Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Search results for: weeds

67 Determination of Critical Period for Weed Control in the Second Crop Forage Maize (454 Cultivar)

Authors: Farhad Farahvash, Parya Mobaseri

Abstract:

Weeds control based on their critical period leads to less production costs and risks of wide chemical application of weeds control methods. The present study considered effect of weeds control time (weeds interference after 20, 40 and 60 days, weeds full control, weeds interference and weeds control after 20, 40 and 60 days) on growth and yield of forage maize 454. The experiment based on full-randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at research farm of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz located at 15th km of East Tabriz in 2013. According to the results, weeds interference after 40 and 60 days as well as weeds control after 20 days prevented from decrease of maize biomass resulted from weeds presence while weeds interference after 20 days, weeds interference and weeds control after 40 and 60 days led respectively to 41.2%, 35%, 25% and 32.5% decrease of forage maize biomass. The weeds-influenced decrease was manifested at different parts of the plant depending on presence period of weeds. Decrease of fresh weight of ear and fresh weight of leaf and stem was observed due to weeds interference after 20 days and weeds interference. If weeds are controlled after 60 days, decrease of ear weight and fresh weight of stem will lead to biomass decrease. Also, if weeds are controlled after 40 days, decrease of fresh weight of maize stems will result in biomass decrease. Ear traits were affected by weeds control treatment. Being affected by treatments of weeds interference after 20 days, weeds non-interference, weeds control after 40 and 60 days, ear length was shortened 29.9 %, 41.4 %, 27.6 % and 37.2 %, respectively. The stem diameter demonstrated a significant decrease although it was only affected by treatments of weeds interference and weeds control after 60 days. Considering results of the present study, generally, it is suggested to control weeds during initial 20-60 days of maize growth in order to prevent undesirable effect of weeds on growth, production and production biomass of maize and decrease of production costs.

Keywords: maize, competition, weed, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
66 Weeds Density Affects Yield and Quality of Wheat Crop under Different Crop Densities

Authors: Ijaz Ahmad

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Weed competition is one of the major biotic constraints in wheat crop productivity. Avena fatua L. and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. are among the worst weeds of wheat, greatly deteriorating wheat quality subsequently reducing its market value. In this connection, two-year experiments were conducted in 2018 & 2019. Different seeding rate wheat viz; 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1 and different weeds ratio (A. fatua: S. marianum ) sown at the rate 1:8, 2:7, 3:6, 4:5, 5:4, 6:3, 7:2, 8:1 and 0:0 respectively. The weeds ratio and wheat densities are indirectly proportional. However, the wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 has minimal weeds interference. Yield losses were 17.5% at weeds density 1:8 while 7.2% at 8:1. However, in wheat density, the highest percent losses were computed on 80 kg ha-1 while the lowest was recorded on 140 kg ha-1. Since due to the large leaf canopy of S. marianum other species can't sustain their growth. Hence, it has been concluded that S. marianum is the hotspot that causes reduction to the yield-related parameters, followed by A. fatua and the other weeds. Due to the morphological mimicry of A. fatua with wheat crop during the vegetative growth stage, it cannot be easily distinguished. Therefore, managing A. fatua and S. marianum before seed setting is recommended for reducing the future weed problem. Based on current studies, it is suggested that sowing wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 is recommended to better compete with all the field weeds.

Keywords: fat content, holly thistle, protein content, weed competition, wheat, wild oat

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
65 Effect of Tillage Technology on Species Composition of Weeds in Monoculture of Maize

Authors: Svetlana Chovancova, Frantisek Illek, Jan Winkler

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The effect of tillage technology of maize on intensity of weed infestation and weed species composition was observed at experimental field. Maize is grown consecutively since 2001. The experimental site is situated at an altitude of 230 m above sea level in the Czech Republic. Variants of tillage technology are CT: plowing – conventional tillage 0.22 m, MT: loosening – disc tillage on the depth of 0.1 – 0.12 m, NT: direct sowing – without tillage. The evaluation of weed infestation was carried out by numerical method in years 2012 and 2013. Within the monitoring were found 20 various species of weeds. Conventional tillage (CT) primarily supports the occurrence of perennial weeds (Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis). Late spring species (Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli) were more frequently noticed on variants of loosening (MT) and direct sowing (NT). Different tillage causes a significant change of weed species spectrum in maize.

Keywords: weeds, maize, tillage, loosening, direct sowing

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
64 Development of a Weed Suppression Robot for Rice Cultivation Weed Suppression and Posture Control

Authors: Shohei Nakai, Yasuhiro Yamada

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Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.

Keywords: mobile robot, paddy field, robot arm, weed

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
63 Evaluation of Wheat Sowing and Fertilizer Application Methods in Wheat Weeds Management

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi

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In order to investigation the effects of sowing methods, nitrogen and phosphorus application methods in wheat weeds management, an experiment was performed as split plot, based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2010. Treatments included, wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 50 cm width ridges) as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots. In this experiment, phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization were super phosphate triple (150 kg ha-1) applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea (200 kg ha-1) respectively, applied in 2 phases (pre-plant 50%) and near wheat shooting (50%). Results showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods and wheat sowing methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing and reducing weed-wheat competition. Wheat twine row sowing method, reduced weeds biomass for 25% compared wheat single-row sowing method and increased wheat seed yield and biomass for 60% and 30% respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen band application reduced weeds biomass for 46% and 53% respectively and increased wheat seed yield for 22% and 33% compared to their broadcast application. The effects of wheat sowing method plus phosphorus and nitrogen application methods interactions, showed that the fertilizers band application and wheat twine-row sowing method were the best methods in wheat yield improvement and reducing wheat-weeds interaction. These results shows that modifying of fertilization methods and wheat sowing method can have important role in fertilizers use efficiency and improving of weeds managements.

Keywords: competition, wheat yield, fertilizer management, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
62 Effect of Different Weed Management Strategies in Chickpea Yield

Authors: Ijaz Ahmed Khan, Zaheen Ullah, Rahamdad, Gul Hassan

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A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Ahmad Wala, Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province during rabi season of 2010-011 to study the effect of different weed management practices on weed control in chickpea under field conditions. The results revealed that treatments showed significant influence on weed density, seed yield kg ha-1 and other growth parameters. Significantly lower weed density (98 m-2) was recorded with the application of Isoproturon 500 EW as compared to control plots having 368.3 weeds m-2. Moreover, significantly highest seed yield (1583.3 kg ha-1) was produced in the plots assigned with Isoproturon 500 EW followed by Eucalyptus extract that produce seed yield of 1416.7 kg ha-1. It was concluded from the study that Isoproturon 500 EW is the best option for controlling weeds and increase the seed yield kg ha-1 of chickpea.

Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, weed control, weeds extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
61 Roboweeder: A Robotic Weeds Killer Using Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Yahoel Van Essen, Gordon Ho, Brett Russell, Hans-Georg Worms, Xiao Lin Long, Edward David Cooper, Avner Bachar

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Weeds reduce farm and forest productivity, invade crops, smother pastures and some can harm livestock. Farmers need to spend a significant amount of money to control weeds by means of biological, chemical, cultural, and physical methods. To solve the global agricultural labor shortage and remove poisonous chemicals, a fully autonomous, eco-friendly, and sustainable weeding technology is developed. This takes the form of a weeding robot, ‘Roboweeder’. Roboweeder includes a four-wheel-drive self-driving vehicle, a 4-DOF robotic arm which is mounted on top of the vehicle, an electromagnetic wave generator (magnetron) which is mounted on the “wrist” of the robotic arm, 48V battery packs, and a control/communication system. Cameras are mounted on the front and two sides of the vehicle. Using image processing and recognition, distinguish types of weeds are detected before being eliminated. The electromagnetic wave technology is applied to heat the individual weeds and clusters dielectrically causing them to wilt and die. The 4-DOF robotic arm was modeled mathematically based on its structure/mechanics, each joint’s load, brushless DC motor and worm gear’ characteristics, forward kinematics, and inverse kinematics. The Proportional-Integral-Differential control algorithm is used to control the robotic arm’s motion to ensure the waveguide aperture pointing to the detected weeds. GPS and machine vision are used to traverse the farm and avoid obstacles without the need of supervision. A Roboweeder prototype has been built. Multiple test trials show that Roboweeder is able to detect, point, and kill the pre-defined weeds successfully although further improvements are needed, such as reducing the “weeds killing” time and developing a new waveguide with a smaller waveguide aperture to avoid killing crops surrounded. This technology changes the tedious, time consuming and expensive weeding processes, and allows farmers to grow more, go organic, and eliminate operational headaches. A patent of this technology is pending.

Keywords: autonomous navigation, machine vision, precision heating, sustainable and eco-friendly

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
60 In vitro Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemistry of Some Philippine Creeping Medicinal Plants

Authors: Richard I. Licayan, Aisle Janne B. Dagpin, Romeo M. Del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

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Hiptage benghalensis, Antigonon leptopus, Macroptillium atropurpureum, and Dioscorea bulbifera L. are herbal weeds that have been used by traditional healers in rural communities in the Philippines as medicine. In this study, the basic pharmacological components of the crude secondary metabolites extracted from the four herbal weeds and their in vitro antioxidant properties was investigated to provide baseline data for the possible development of these metabolites in pharmaceutical products. Qualitative screening of the secondary metabolites showed that alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and flavonoids were present in their leaf extracts. All of the plant extracts showed varied antioxidant activity. The greatest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in H. begnhalensis (84.64%), followed by A. leptopus (68.21%), M. atropurpureum (26.62%), and D. bulbifera L. (19.04%). The FRAP assay revealed that H. benghalensis had the highest antioxidant activity (8.32 mg/g) while ABTS assay showed that M. atropurpureum had the strongest scavenging ability of free radicals (0.0842 mg Trolox/g). The total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis showed that D. bulbifera L. had the highest TFC (420.35 mg quercetin per gram-dried material). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the four herbal weeds showed large variations, between 26.56±0.160 and 55.91±0.087 mg GAE/g dried material. The plant leaf extracts arranged in increasing values of TPC are H. benghalensis (26.565) < A. leptopus (37.29) < D. bulbifera L. (46.81) < M. atropurpureum (55.91). The obtained results may support their use in herbal medicine and as baseline data for the development of new drugs and standardized phytomedicines.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, total flavonoids, total phenolics, creeping herbal weeds

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59 Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Contrasting Perspectives of Actors in the Agricultural Sector

Authors: Bruce Small, Martin Espig, Alyssa Ryan

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In the agricultural sector, the rapid expansion of herbicide resistant weeds is a major threat to the global sustainability of food and fibre production. Efforts to avoid herbicide resistance have primarily focused on new technologies and farmer education. Yet, despite decades of advice to growers from agricultural scientists and extension professionals of the need for management strategies for herbicide use, herbicide resistance continues to increase. Technological options are running out and current extension efforts to change farmer behaviour are failing to curb the problem. As part of a five-year, government funded, research programme to address herbicide resistance in New Zealand, social science theory and practice are being utilised to investigate the complexities of managing herbicide use and controlling resistance. As an initial step, we are utilising a transdisciplinary, multi-level systems approach to examine the problem definition, knowledge beliefs, attitudes and values of different important actors in the agri-business sector. In this paper, we report early project results from qualitative research examining the similarities and contrasts in the perceptions of scientists, farmer/growers, and rural professionals.

Keywords: behaviour change, herbicide resistant weeds, knowledge beliefs, systems perspective

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58 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher

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The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder on some growth parameters and phytomass of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment). The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL), fresh and dry weight of shoot and root (SFw, RFw, SDw and RDw, respectively and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of all the eight donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Bromus tectorum> Melilotus indica. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of sol the t-test indicated that the difference was insignificant between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: allelopathy, soil, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana, growth, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
57 The Effect of Precipitation on Weed Infestation of Spring Barley under Different Tillage Conditions

Authors: J. Winkler, S. Chovancová

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The article deals with the relation between rainfall in selected months and subsequent weed infestation of spring barley. The field experiment was performed at Mendel University agricultural enterprise in Žabčice, Czech Republic. Weed infestation was measured in spring barley vegetation in years 2004 to 2012. Barley was grown in three tillage variants: conventional tillage technology (CT), minimization tillage technology (MT), and no tillage (NT). Precipitation was recorded in one-day intervals. Monthly precipitation was calculated from the measured values in the months of October through to April. The technique of canonical correspondence analysis was applied for further statistical processing. 41 different species of weeds were found in the course of the 9-year monitoring period. The results clearly show that precipitation affects the incidence of most weed species in the selected months, but acts differently in the monitored variants of tillage technologies.

Keywords: weeds, precipitation, tillage, weed infestation forecast

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
56 Estimating Understory Species Diversity of West Timor Tropical Savanna, Indonesia: The Basis for Planning an Integrated Management of Agricultural and Environmental Weeds and Invasive Species

Authors: M. L. Gaol, I. W. Mudita

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Indonesia is well known as a country covered by lush tropical rain forests, but in fact, the northeastern part of the country, within the areas geologically known as Lesser Sunda, the dominant vegetation is tropical savanna. Lesser Sunda is a chain of islands located closer to Australia than to islands in the other parts of the country. Among those of islands in the chain which is closes to Australia, and thereby most strongly affected by the hot and dry Australian climate, is the island of Timor, the western part of which belongs to Indonesia and the eastern part is a sovereign state East Timor. Regardless of being the most dominant vegetation cover, tropical savanna in West Timor, especially its understory, is rarely investigated. This research was therefore carried out to investigate the structure, composition and diversity of the understory of this tropical savanna as the basis for looking at the possibility of introducing other spesieis for various purposes. For this research, 14 terrestrial communities representing major types of the existing savannas in West Timor was selected with aid of the most recently available satellite imagery. At each community, one stand of the size of 50 m x 50 m most likely representing the community was as the site of observation for the type of savanna under investigation. At each of the 14 communities, 20 plots of 1 m x 1 m in size was placed at random to identify understory species and to count the total number of individuals and to estimate the cover of each species. Based on such counts and estimation, the important value of each species was later calculated. The results of this research indicated that the understory of savanna in West Timor consisted of 73 understory species. Of this number of species, 18 species are grasses and 55 are non-grasses. Although lower than non-grass species, grass species indeed dominated the savanna as indicated by their number of individuals (65.33 vs 34.67%), species cover (57.80 vs 42.20%), and important value (123.15 vs 76.85). Of the 14 communities, the lowest density of grass was 13.50/m2 and the highest was 417.50/m2. Of 18 grass species found, all were commonly found as agricultural weeds, whereas of 55 non-grass, 10 species were commonly found as agricultural weeds, environmental weeds, or invasive species. In terms of better managing the savanna in the region, these findings provided the basis for planning a more integrated approach in managing such agricultural and environmental weeds as well as invasive species by considering the structure, composition, and species diversity of the understory species existing in each site. These findings also provided the basis for better understanding the flora of the region as a whole and for developing a flora database of West Timor in future.

Keywords: tropical savanna, understory species, integrated management, weedy and invasive species

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55 An Evaluation of Different Weed Management Techniques in Organic Arable Systems

Authors: Nicola D. Cannon

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A range of field experiments have been conducted since 1991 to 2017 on organic land at the Royal Agricultural University’s Harnhill Manor Farm near Cirencester, UK to explore the impact of different management practices on weed infestation in organic winter and spring wheat. The experiments were designed using randomised complete block and some with split plot arrangements. Sowing date, variety choice, crop height and crop establishment technique have all shown a significant impact on weed infestations. Other techniques have also been investigated but with less clear, but, still often significant effects on weed control including grazing with sheep, undersowing with different legumes and mechanical weeding techniques. Tillage treatments included traditional plough based systems, minimum tillage and direct drilling. Direct drilling had significantly higher weed dry matter than the other two techniques. Taller wheat varieties which do not contain Rht1 or Rht2 had higher weed populations than the wheat without dwarfing genes. Early sown winter wheat had greater weed dry matter than later sown wheat. Grazing with sheep interacted strongly with sowing date, with shorter varieties and also late sowing dates providing much less forage but, grazing did reduce weed biomass in June. Undersowing had mixed impacts which were related to the success of establishment of the undersown legume crop. Weeds are most successfully controlled when a range of techniques are implemented to give the wheat crop the greatest chance of competing with weeds.

Keywords: crop establishment, drilling date, grazing, undersowing, varieties, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
54 A Perspective on Allelopathic Potential of Corylus avellana L.

Authors: Tugba G. Isin Ozkan, Yoshiharu Fujii

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One of the most important constrains that decrease the crop yields are weeds. Increased amount and number of chemical herbicides are being utilized every day to control weeds. Chemical herbicides which cause environmental effects, and limitations on implementation of them have led to the nonchemical alternatives in the management of weeds. It is needed increasingly the application of allelopathy as a nonherbicidal innovation to control weed populations in integrated weed management. It is not only because of public concern about herbicide use, but also increased agricultural costs and herbicide resistance weeds. Allelopathy is defined as a common biological phenomenon, direct or indirect interaction which one plant or organism produces biochemicals influence the physiological processes of another neighboring plant or organism. Biochemicals involved in allelopathy are called allelochemicals that influence beneficially or detrimentally the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other plant or organisms. All plant parts could have allelochemicals which are secondary plant metabolites. Allelochemicals are released to environment, influence the germination and seedling growth of neighbors' weeds; that is the way how allelopathy is applied for weed control. Crop cultivars have significantly different ability for inhibiting the growth of certain weeds. So, a high commercial value crop Corylus avellana L. and its byproducts were chosen to introduce for their allelopathic potential in this research. Edible nut of Corylus avellana L., commonly known as hazelnut is commercially valuable crop with byproducts; skin, hard shell, green leafy cover, and tree leaf. Research on allelopathic potential of a plant by using the sandwich bioassay method and investigation growth inhibitory activity is the first step to develop new and environmentally friendly alternatives for weed control. Thus, the objective of this research is to determine allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. and its byproducts by using sandwich method and to determine effective concentrations (EC) of their extracts for inducing half-maximum elongation inhibition on radicle of test plant, EC50. The sandwich method is reliable and fast bioassay, very useful for allelopathic screening under laboratory conditions. In experiments, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds will be test plant, because of its high sensitivity to inhibition by allelochemicals and reliability for germination. In sandwich method, the radicle lengths of dry material treated lettuce seeds and control lettuce seeds will be measured and inhibition of radicle elongation will be determined. Lettuce seeds will also be treated by the methanol extracts of dry hazelnut parts to calculate EC₅₀ values, which are required to induce half-maximal inhibition of growth, as mg dry weight equivalent mL-1. Inhibitory activity of extracts against lettuce seedling elongation will be evaluated, like in sandwich method, by comparing the radicle lengths of treated seeds with that of control seeds and EC₅₀ values will be determined. Research samples are dry parts of Turkish hazelnut, C. avellana L. The results would suggest the opportunity for allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. with its byproducts in plant-plant interaction, might be utilized for further researches, could be beneficial in finding bioactive chemicals from natural products and developing of natural herbicides.

Keywords: allelopathy, Corylus avellana L., EC50, Lactuca sativa L., sandwich method, Turkish hazelnut

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
53 Yield Enhancement and Reduced Nutrient Removal by Weeds in Winter Irrigated Cotton Using Potassium Salt Based Glyphosate

Authors: N. Viji, K. Siddeswaran

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Field experiment was conducted at Eastern Block farm, Department of Farm Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during winter season of 2011-2012 to evaluate potassium salt based glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) with and without intercultural operations on seed cotton yield and weed nutrient removal in irrigated cotton. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of POE glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) at 1350 (T1), 1800 (T2), 2250 (T3) g a.e. ha-1, 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC (T4), PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC (T5), HW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T6), HWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T7), PWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T8), HW at 25 and 45 DAS (T9) and Unweeded control (T10). Among the weed management methods, decreased nutrient removal by weeds were observed with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC. Higher seed cotton yield was obtained with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 at 35 and 70 DAS with + IC at 45 and 55 DAS which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC at 45 and 55 DAS. Comparing treatments without intercultural operation, intercultural operation carried out treatments performed better and recorded more seed cotton yield.

Keywords: cotton, weed, glyphosate, nutrient

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52 Assessment of the Possible Effects of Biological Control Agents of Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata in Davao City, Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Cristine P. Canlas, Crislene Mae L. Gever, Patricia Bea R. Rosialda, Ma. Nina Regina M. Quibod, Perry Archival C. Buenavente, Normandy M. Barbecho, Cynthia Adeline A. Layusa, Michael Day

Abstract:

Invasive plants have an impact on global biodiversity and ecosystem function, and their management is a complex and formidable task. Two of these invasive plant species, Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata, are found in the Philippines. Lantana camara has the ability to suppress the growth of and outcompete neighboring plants. Chromolaena odorata causes serious agricultural and economical damage and causes fire hazards during dry season. In addition, both species has been reported to poison livestock. One of the known global management strategies to control invasive plants is the introduction of biological control agents. These natural enemies of the invasive plants reduce population density and impacts of the invasive plants, resulting in the balance of the nature in their invasion. Through secondary data sources, interviews, and field validation (e.g. microhabitat searches, sweep netting, opportunistic sampling, photo-documentation), we investigated whether the biocontrol agents previously released by the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) in their Davao Research Center to control these invasive plants are still present and are affecting their respective host weeds. We confirm the presence of the biocontrol agent of L. camara, Uroplata girardi, which was introduced in 1985, and Cecidochares connexa, a biocontrol agent of C. odorata released in 2003. Four other biocontrol agents were found to affect L. camara. Signs of damage (e.g. stem galls in C. odorata, and leaf mines in L. camara) signify that these biocontrol agents have successfully established outside of their release site in Davao. Further investigating the extent of the spread of these biocontrol agents in the Philippines and their damage to the two weeds will contribute to the management of invasive plant species in the country.

Keywords: invasive alien species, biological control agent, entomology, worst weeds

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51 Allelopathic Action of Diferents Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench Fractions on Ipomoea grandifolia [Dammer] O'Donell

Authors: Mateus L. O. Freitas, Flávia H. de M. Libório, Letycia L. Ricardo, Patrícia da C. Zonetti, Graciene de S. Bido

Abstract:

Weeds compete with agricultural crops for resources such as light, water, and nutrients. This competition can cause significant damage to agricultural producers, and, currently, the use of agrochemicals is the most effective method for controlling these undesirable plants. Morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia [Dammer] O'Donell) is an aggressive weed and significantly reduces agricultural productivity making harvesting difficult, especially mechanical harvesting. The biggest challenge in modern agriculture is to preserve high productivity reducing environmental damage and maintaining soil characteristics. No-till is a sustainable practice that can reduce the use of agrochemicals and environmental impacts due to the presence of plant residues in the soil, which release allelopathic compounds and reduce the incidence or alter the growth and development of crops and weeds. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a forage with proven allelopathic activity, mainly for producing sorgholeone. In this context, this research aimed to evaluate the allelopathic action of sorghum fractions using hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and ethyl acetate on the germination and initial growth of morning glory. The parameters analyzed were the percentage of germination, speed of germination, seedling length, and biomass weight (fresh and dry). The bioassays were performed in Petri dishes, kept in an incubation chamber for 7 days, at 25 °C, with a 12h photoperiod. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates of each treatment. The data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and the averages between each treatment were compared using the Scott Knott test at a 5% significance level. The results indicated that the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed bioherbicidal effects, promoting effective reductions on germination and initial growth of the morning glory. It was concluded that allelochemicals were probably extracted in these fractions. These secondary metabolites can reduce the use of agrochemicals and environmental impact, making agricultural production systems more sustainable.

Keywords: allelochemicals, secondary metabolism, sorgoleone, weeds

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50 Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops: Statistical Evaluation of the Potential Herbicide Savings

Authors: Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Henrik Skov Midtiby, Anders Krogh Mortensen, Sanmohan Baby

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This work contributes a statistical model and simulation framework yielding the best estimate possible for the potential herbicide reduction when using the MoDiCoVi algorithm all the while requiring a efficacy comparable to conventional spraying. In June 2013 a maize field located in Denmark were seeded. The field was divided into parcels which was assigned to one of two main groups: 1) Control, consisting of subgroups of no spray and full dose spraty; 2) MoDiCoVi algorithm subdivided into five different leaf cover thresholds for spray activation. In addition approximately 25% of the parcels were seeded with additional weeds perpendicular to the maize rows. In total 299 parcels were randomly assigned with the 28 different treatment combinations. In the statistical analysis, bootstrapping was used for balancing the number of replicates. The achieved potential herbicide savings was found to be 70% to 95% depending on the initial weed coverage. However additional field trials covering more seasons and locations are needed to verify the generalisation of these results. There is a potential for further herbicide savings as the time interval between the first and second spraying session was not long enough for the weeds to turn yellow, instead they only stagnated in growth.

Keywords: herbicide reduction, macrosprayer, weed crop discrimination, site-specific, sprayer boom

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
49 Evaluation of Broad Leaf Weed Herbicides on Weed Control and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

Authors: Kassahun Zewdie

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-- A field experiment was conducted at Holetta research center and farmers fields during 2017 and 2018 to determine the effects of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam (QULEX 200 WG) on broadleaf weeds in wheat. The design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were included haulauxifen-Methyl + florasulam @ 25gm, 50gm and 75gm ha-1, (King-D) 2, 4-D dimethyl amine @1.0 L ha-1, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid @1.0 L ha-1 rate (standard check), farmers practice twice hand weeding (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing and weedy check. Herbicides were applied with knapsack sprayer with a spray volume of 200 L ha-1. The wheat variety “Denda” was sown at 20 cm spacing. The recommended rate of fertilizer was applied. Weed density and biomass were recorded at (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing. The results revealed that post emergence application of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam @50gm ha-1 had a significant (P<0.05) effect on Guizotia scabra, Polygonum nepalense, Plantago lanceolata, Galinsoga parviflora, Sonchus spp., Galium spurium, Amaranthus hybridus, Raphanus raphanistrum and Medicago polymorpha population. The magnitude ranged from two to four folds when comparing with weed densities recorded in the unweeded plot. The grain yield harvested from the untreated check plot was significantly lower than the rest treatments. The grain yield was improved by 17.3% over the standard check with better performance.

Keywords: broadleaf, grass, weeds, control

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48 Assessment of Environmental Mercury Contamination from an Old Mercury Processing Plant 'Thor Chemicals' in Cato Ridge, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Yohana Fessehazion

Abstract:

Mercury is a prominent example of a heavy metal contaminant in the environment, and it has been extensively investigated for its potential health risk in humans and other organisms. In South Africa, massive mercury contamination happened in1980s when the England-based mercury reclamation processing plant relocated to Cato Ridge, KwaZulu-Natal Province, and discharged mercury waste into the Mngceweni River. This mercury waste discharge resulted in high mercury concentration that exceeded the acceptable levels in Mngceweni River, Umgeni River, and human hair of the nearby villagers. This environmental issue raised the alarm, and over the years, several environmental assessments were reported the dire environmental crises resulting from the Thor Chemicals (now known as Metallica Chemicals) and urged the immediate removal of the around 3,000 tons of mercury waste stored in the factory storage facility over two decades. Recently theft of some containers with the toxic substance from the Thor Chemicals warehouse and the subsequent fire that ravaged the facility furtherly put the factory on the spot escalating the urgency of left behind deadly mercury waste removal. This project aims to investigate the mercury contamination leaking from an old Thor Chemicals mercury processing plant. The focus will be on sediments, water, terrestrial plants, and aquatic weeds such as the prominent water hyacinth weeds in the nearby water systems of Mngceweni River, Umgeni River, and Inanda Dam as a bio-indicator and phytoremediator for mercury pollution. Samples will be collected in spring around October when the condition is favourable for microbial activity to methylate mercury incorporated in sediments and blooming season for some aquatic weeds, particularly water hyacinth. Samples of soil, sediment, water, terrestrial plant, and aquatic weed will be collected per sample site from the point of source (Thor Chemicals), Mngceweni River, Umgeni River, and the Inanda Dam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests will be conducted to determine any significant differences in the Hg concentration among all sampling sites, followed by Least Significant Difference post hoc test to determine if mercury contamination varies with the gradient distance from the source point of pollution. The flow injection atomic spectrometry (FIAS) analysis will also be used to compare the mercury sequestration between the different plant tissues (roots and stems). The principal component analysis is also envisaged for use to determine the relationship between the source of mercury pollution and any of the sampling points (Umgeni and Mngceweni Rivers and the Inanda Dam). All the Hg values will be expressed in µg/L or µg/g in order to compare the result with the previous studies and regulatory standards. Sediments are expected to have relatively higher levels of Hg compared to the soils, and aquatic macrophytes, water hyacinth weeds are expected to accumulate a higher concentration of mercury than terrestrial plants and crops.

Keywords: mercury, phytoremediation, Thor chemicals, water hyacinth

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47 Allelopathic Potential of Canola and Wheat to Control Weeds in Soybean (Glycine max)

Authors: Alireza Dadkhah

Abstract:

A filed experiment was done to develop management practices to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of north east of Iran. Five treatments including I: chopped residues of canola (Brasica vulgaris), II: chopped residues of wheat (Triticum aestivum) both were separately incorporated to 25 cm depth soil, 20 days before sowing, III: shoot aqueous extract of canola, IV: shoot aqueous extract of wheat which were separately sprayed at post emergence stage and V: without any residues and spraying as control. The weed control treatments reduced the total weed cover, weed density and biomass of weed. The reduction in weed density with canola and wheat residues incorporation were up to 67.5 and 62.2% respectively, at 40 days after sowing and 65.3% and 75.6%, respectively, at 90 days after sowing, compared to control. However, post emergence spraying of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat, suppressed weed density up to 41.8 and 36.6% at 40 days after sowing and 54.2% and 52.7% at 90 days after sowing respectively, compared to control. Weed control treatments reduced weed cover (%), weed biomass and weeds stem length. Incorporation of canola and wheat residues in soil reduced weed cover (%) by 62.5% and 63% respectively, while spraying of shoot water extract of canola and wheat suppressed weed cover (%) by 39.6% and 40.4% respectively at 90 days after sowing. Application of canola and wheat residues increased soybean yield by 45.4% and 69.5% respectively, compared to control while post emergence application of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat increased soybean yield by 22% and 29.8% respectively.

Keywords: allelopathy, Bio-herbicide, Brassica oleracea, plant residues, Triticum aestivum

Procedia PDF Downloads 580
46 Regeneration Nature of Rumex Species Root Fragment as Affected by Desiccation

Authors: Khalid Alshallash

Abstract:

Small fragments of the roots of some Rumex species including R. obtusifolius and R. crispus have been found to regenerate readily, contributing to the severity of infestations by these very common, widespread and difficult to control perennial weeds of agricultural crops and grasslands. Their root fragments are usually created during routine agricultural practices. We found that fresh root fragments of both species containing 65-70 % of moisture, progressively lose their moisture content when desiccated under controlled growth room conditions matching summer weather of southeast England, with the greatest reduction occurring in the first 48 hours. Probability of shoot emergence and the time taken for emergence in glasshouse conditions were also reduced significantly by desiccation, with R. obtusifolius least affected up to 48-hour. However, the effects converged after 120 hours. In contrast, R. obtusifolius was significantly slower to emerge after up to 48 hours desiccation, again effects converging after longer periods, R. crispus entirely failed to emerge at 120 hours. The dry weight of emerged shoots was not significantly different between the species, until desiccated for 96 hours when R. obtusifolius was significantly reduced. At 120 hours, R. obtusifolius did not emerge. In outdoor trials, desiccation for 24 or 48 hours had less effect on emergence when planted at the soil surface or up to 10 cm of depth, compared to deeper plantings. In both species, emergence was significantly lower when desiccated fragments were planted at 15 or 20 cm. Time taken for emergence was not significantly different between the species until planted at 15 or 20 cm when R. obtusifolius was slower than R. crispus and reduced further by increasing desiccation. Similar variation in effects of increasing soil depth interacting with increasing desiccation was found in reductions in dry weight, the number of tillers and leaf area, with R obtusifolius generally but not exclusively better able to withstand more extreme trial conditions. Our findings suggest that infestations of these highly troublesome weeds may be partly controlled by appropriate agricultural practices, notably exposing cut fragments to drying environmental conditions followed by deep burial.

Keywords: regeneration, root fragment, rumex crispus, rumex obtusifolius

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
45 Automatic Furrow Detection for Precision Agriculture

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Cheol-Hong Min

Abstract:

The increasing advancement in the robotics equipped with machine vision sensors applied to precision agriculture is a demanding solution for various problems in the agricultural farms. An important issue related with the machine vision system concerns crop row and weed detection. This paper proposes an automatic furrow detection system based on real-time processing for identifying crop rows in maize fields in the presence of weed. This vision system is designed to be installed on the farming vehicles, that is, submitted to gyros, vibration and other undesired movements. The images are captured under image perspective, being affected by above undesired effects. The goal is to identify crop rows for vehicle navigation which includes weed removal, where weeds are identified as plants outside the crop rows. The images quality is affected by different lighting conditions and gaps along the crop rows due to lack of germination and wrong plantation. The proposed image processing method consists of four different processes. First, image segmentation based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) decision tree. The proposed algorithm used HSV color space to discriminate crops, weeds and soil. The region of interest is defined by filtering each of the HSV channels between maximum and minimum threshold values. Then the noises in the images were eliminated by the means of hybrid median filter. Further, mathematical morphological processes, i.e., erosion to remove smaller objects followed by dilation to gradually enlarge the boundaries of regions of foreground pixels was applied. It enhances the image contrast. To accurately detect the position of crop rows, the region of interest is defined by creating a binary mask. The edge detection and Hough transform were applied to detect lines represented in polar coordinates and furrow directions as accumulations on the angle axis in the Hough space. The experimental results show that the method is effective.

Keywords: furrow detection, morphological, HSV, Hough transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
44 Multifunctionality of Cover Crops in South Texas: Looking at Multiple Benefits of Cover Cropping on Small Farms in a Subtropical Climate

Authors: Savannah Rugg, Carlo Moreno, Pushpa Soti, Alexis Racelis

Abstract:

Situated in deep South Texas, the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) is considered one the most productive agricultural regions in the southern US. With the highest concentration of organic farms in the state (Hidalgo county), the LRGV has a strong potential to be leaders in sustainable agriculture. Finding management practices that comply with organic certification and increase the health of the agroecosytem and the farmers working the land is increasingly pertinent. Cover cropping, or the intentional planting of non-cash crop vegetation, can serve multiple functions in an agroecosystem by decreasing environmental pollutants that originate from the agroecosystem, reducing inputs needed for crop production, and potentially decreasing on-farm costs for farmers—overall increasing the sustainability of the farm. Use of cover crops on otherwise fallow lands have shown to enhance ecosystem services such as: attracting native beneficial insects (pollinators), increase nutrient availability in topsoil, prevent nutrient leaching, increase soil organic matter, and reduces soil erosion. In this study, four cover crops (Lablab, Sudan Grass, Sunn Hemp, and Pearl Millet) were analyzed in the subtropical region of south Texas to see how their multiple functions enhance ecosystem services. The four cover crops were assessed to see their potential to harbor native insects, their potential to increase soil nitrogen, to increase soil organic matter, and to suppress weeds. The preliminary results suggest that these subtropical varieties of cover crops have potential to enhance ecosystem services on agricultural land in the RGV by increasing soil organic matter (in all varieties), increasing nitrogen in topsoil (Lablab, Sunn Hemp), and reducing weeds (Sudan Grass).

Keywords: cover crops, ecosystem services, subtropical agriculture, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
43 Grassland Development on Evacuated Sites for Wildlife Conservation in Satpura Tiger Reserve, India

Authors: Anjana Rajput, Sandeep Chouksey, Bhaskar Bhandari, Shimpi Chourasia

Abstract:

Ecologically, grassland is any plant community dominated by grasses, whether they exist naturally or because of management practices. Most forest grasslands are anthropogenic and established plant communities planted for forage production, though some are established for soil and water conservation and wildlife habitat. In Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India, most of the grasslands have been established on evacuated village sites. Total of 42 villages evacuated, and study was carried out in 23 sites to evaluate habitat improvement. Grasslands were classified into three categories, i.e., evacuated sites, established sites, and controlled sites. During the present study impact of various management interventions on grassland health was assessed. Grasslands assessment was done for its composition, status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, the status of herbs and legumes, status of weeds species, and carrying capacity of particular grassland. Presence of wild herbivore species in the grasslands with their abundance, availability of water resources was also assessed. Grassland productivity is dependent mainly on the biotic and abiotic components of the area, but management interventions may also play an important role in grassland composition and productivity. Variation in the status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, legumes, and weeds was recorded and found effected by management intervention practices. Overall in all the studied grasslands, the most dominant grasses recorded are Themeda quadrivalvis, Dichanthium annulatum, Ischaemum indicum, Oplismenus burmanii, Setaria pumilla, Cynodon dactylon, Heteropogon contortus, and Eragrostis tenella. Presence of wild herbivores, i.e., Chital, Sambar, Bison, Bluebull, Chinkara, Barking deer in the grassland area has been recorded through the installation of camera traps and estimated their abundance. Assessment of developed grasslands was done in terms of habitat suitability for Chital (Axis axis) and Sambar (Rusa unicolor). The parameters considered for suitability modeling are biotic and abiotic life requisite components existing in the area, i.e., density of grasses, density of legumes, availability of water, site elevation, site distance from human habitation. Findings of the present study would be useful for further grassland management and animal translocation programmes.

Keywords: carrying capacity, dominant grasses, grassland, habitat suitability, management intervention, wild herbivore

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
42 Increase of Atmosphere CO2 Concentration and Its Effects on Culture/Weed Interaction

Authors: J. I. Santos, A. E. Cesarin, C. A. R. Sales, M. B. B. Triano, P. F. R. B. Martins, A. F. Braga, N. J. Neto, A., A. M. Barroso, P. L. C. A. Alves, C. A. M. Huaman

Abstract:

Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.

Keywords: plants interaction, increase of [CO₂], plants of metabolismo C3, glycine max

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
41 RoboWeedSupport-Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images

Authors: Simon L. Madsen, Mads Dyrmann, Morten S. Laursen, Rasmus N. Jørgensen

Abstract:

Recent advances in the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO and Phamtom 4 Pro drones. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing this functionality in form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster gathering of weed images with sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior to the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.

Keywords: weed mapping, UAV, DJI SDK, automation, cotyledon plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
40 A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Agricultural Technology

Authors: C. Angel, S. Asha

Abstract:

Despite the advances made in various new technologies, application of these technologies for agriculture still remains a formidable task, as it involves integration of diverse domains for monitoring the different process involved in agricultural management. Advances in ambient intelligence technology represents one of the most powerful technology for increasing the yield of agricultural crops and to mitigate the impact of water scarcity, climatic change and methods for managing pests, weeds, and diseases. This paper proposes a GPS-assisted, machine to machine solutions that combine information collected by multiple sensors for the automated management of paddy crops. To maintain the economic viability of paddy cultivation, the various techniques used in agriculture are discussed and a novel system which uses ambient intelligence technique is proposed in this paper. The ambient intelligence based agricultural system gives a great scope.

Keywords: ambient intelligence, agricultural technology, smart agriculture, precise farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
39 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: forage, Napier grass, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
38 Efficacy of Sea Water with Reduced Rate Herbicide to Control Weeds in Tropical Turf

Authors: Md. Kamal Uddin, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md. Parvez Anwar

Abstract:

Seawater with reduced herbicide could be considered as a low cost environment friendly alternative method for weed control in turfgrass. Different concentration of sea water in combination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium and quinclorac were used to determine weed control level in turfgrass field. The weed species S. diander, C. aromaticus, and C. rotundus except E. atrovirens were fully controlled when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with ¾ sea water, ½ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended quinclorac with sea water and ¾ recommended quinclorac with ¾ sea water. Eragrostis atrovirens showed maximum 48% injury when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium and sea water. Among the tested turf grasses, P. vaginatum showed only 8% injury to sea water in combination with ¾ recommended quinclorac, indicating greater salt tolerance. Zoysia japonica also showed no more than 14% injury when treated with sea water in combination with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium or quinclorac.

Keywords: sea water, trifloxysulfuron–sodium, quinclorac, turf

Procedia PDF Downloads 260