keywords: postpartum, family planning, contraception, male partner, uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
4096 Low-Density Lipoproteins Mediated Delivery of Paclitaxel and MRI Imaging Probes for Personalized Medicine Applications

Authors: Sahar Rakhshan, Simonetta Geninatti Crich, Diego Alberti, Rachele Stefania

Abstract:

The combination of imaging and therapeutic agents in the same smart nanoparticle is a promising option to perform a minimally invasive imaging guided therapy. In this study, Low density lipoproteins (LDL), one of the most attractive biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles, were used for the simultaneous delivery of Paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic antitumour drug and an amphiphilic contrast agent, Gd-AAZTA-C17, in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. These cells overexpress LDL receptors, as assessed by Flow cytometry analysis. PTX and Gd-AAZTA-C17 loaded LDLs (LDL-PTX-Gd) have been prepared, characterized and their stability was assessed under 72 h incubation at 37 ◦C and compared to LDL loaded with Gd-AAZTA-C17 (LDL-Gd) and LDL-PTX. The cytotoxic effect of LDL-PTX-Gd was evaluated by MTT assay. The anti-tumour drug loaded into LDLs showed a significantly higher toxicity on B16-F10 cells with respect to the commercially available formulation Paclitaxel Kabi (PTX Kabi) used in clinical applications. It was possible to demonstrate a high uptake of LDL-Gd in B16-F10 cells. As a consequence of the high cell uptake, melanoma cells showed significantly high cytotoxic effect when incubated in the presence of PTX (LDL-PTX-Gd). Furthermore, B16-F10 have been used to perform Magnetic Resonance Imaging. By the analysis of the image signal intensity, it was possible to extrapolate the amount of internalized PTX indirectly by the decrease of relaxation times caused by Gd, proportional to its concentration. Finally, the treatment with PTX loaded LDL on B16-F10 tumour bearing mice resulted in a marked reduction of tumour growth compared to the administration of PTX Kabi alone. In conclusion, LDLs are selectively taken-up by tumour cells and can be successfully exploited for the selective delivery of Paclitaxel and imaging agents.

Keywords: low density lipoprotein, melanoma cell lines, MRI, paclitaxel, personalized medicine application, theragnostic System

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
4095 Cellular Uptake and Endocytosis of Doxorubicin Loaded Methoxy Poly (Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly (Glutamic Acid) [DOX/mPEG-b-PLG] Nanoparticles against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Zaheer Ahmad, Afzal Shah

Abstract:

pH responsive block copolymers consist of mPEG and glutamic acid units were syntheiszed in different formulations. The synthesized polymers were structurally investigated. Doxorubicin Hydrocholide (DOX-HCl) as a chemotherapy medication for the treatment of cancer was selected. DOX-HCl was loaded and their drug loading content and drug loading efficiency were determined. The nanocarriers were obtained in small size, well shaped and slightly negative surface charge. The release study was carried out both at pH 7.4 and 5.5 and it was revealed that the release was sustained and in controlled manner and there was no initial burst release. The in vitro release study was further carried out for different formulations with different glutamic acid moieties. Time dependent cell proliferation inhibition of the free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and Zr-75-30 was observed. Cellular uptakes and endocytosis were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometery. The biocompatibility, optimum size, shape and surface charge of the developed nanoparticles make the nanoparticles an efficient drug delivery carrier.

Keywords: doxorubicin, glutamic acid, cell proliferation inhibition, breast cancer cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 120