Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6106

Search results for: digital image processing

6106 Detecting and Disabling Digital Cameras Using D3CIP Algorithm Based on Image Processing

Authors: S. Vignesh, K. S. Rangasamy


The paper deals with the device capable of detecting and disabling digital cameras. The system locates the camera and then neutralizes it. Every digital camera has an image sensor known as a CCD, which is retro-reflective and sends light back directly to its original source at the same angle. The device shines infrared LED light, which is invisible to the human eye, at a distance of about 20 feet. It then collects video of these reflections with a camcorder. Then the video of the reflections is transferred to a computer connected to the device, where it is sent through image processing algorithms that pick out infrared light bouncing back. Once the camera is detected, the device would project an invisible infrared laser into the camera's lens, thereby overexposing the photo and rendering it useless. Low levels of infrared laser neutralize digital cameras but are neither a health danger to humans nor a physical damage to cameras. We also discuss the simplified design of the above device that can used in theatres to prevent piracy. The domains being covered here are optics and image processing.

Keywords: CCD, optics, image processing, D3CIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
6105 A Survey on Types of Noises and De-Noising Techniques

Authors: Amandeep Kaur


Digital Image processing is a fundamental tool to perform various operations on the digital images for pattern recognition, noise removal and feature extraction. In this paper noise removal technique has been described for various types of noises. This paper comprises discussion about various noises available in the image due to different environmental, accidental factors. In this paper, various de-noising approaches have been discussed that utilize different wavelets and filters for de-noising. By analyzing various papers on image de-noising we extract that wavelet based de-noise approaches are much effective as compared to others.

Keywords: de-noising techniques, edges, image, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
6104 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh


Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification, Forgery Detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
6103 Improvement Image Summarization using Image Processing and Particle swarm optimization Algorithm

Authors: Hooman Torabifard


In the last few years, with the progress of technology and computers and artificial intelligence entry into all kinds of scientific and industrial fields, the lifestyles of human life have changed and in general, the way of humans live on earth has many changes and development. Until now, some of the changes has occurred in the context of digital images and image processing and still continues. However, besides all the benefits, there have been disadvantages. One of these disadvantages is the multiplicity of images with high volume and data; the focus of this paper is on improving and developing a method for summarizing and enhancing the productivity of these images. The general method used for this purpose in this paper consists of a set of methods based on data obtained from image processing and using the PSO (Particle swarm optimization) algorithm. In the remainder of this paper, the method used is elaborated in detail.

Keywords: image summarization, particle swarm optimization, image threshold, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6102 Automatic Music Score Recognition System Using Digital Image Processing

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Zhong-Xian Peng, Li-Der Jeng


Music has always been an integral part of human’s daily lives. But, for the most people, reading musical score and turning it into melody is not easy. This study aims to develop an Automatic music score recognition system using digital image processing, which can be used to read and analyze musical score images automatically. The technical approaches included: (1) staff region segmentation; (2) image preprocessing; (3) note recognition; and (4) accidental and rest recognition. Digital image processing techniques (e.g., horizontal /vertical projections, connected component labeling, morphological processing, template matching, etc.) were applied according to musical notes, accidents, and rests in staff notations. Preliminary results showed that our system could achieve detection and recognition rates of 96.3% and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we presented an effective automated musical score recognition system that could be integrated in a system with a media player to play music/songs given input images of musical score. Ultimately, this system could also be incorporated in applications for mobile devices as a learning tool, such that a music player could learn to play music/songs.

Keywords: connected component labeling, image processing, morphological processing, optical musical recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
6101 A Review on Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing

Authors: B. Afsharipoor, E. Nazemi


Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful tool for prediction which can be trained based on a set of examples and thus, it would be useful for nonlinear image processing. The present paper reviews several paper regarding applications of ANN in image processing to shed the light on advantage and disadvantage of ANNs in this field. Different steps in the image processing chain including pre-processing, enhancement, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding and optimization by using ANN are summarized. Furthermore, results on using multi artificial neural networks are presented.

Keywords: neural networks, image processing, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding, optimization, MANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
6100 3D Images Representation to Provide Information on the Type of Castella Beams Hole

Authors: Cut Maisyarah Karyati, Aries Muslim, Sulardi


Digital image processing techniques to obtain detailed information from an image have been used in various fields, including in civil engineering, where the use of solid beam profiles in buildings and bridges has often been encountered since the early development of beams. Along with this development, the founded castellated beam profiles began to be more diverse in shape, such as the shape of a hexagon, triangle, pentagon, circle, ellipse and oval that could be a practical solution in optimizing a construction because of its characteristics. The purpose of this research is to create a computer application to edge detect the profile of various shapes of the castella beams hole. The digital image segmentation method has been used to obtain the grayscale images and represented in 2D and 3D formats. This application has been successfully made according to the desired function, which is to provide information on the type of castella beam hole.

Keywords: digital image, image processing, edge detection, grayscale, castella beams

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
6099 Analysis of Various Copy Move Image Forgery Techniques for Better Detection Accuracy

Authors: Grishma D. Solanki, Karshan Kandoriya


In modern era of information age, digitalization has revolutionized like never before. Powerful computers, advanced photo editing software packages and high resolution capturing devices have made manipulation of digital images incredibly easy. As per as image forensics concerns, one of the most actively researched area are detection of copy move forgeries. Higher computational complexity is one of the major component of existing techniques to detect such tampering. Moreover, copy move forgery is usually performed in three steps. First, copying of a region in an image then pasting the same one in the same respective image and finally doing some post-processing like rotation, scaling, shift, noise, etc. Consequently, pseudo Zernike moment is used as a features extraction method for matching image blocks and as a primary factor on which performance of detection algorithms depends.

Keywords: copy-move image forgery, digital forensics, image forensics, image forgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
6098 An Efficient Clustering Technique for Copy-Paste Attack Detection

Authors: N. Chaitawittanun, M. Munlin


Due to rapid advancement of powerful image processing software, digital images are easy to manipulate and modify by ordinary people. Lots of digital images are edited for a specific purpose and more difficult to distinguish form their original ones. We propose a clustering method to detect a copy-move image forgery of JPEG, BMP, TIFF, and PNG. The process starts with reducing the color of the photos. Then, we use the clustering technique to divide information of measuring data by Hausdorff Distance. The result shows that the purposed methods is capable of inspecting the image file and correctly identify the forgery.

Keywords: image detection, forgery image, copy-paste, attack detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
6097 Jordan Curves in the Digital Plane with Respect to the Connectednesses given by Certain Adjacency Graphs

Authors: Josef Slapal


Digital images are approximations of real ones and, therefore, to be able to study them, we need the digital plane Z2 to be equipped with a convenient structure that behaves analogously to the Euclidean topology on the real plane. In particular, it is required that such a structure allows for a digital analogue of the Jordan curve theorem. We introduce certain adjacency graphs on the digital plane and prove digital Jordan curves for them thus showing that the graphs provide convenient structures on Z2 for the study and processing of digital images. Further convenient structures including the wellknown Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse adjacency graphs may be obtained as quotients of the graphs introduced. Since digital Jordan curves represent borders of objects in digital images, the adjacency graphs discussed may be used as background structures on the digital plane for solving the problems of digital image processing that are closely related to borders like border detection, contour filling, pattern recognition, thinning, etc.

Keywords: digital plane, adjacency graph, Jordan curve, quotient adjacency

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
6096 Steel Bridge Coating Inspection Using Image Processing with Neural Network Approach

Authors: Ahmed Elbeheri, Tarek Zayed


Steel bridges deterioration has been one of the problems in North America for the last years. Steel bridges deterioration mainly attributed to the difficult weather conditions. Steel bridges suffer fatigue cracks and corrosion, which necessitate immediate inspection. Visual inspection is the most common technique for steel bridges inspection, but it depends on the inspector experience, conditions, and work environment. So many Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) models have been developed use Non-destructive technologies to be more accurate, reliable and non-human dependent. Non-destructive techniques such as The Eddy Current Method, The Radiographic Method (RT), Ultra-Sonic Method (UT), Infra-red thermography and Laser technology have been used. Digital Image processing will be used for Corrosion detection as an Alternative for visual inspection. Different models had used grey-level and colored digital image for processing. However, color image proved to be better as it uses the color of the rust to distinguish it from the different backgrounds. The detection of the rust is an important process as it’s the first warning for the corrosion and a sign of coating erosion. To decide which is the steel element to be repainted and how urgent it is the percentage of rust should be calculated. In this paper, an image processing approach will be developed to detect corrosion and its severity. Two models were developed 1st to detect rust and 2nd to detect rust percentage.

Keywords: steel bridge, bridge inspection, steel corrosion, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
6095 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves


Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: bayer image, CFA, lossless compression, image coding standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
6094 Multi-Spectral Medical Images Enhancement Using a Weber’s law

Authors: Muna F. Al-Sammaraie


The aim of this research is to present a multi spectral image enhancement methods used to achieve highly real digital image populates only a small portion of the available range of digital values. Also, a quantitative measure of image enhancement is presented. This measure is related with concepts of the Webers Low of the human visual system. For decades, several image enhancement techniques have been proposed. Although most techniques require profuse amount of advance and critical steps, the result for the perceive image are not as satisfied. This study involves changing the original values so that more of the available range is used; then increases the contrast between features and their backgrounds. It consists of reading the binary image on the basis of pixels taking them byte-wise and displaying it, calculating the statistics of an image, automatically enhancing the color of the image based on statistics calculation using algorithms and working with RGB color bands. Finally, the enhanced image is displayed along with image histogram. A number of experimental results illustrated the performance of these algorithms. Particularly the quantitative measure has helped to select optimal processing parameters: the best parameters and transform.

Keywords: image enhancement, multi-spectral, RGB, histogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
6093 Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Digital Mammograms Based on Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Mussarat Lakho


A method of artificial intelligence using digital mammograms data has been proposed in this paper for detection of breast cancer. Many researchers have developed techniques for the early detection of breast cancer; the early diagnosis helps to save many lives. The detection of breast cancer through mammography is effective method which detects the cancer before it is felt and increases the survival rate. In this paper, we have purposed image processing technique for enhancing the image to detect the graphical table data and markings. Texture features based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and intensity based features are extracted from the selected region. For classification purpose, neural network based supervised classifier system has been used which can discriminate between benign and malignant. Hence, 68 digital mammograms have been used to train the classifier. The obtained result proved that automated detection of breast cancer is beneficial for early diagnosis and increases the survival rates of breast cancer patients. The proposed system will help radiologist in the better interpretation of breast cancer.

Keywords: medical imaging, cancer, processing, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
6092 A Robust Digital Image Watermarking Against Geometrical Attack Based on Hybrid Scheme

Authors: M. Samadzadeh Mahabadi, J. Shanbehzadeh


This paper presents a hybrid digital image-watermarking scheme, which is robust against varieties of attacks and geometric distortions. The image content is represented by important feature points obtained by an image-texture-based adaptive Harris corner detector. These feature points are extracted from LL2 of 2-D discrete wavelet transform which are obtained by using the Harris-Laplacian detector. We calculate the Fourier transform of circular regions around these points. The amplitude of this transform is rotation invariant. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against the geometric distortions and various common image processing operations such as JPEG compression, colour reduction, Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and rotation.

Keywords: digital watermarking, geometric distortions, geometrical attack, Harris Laplace, important feature points, rotation, scale invariant feature

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
6091 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari


Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: steganography, watermarking, time complexity measurements, private keys

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
6090 A Deep Learning Based Approach for Dynamically Selecting Pre-processing Technique for Images

Authors: Revoti Prasad Bora, Nikita Katyal, Saurabh Yadav


Pre-processing plays an important role in various image processing applications. Most of the time due to the similar nature of images, a particular pre-processing or a set of pre-processing steps are sufficient to produce the desired results. However, in the education domain, there is a wide variety of images in various aspects like images with line-based diagrams, chemical formulas, mathematical equations, etc. Hence a single pre-processing or a set of pre-processing steps may not yield good results. Therefore, a Deep Learning based approach for dynamically selecting a relevant pre-processing technique for each image is proposed. The proposed method works as a classifier to detect hidden patterns in the images and predicts the relevant pre-processing technique needed for the image. This approach experimented for an image similarity matching problem but it can be adapted to other use cases too. Experimental results showed significant improvement in average similarity ranking with the proposed method as opposed to static pre-processing techniques.

Keywords: deep-learning, classification, pre-processing, computer vision, image processing, educational data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
6089 Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Keywords: rough sets, rough neural networks, cellular automata, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
6088 High Speed Image Rotation Algorithm

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Hyungjin Cho, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing step in image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with rotation matrix multiplication. However it requires lots of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric function calculations, so it takes long execution time. We propose a new high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. We compare the proposed algorithm with the conventional rotation one with various size images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation ones.

Keywords: high speed rotation operation, image processing, image rotation, pattern recognition, transformation matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
6087 Agile Real-Time Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Image Processing System for Drone Imagery in Digital Agriculture

Authors: Sabiha Shahid Antora, Young Ki Chang


Along with various farm management technologies, imagery is an important tool that facilitates crop assessment, monitoring, and management. As a consequence, drone imaging technology is playing a vital role to capture the state of the entire field for yield mapping, crop scouting, weed detection, and so on. Although it is essential to inspect the cultivable lands in real-time for making rapid decisions regarding field variable inputs to combat stresses and diseases, drone imagery is still evolving in this area of interest. Cost margin and post-processing complexions of the image stream are the main challenges of imaging technology. Therefore, this proposed project involves the cost-effective field programmable gate array (FPGA) based image processing device that would process the image stream in real-time as well as providing the processed output to support on-the-spot decisions in the crop field. As a result, the real-time FPGA-based image processing system would reduce operating costs while minimizing a few intermediate steps to deliver scalable field decisions.

Keywords: real-time, FPGA, drone imagery, image processing, crop monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
6086 Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.

Keywords: high-speed rotation operation, image rotation, transform matrix, image processing, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
6085 Robust Image Design Based Steganographic System

Authors: Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh, Hanan M. Habbi


This paper presents a steganography to hide the transmitted information without excite suspicious and also illustrates the level of secrecy that can be increased by using cryptography techniques. The proposed system has been implemented firstly by encrypted image file one time pad key and secondly encrypted message that hidden to perform encryption followed by image embedding. Then the new image file will be created from the original image by using four triangles operation, the new image is processed by one of two image processing techniques. The proposed two processing techniques are thresholding and differential predictive coding (DPC). Afterwards, encryption or decryption keys are generated by functional key generator. The generator key is used one time only. Encrypted text will be hidden in the places that are not used for image processing and key generation system has high embedding rate (0.1875 character/pixel) for true color image (24 bit depth).

Keywords: encryption, thresholding, differential predictive coding, four triangles operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
6084 Performance of Hybrid Image Fusion: Implementation of Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform Technique

Authors: Manoj Gupta, Nirmendra Singh Bhadauria


Most of the applications in image processing require high spatial and high spectral resolution in a single image. For example satellite image system, the traffic monitoring system, and long range sensor fusion system all use image processing. However, most of the available equipment is not capable of providing this type of data. The sensor in the surveillance system can only cover the view of a small area for a particular focus, yet the demanding application of this system requires a view with a high coverage of the field. Image fusion provides the possibility of combining different sources of information. In this paper, we have decomposed the image using DTCWT and then fused using average and hybrid of (maxima and average) pixel level techniques and then compared quality of both the images using PSNR.

Keywords: image fusion, DWT, DT-CWT, PSNR, average image fusion, hybrid image fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
6083 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager


Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
6082 Embedded Digital Image System

Authors: Dawei Li, Cheng Liu, Yiteng Liu


This paper introduces an embedded digital image system for Chinese space environment vertical exploration sounding rocket. In order to record the flight status of the sounding rocket as well as the payloads, an onboard embedded image processing system based on ADV212, a JPEG2000 compression chip, is designed in this paper. Since the sounding rocket is not designed to be recovered, all image data should be transmitted to the ground station before the re-entry while the downlink band used for the image transmission is only about 600 kbps. Under the same condition of compression ratio compared with other algorithm, JPEG2000 standard algorithm can achieve better image quality. So JPEG2000 image compression is applied under this condition with a limited downlink data band. This embedded image system supports lossless to 200:1 real time compression, with two cameras to monitor nose ejection and motor separation, and two cameras to monitor boom deployment. The encoder, ADV7182, receives PAL signal from the camera, then output the ITU-R BT.656 signal to ADV212. ADV7182 switches between four input video channels as the program sequence. Two SRAMs are used for Ping-pong operation and one 512 Mb SDRAM for buffering high frame-rate images. The whole image system has the characteristics of low power dissipation, low cost, small size and high reliability, which is rather suitable for this sounding rocket application.

Keywords: ADV212, image system, JPEG2000, sounding rocket

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6081 Wavelet Coefficients Based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) Based Filtering for Remotely Sensed Images

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur


In recent years, the technology of the remote sensing is growing rapidly. Image enhancement is one of most commonly used of image processing operations. Noise reduction plays very important role in digital image processing and various technologies have been located ahead to reduce the noise of the remote sensing images. The noise reduction using wavelet coefficients based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) has less consequences on the edges than available methods but this is not as establish in edge preservation techniques. So in this paper we provide a new technique minimum patch based noise reduction OMP which reduce the noise from an image and used edge preservation patch which preserve the edges of the image and presents the superior results than existing OMP technique. Experimental results show that the proposed minimum patch approach outperforms over existing techniques.

Keywords: image denoising, minimum patch, OMP, WCOMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
6080 Rehabilitation of the Blind Using Sono-Visualization Tool

Authors: Ashwani Kumar


In human beings, eyes play a vital role. A very less research has been done for rehabilitation of blindness for the blind people. This paper discusses the work that helps blind people for recognizing the basic shapes of the objects like circle, square, triangle, horizontal lines, vertical lines, diagonal lines and the wave forms like sinusoidal, square, triangular etc. This is largely achieved by using a digital camera, which is used to capture the visual information present in front of the blind person and a software program, which achieves the image processing operations, and finally the processed image is converted into sound. After the sound generation process, the generated sound is fed to the blind person through headphones for visualizing the imaginary image of the object. For visualizing the imaginary image of the object, it needs to train the blind person. Various training process methods had been applied for recognizing the object.

Keywords: image processing, pixel, pitch, loudness, sound generation, edge detection, brightness

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
6079 Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal


In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising.

Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
6078 Evaluation of Condyle Alterations after Orthognathic Surgery with a Digital Image Processing Technique

Authors: Livia Eisler, Cristiane C. B. Alves, Cristina L. F. Ortolani, Kurt Faltin Jr.


Purpose: This paper proposes a technically simple diagnosis method among orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons in order to evaluate discrete bone alterations. The methodology consists of a protocol to optimize the diagnosis and minimize the possibility for orthodontic and ortho-surgical retreatment. Materials and Methods: A protocol of image processing and analysis, through ImageJ software and its plugins, was applied to 20 pairs of lateral cephalometric images obtained from cone beam computerized tomographies, before and 1 year after undergoing orthognathic surgery. The optical density of the images was analyzed in the condylar region to determine possible bone alteration after surgical correction. Results: Image density was shown to be altered in all image pairs, especially regarding the condyle contours. According to measures, condyle had a gender-related density reduction for p=0.05 and condylar contours had their alterations registered in mm. Conclusion: A simple, viable and cost-effective technique can be applied to achieve the more detailed image-based diagnosis, not depending on the human eye and therefore, offering more reliable, quantitative results.

Keywords: bone resorption, computer-assisted image processing, orthodontics, orthognathic surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
6077 Data Hiding by Vector Quantization in Color Image

Authors: Yung Gi Wu


With the growing of computer and network, digital data can be spread to anywhere in the world quickly. In addition, digital data can also be copied or tampered easily so that the security issue becomes an important topic in the protection of digital data. Digital watermark is a method to protect the ownership of digital data. Embedding the watermark will influence the quality certainly. In this paper, Vector Quantization (VQ) is used to embed the watermark into the image to fulfill the goal of data hiding. This kind of watermarking is invisible which means that the users will not conscious the existing of embedded watermark even though the embedded image has tiny difference compared to the original image. Meanwhile, VQ needs a lot of computation burden so that we adopt a fast VQ encoding scheme by partial distortion searching (PDS) and mean approximation scheme to speed up the data hiding process. The watermarks we hide to the image could be gray, bi-level and color images. Texts are also can be regarded as watermark to embed. In order to test the robustness of the system, we adopt Photoshop to fulfill sharpen, cropping and altering to check if the extracted watermark is still recognizable. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can resist the above three kinds of tampering in general cases.

Keywords: data hiding, vector quantization, watermark, color image

Procedia PDF Downloads 293