Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: Tyto alba

49 Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Authors: Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu, Mehmet Celik, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Ladine Celik, Yusuf Uzun

Abstract:

A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked and no signs of viral, microbial or ecto-parasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and warmed fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextrose solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextrose solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living creature has right and deserves a chance to live.

Keywords: wild life, barn owl, Tyto alba, rescue, life support, feeding

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48 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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47 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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46 Total Phenols, Total Flavonoids Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Seeds Extracts of Lawsonia alba (henna) from Algeria

Authors: Rekia. Cherbi, Mokhtar. Saidi, Mohamed. Yousfi, Zhor. Rahmani

Abstract:

Lawsonia alba (Henna) is widely used in folkloric medicinal for a treatment of various skin diseases such as Eczema (atopic dermatitis), boils and sores. The aim of the present study is to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba grown in Algeria and selected from three different regions (Adrar, Biskra, and Ouargla). Total phenolics content ranged from 68,42 ± 0,54 to 88,31 ± 0,78mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight, the flavonoids content varied from 1,13 ± 0,0035 to 1,367 ± 0,002mg quercetin equivalents (Q)/ g dry weight and condensed tannins (14,47 ± 0,138 to 25,50 ± 0,076 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that all extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba seem to be good trappers of radicals, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 0,00826 and 0,01 g/l.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Lawsonia. alba, phenolic compounds, seeds

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45 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli

Abstract:

The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, canola, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

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44 Development and Characterization of Soya Phosphatidylcholine Complex of Coumestans from Eclipta alba for the Management of Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Jain, Anki Jain, Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

The plant Eclipta alba Hassk. (Family: Compositae) contains coumestans (wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone) used in liver disorders. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a formulation of these coumestans in combination with the soya phosphatidylcholine (PC), in order to overcome the limitation of absorption and to investigate the protective effect of coumestans–phosphatidylcholine complex (C-PC) on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage in rats. Methanolic extract (ME) of the whole plant of Eclipta alba was fractionated with water and then with ehylacetate. Coumestans were characterized in the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic extract (EFME). The C-PC was prepared by dissolving EFME and PC in 1:1 ratio in dichloromethane and heating at 60°C for 2 h. The C-PC was characterized by DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro drug release from EFME and C-PC through egg membrane was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The hepatoprotective activity of C-PC (equivalent to 5.35 and 10.7 mg/kg body weight of EFME), ME 250 mg/kg and EFME 5.35 mg/kg was evaluated by measuring various enzymes level. C-PC significantly provided better protection to the liver by restoring the enzyme levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total billirubin with respect to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated group (P < 0.001). Histopathological studies were also performed. The C-PC provided better protection to rat liver than ME and EFME at similar doses as well as shown significant regeneration of hepatocytes, central vein, intact cytoplasm, and nucleus.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, wedelolactone, soya phosphatidylcholine, eclipta alba

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43 Influence of Organic Supplements on Shoot Multiplication Efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba

Authors: T. Punjansing, M. Nakkuntod, S. Homchan, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd

Abstract:

The influence of organic supplements on growth and multiplication efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba seedlings was investigated. 12 week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 8 g/L agar and various concentrations of coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mL/L) combined with potato extract (0, 25 and 50 g/L) and the pH was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. The cultures were then kept under constant photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) at 25 ± 2 °C for 12 weeks. The highest number of shoots (3.0 shoots/explant) was obtained when cultured on the medium added with 50 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract whereas the highest number of leaves (5.9 leaves/explant) and roots (6.1 roots/explant) could receive on the medium supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. Additionally, plantlets of P. tankervilleae var. alba were transferred to grow into seven different substrates i.e. soil, sand, coconut husk chip, soil-sand mix (1: 1), soil-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1), sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1) and soil-sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1: 1) for four weeks. The results found that acclimatized plants showed 100% of survivals when sand, coconut husk chip and sand-coconut husk chip mix are used as substrates. The number of leaves induced by sand-coconut husk chip mix was significantly higher than that planted in other substrates (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant difference in new shoot formation among these substrates was observed (P < 0.05). This precursory developing protocol was likely to be applied for more large scale of plant production as well as conservation of germplasm of this orchid species.

Keywords: organic supplements, acclimatization, Phaius tankervilleae var. alba, orchid

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42 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder on some growth parameters and phytomass of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment). The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL), fresh and dry weight of shoot and root (SFw, RFw, SDw and RDw, respectively and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of all the eight donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Bromus tectorum> Melilotus indica. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of sol the t-test indicated that the difference was insignificant between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: allelopathy, soil, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana, growth, weeds

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41 Impact of Gamma Irradiation on Biological Activities of Artemisia herba alba from Algeria

Authors: Abir Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim, Amina Titouche, Mohamed Hazzit

Abstract:

Phytotherapy is based on use of plant natural products holding the main sources of drugs with healing properties for the treatment of human, animal or vegetable diseases. With these aims, and to replace chemical preservatives in natural products, we are interested to use essential oils from Algerian endemic plants belonging to the Asteraceae family: Artemisia herba alba Asso, which was undergoes a hydro-distillation after its irradiation by Gamma rays at frequencies: 10, 20, and 30 KGray which gave respectively the following essential oil yields: 1.087%, 1.087%, 1.085%, compared with that of the untreated sample giving a yield of 1.27 %. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro of essential oil for A. herba alba has been assessed by two different methods: inhibition of DPPH radical and measurement of reducing power. The first method has not revealed a very big difference regardless of the dose of irradiation, the IC50 is about 4000 mg/l, the maximum of inhibition was around 49.4%, likewise, the test of reducing power awarded us a maximum reducing capacity was of 0.76%; both of results were registered by the specimen irradiated at 20 KGy, it has a more better antioxidant power than no irradiated sample but slightly. To combat Fusarium culmorum, causing the wilts and rots, we are focused on the antifungal screening of this aromatic plant. The results obtained, followed by measurements of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC); showed promising inhibitory effect against pathogen tested. With a yield superior to l%, the essential oil has shown a remarkable efficiency on the stump, mainly for sample irradiate at 30KGray (MICs= 625 µg/ml; MICc= 1250 µg/ml) with MIC of 2%. These results demonstrate a good antifungal activity, to limit and even to stop the development of the pathogenic microorganism and also the positive effect of dose of irradiation to upgrade this capacity as well, to uphold the antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: artemisia herba alba Asso, essential oil yield, gamma ray, antioxidant activity, antifungal activity

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40 In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'

Authors: S. F. Afzali, W. L. Wong

Abstract:

The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, goldfish, organic extract, treatment

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39 Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality of Functional Bread Enriched with Morus Alba Leaf Extract during Storage

Authors: Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Daria Szymanowska, Piotr Szulc, Oskar Szczepaniak, Marcin Dziedzinski, Szymon Byczkiewicz

Abstract:

A wide range of food products is offered on the market. However, increasing consumer awareness of the impact of food on health causes a growing interest in enriched products. Cereal products are an important element of the daily diet of man. In the literature, no data was found on the impact of Morus alba preparations on the content of active ingredients and properties of wholemeal bread. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L) are a rich source of bioactive compounds with multidirectional antioxidant activity, which means that they can be a component of new foods that prevent disease or support therapy and improve the patient's health. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the addition of white mulberry leaf extract on the antioxidant activity of bread. It has been shown that bread can be a carrier of biologically active substances from mulberry leaves, because the addition of mulberry at a sensory acceptable level and meeting microbiological requirements significantly influenced the increase in the content of bioactive ingredients and the antioxidant activity of bread. The addition of mulberry leaf water extract to bread increased the level of flavonols and phenolic acids, in particular protocatechic, chlorogenic gallic and caffeic acid and isoquercetin and rutine, and also increased the antioxidant potential, which were microbiological stable during 5 days storage. It has been shown also that the addition of Morus alba preparations has a statistically significant effect on anti-radical activity. In addition, there were no differences in activity in DPPH · and ABTS · + tests between post-storage samples. This means that the compounds responsible for the anti-radical activity present in the bread were not inactivated during storage. It was found that the tested bread was characterized by high microbiological purity, which is indicated by the obtained results of analyzes performed for the titers of indicator microorganisms and the absence of pathogens. In the tested products from the moment of production throughout the entire storage period, no undesirable microflora was found, which proves their safety and guarantees microbiological stability during the storage period.

Keywords: antioxidants, bread, extract, quality

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38 A Comparative Case Study on Teaching Romanian Language to Foreign Students: Swedes in Lund versus Arabs in Alba Iulia

Authors: Lucian Vasile Bagiu, Paraschiva Bagiu

Abstract:

The study is a contrastive essay on language acquisition and learning and follows the outcomes of teaching Romanian language to foreign students both at Lund University, Sweden (from 2014 to 2017) and at '1 Decembrie 1918' University in Alba Iulia, Romania (2017-2018). Having employed the same teaching methodology (on campus, same curricula) for the same level of study (beginners’ level: A1-A2), the essay focuses on the written exam at the end of the semester. The study argues on grammar exercises concerned with: the indefinite and the definite article; the conjugation of verbs in the present indicative; the possessive; verbs in the past tense; the subjunctive; the degrees of comparison for adjectives. Identifying similar errors when solving identical grammar exercises by different groups of foreign students is an opportunity to emphasize the major challenges any foreigner has to face and overcome when trying to acquire Romanian language. The conclusion draws attention to the complexity of the morphology of Romanian language in several key elements which may be insurmountable for a foreign speaker no matter if the language acquisition takes place in a foreign country or a Romanian university.

Keywords: Arab students, morphological errors, Romanian language, Swedish students, written exam

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37 Paramecuim as a Model for the Evaluation of Toxicity (Growth, Total Proteins, Respiratory and GSH Bio Marker Changes) Observed after Treatment with Essential Oils Isolated from Artemisia herba-alba Plant of Algeria

Authors: Bouchiha Hanene, Rouabhi Rachid, Bouchama Khaled, Djebar Berrebbah Houraya, Djebar Mohamed Reda

Abstract:

Recently, some natural products such as essentials oils (EOs) have been used in the fields as alternative to synthetic compounds, to minimize the negative impacts to the environment. This fact has led to questions about the possible impact of EOs on ecosystems. Currently in toxicology, the use of alternative models can help to understand the mechanisms of toxic action, at different levels of organization of ecosystems. Algae, protozoa and bacteria form the base of the food chain and protozoan cells are used as bioindicators often of pollution in environment. Unicellular organisms offer the possibility of direct study of independent cells with specific characteristics of individual cells and whole organisms at the same time. This unicellular facilitates the study of physiological processes, and effects of pollutants at the cellular level, which makes it widely used to assess the toxic effects of various xenobiotics. This study aimed to verify the effects of EOs of one famous plant used tremendously in our folk medicine, namely Artemisia herba alba in causing acute toxicity (24 hours) and chronic (15 days) toxicity for model cellular (Paramecium sp). To this end, cellular’s of paramecium were exposed to various concentrations (Three doses were chosen) of EOs extracted from plant (Artemisia herba alba). In the first experiment, the cellular s cultures were exposed for 48 hours to different concentrations to determine the median lethal concentration (DL50). We followed the evolution of physiological parameters (growth), biochemical (total proteins, respiratory metabolism), as well as the variations of a bio marker the GSH. Our results highlighted a light inhibition of the growth of the protozoa as well as a disturbance of the contents of total proteins and a reduction in the reduced rate of glutathione. The polarographic study revealed a stimulation of the consumption of O2 and this at the treated cells.

Keywords: essential oils, protozoa, bio indicators, toxicity, Growth, bio marker, proteins, polarographic

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36 Determination of 1-Deoxynojirimycin and Phytochemical Profile from Mulberry Leaves Cultivated in Indonesia

Authors: Yasinta Ratna Esti Wulandari, Vivitri Dewi Prasasty, Adrianus Rio, Cindy Geniola

Abstract:

Mulberry is a plant that widely cultivated around the world, mostly for silk industry. In recent years, the study showed that the mulberry leaves have an anti-diabetic effect which mostly comes from the compound known as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). DNJ is a very potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. It will decrease the degradation rate of carbohydrates in digestive tract, leading to slower glucose absorption and reducing the post-prandial glucose level significantly. The mulberry leaves also known as the best source of DNJ. Since then, the DNJ in mulberry leaves had received a considerable attention, because of the increased number of diabetic patients and the raise of people awareness to find a more natural cure for diabetic. The DNJ content in mulberry leaves varied depend on the mulberry species, leaf’s age, and the plant’s growth environment. Few of the mulberry varieties that were cultivated in Indonesiaare Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The lack of data concerning phytochemicals contained in the Indonesian mulberry leaves are restraining their use in the medicinal field. The aim of this study is to fully utilize the use of mulberry leaves cultivated in Indonesia as a medicinal herb in local, national, or global community, by determining the DNJ and other phytochemical contents in them. This study used eight leaf samples which are the young leaves and mature leaves of both Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The DNJ content was analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The stationary phase was silica C18 column and the mobile phase was acetonitrile:acetic acid 0.1% 1:1 with elution rate 1 mL/min. Prior to HPLC analysis the samples were derivatized with FMOC to ensure the DNJ detectable by VWD detector at 254 nm. Results showed that the DNJ content in samples are ranging from 2.90-0.07 mg DNJ/ g leaves, with the highest content found in M. cathayana mature leaves (2.90 ± 0.57 mg DNJ/g leaves). All of the mature leaf samples also found to contain higher amount of DNJ from their respective young leaf samples. The phytochemicals in leaf samples was tested using qualitative test. Result showed that all of the eight leaf samples contain alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The presence of this phytochemicals contribute to the therapeutic effect of mulberry leaves. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analysis was also performed to the eight samples to quantitatively determine their phytochemicals content. The pyrolysis temperature was set at 400 °C, with capillary column Phase Rtx-5MS 60 × 0.25 mm ID stationary phase and helium gas mobile phase. Few of the terpenes found are known to have anticancer and antimicrobial properties. From all the results, all of four samples of mulberry leaves which are cultivated in Indonesia contain DNJ and various phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes which are beneficial to our health.

Keywords: Morus, 1-deoxynojirimycin, HPLC, Py-GC-MS

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35 Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for Their Protective Properties against Oxidative DNA Damage and Mutagenecity

Authors: Karem H. Alzoubi, Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Omar F. Khabour, Nizar M. Mhaidat

Abstract:

Herbal medicinal products represent a major focus for drug development and industry and it holds a significant share in drug-market all over the globe. In here, selected medicinal plant extracts from Jordan with high antioxidative capacity were tested for their protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using in vitro 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. The following plant extracts were tested Cupressus sempervirens L., Psidium guajava (L.) Gaerth., Silybum marianum L., Malva sylvestris L., Varthemia iphionoides Boiss., Eminium spiculatum L. Blume, Pistachia palaestina Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Ficus carica L., Morus alba Linn , Cucumis sativus L., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Salvia triloba L., Zizyphus spina-christi L. Desf., and Laurus nobilis L. A fractionation scheme for the active plant extracts of the above was followed. Plants extract fractions with best protective properties against DNA damage included hexane fraction of S. marianum L. (aerial parts), chloroform fractions of P. palaestina Boiss. (Fruits), ethanolic fractions of E. camaldulensis Dehnh (leaves), S. triloba L. (leaves), and ethanolic fractions of Z. spina-christi L. Desf. (Fruits/leaves). On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts of V. iphionoides Boiss was found to increase oxidative DNA damage. Results of the SCEs are undergoing. In conclusion, plant extracts with antioxidative DNA damage properties might have clinical applications in cancer prevention.

Keywords: medicinal plants extract, fractionation, oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine, SCEs, Jordan

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34 Formulation and Evaluation of Ethosomes of Plumeria indica Linn. Flowers

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey

Abstract:

The number of products based on new drug delivery systems has significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. These biopharmaceuticals present challenges to drug delivery scientists because of their unique nature and difficulty in delivery through conventional routes. Therefore, future research will focus on the delivery of these complex molecules through different routes, including oral, nasal, pulmonary, vaginal, rectal, etc. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate ethosomes of Plumeria indica flowers which may deliver the drug to targeted site more efficiently than marketed preparation and also overcome the problems related with oral administration of drug. The formulations were prepared with ethanol, lecithin, propylene glycol and were evaluated.

Keywords: ethosomes, herbal extract, plumeria alba, lecithin

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33 Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: Rakkrit Duangsoithong, Jermphiphut Jaruenpunyasak, Alba Garcia

Abstract:

The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.

Keywords: foot recognition, deep learning, knee rehabilitation, convolutional neural network

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32 Alwadei Syndrome - A Genetic Cause Of Intellectual Disability

Authors: Mafalda Moreira, Diana Alba, Inês Paiva Ferreira, Rita Calejo, Ana Rita Soares, Leonilde Machado

Abstract:

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in intellectualfunctioningassociatedwithalterations in the adaptive behaviour, whose onset is inthedevelopmentalperiod. Itaffects 3% of the population, ofwhich 10% have a geneticaetiology. One of those causes isAlwadeiSyndrome, with 3 cases describedworldwide. It results from a homozygous nonsense mutation in theRUSC2 gene andisassociatedwithintellectualdisabilityanddysmorphic facialfeatures. Theauthorsreportthe case of a 5-year-old-boy, born to a healthymotherafter a full-termuneventfulpregnancy, thatwasreferred to Neurodevelopmentalconsultationdue toglobal developmentaldelay. Familyhistoryrevealedlearningdifficulties in the paternal brotherhood. Milddismorphicfeatureswereevidentsuch as darkinfraorbitalregion, low-set ears, beakednose, retrognathism, high-archedpalateandjointhyperlaxity. WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children III fullscaleIQ quoted 61. Karyotypeandchromosomalmicroarrayanalysiswerenormal, as well as the fragile X molecular study. DNA sequencingwasthenperformedandallowedtheidentificationof amutation in the RUSC2 gene. Theetiologicaldiagnosisof ID remains unknown in up to 80% of cases, creatinguncertainty in children’sfamilies. Theadvances in DNA sequencingtechnologieshaveincreasedourknowledgeofthegeneticdiseasesinvolved, as theAlwadeisyndromewasonlydescribedsince 2016. Thegeneticdiagnosisof ID allowsfamilygeneticcounselingandenablesthedevelopmentof target therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: intellectual disability, genetic aetiology, alwadei syndrome, RUSC2

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31 Selected Macrophyte Populations Promotes Coupled Nitrification and Denitrification Function in Eutrophic Urban Wetland Ecosystem

Authors: Rupak Kumar Sarma, Ratul Saikia

Abstract:

Macrophytes encompass major functional group in eutrophic wetland ecosystems. As a key functional element of freshwater lakes, they play a crucial role in regulating various wetland biogeochemical cycles, as well as maintain the biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The high carbon-rich underground biomass of macrophyte populations may harbour diverse microbial community having significant potential in maintaining different biogeochemical cycles. The present investigation was designed to study the macrophyte-microbe interaction in coupled nitrification and denitrification, considering Deepor Beel Lake (a Ramsar conservation site) of North East India as a model eutrophic system. Highly eutrophic sites of Deepor Beel were selected based on sediment oxygen demand and inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen (P&N) concentration. Sediment redox potential and depth of the lake was chosen as the benchmark for collecting the plant and sediment samples. The average highest depth in winter (January 2016) and summer (July 2016) were recorded as 20ft (6.096m) and 35ft (10.668m) respectively. Both sampling depth and sampling seasons had the distinct effect on variation in macrophyte community composition. Overall, the dominant macrophytic populations in the lake were Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Utricularia flexuosa, Vallisneria spiralis, Najas indica, Monochoria hastaefolia, Trapa bispinosa, Ipomea fistulosa, Hygrorhiza aristata, Polygonum hydropiper, Eichhornia crassipes and Euryale ferox. There was a distinct correlation in the variation of major sediment physicochemical parameters with change in macrophyte community compositions. Quantitative estimation revealed an almost even accumulation of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment samples dominated by the plant species Eichhornia crassipes, Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Euryale ferox and Monochoria hastaefolia, which might have signified a stable nitrification and denitrification process in the sites dominated by the selected aquatic plants. This was further examined by a systematic analysis of microbial populations through culture dependent and independent approach. Culture-dependent bacterial community study revealed the higher population of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the sediment samples dominated by the six macrophyte species. However, culture-independent study with bacterial 16S rDNA V3-V4 metagenome sequencing revealed the overall similar type of bacterial phylum in all the sediment samples collected during the study. Thus, there might be the possibility of uneven distribution of nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers among the sediment samples collected during the investigation. The diversity and abundance of the nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers in the sediment samples are under investigation. Thus, the role of different aquatic plant functional types in microorganism mediated nitrogen cycle coupling could be screened out further from the present initial investigation.

Keywords: denitrification, macrophyte, metagenome, microorganism, nitrification

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30 Antioxidant Characteristics of Serbian Conifers

Authors: Dubravka Štajner, Boris M. Popović, Saša Orlović, Ružica Ždero, Milan Popović, Aleksandra Popović

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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provides efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Present article highlights an antioxidant capacity of Serbian conifer plants. Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts were assessed using different assays. In this study, quantities of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins), contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and proline were examined. MDA quantities and ability of extracts to remove reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) were also investigated. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of extracts against DPPH∙, ferric reducing antioxidant power, permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity were also determined. According to almost all used assays, antioxidant and scavenging capacities of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were superior compared to spruce. Presented results implicated that leaves of Douglas fir and silver fir possessed outstanding antioxidant characteristics that could diminish damage caused by oxygen radicals which are responsible for many of the bodily changes and susceptibility to different diseases.

Keywords: conifers, antioxidant activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation

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29 Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products

Authors: J. Franco Macías, E. Montes Alba, A. López Vásquez

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The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.

Keywords: poultry industry, advanced oxidation process, photocatalysis, photodegradation, TiO2

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28 Paleopalynology as an Analysis Tool to Measure the Resilience of the Ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean and Their Adaptation to Climate Change

Authors: F. Ismael Roman Moreno, Francisca Alba Sanchez

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Over time, the plant landscape has changed as a result of the numerous events on a global and local scale that have happened. This is the case of the Mediterranean ecosystems, one of the most complex and rich in endemisms on the planet, subjected to anthropic pressures from the beginning of civilizations. The intervention in these systems together with climate changes has led to changes in diversity, tree cover, shrub, and ultimately in the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Paleopalinology is used as a tool for analysis of pollen and non-pollen microfossils preserved in the flooded grasslands of the Middle Atlas (Morocco). This allows reconstructing the evolution of vegetation and climate, as well as providing data and reasoning to different ecological, cultural and historical processes. Although climatic and anthropic events are well documented in Europe, they are not so well documented in North Africa, which gives added value to the study area. The results obtained serve to predict the behavior and evolution of Mediterranean mountain ecosystems during the Holocene, their response to future changes, resilience, and recovery from climatic and anthropic disturbances. In the stratigraphic series analyzed, nine major events were detected, eight of which appeared to be of climatic and anthropic origin, and one unexpected, related to volcanic activity.

Keywords: anthropic, Holocene, Morocco, paleopalynology, resilience

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27 Phytochemical Profile and in Vitro Bioactivity Studies on Two Underutilized Vegetables in Nigeria

Authors: Borokini Funmilayo Boede

Abstract:

B. alba L., commonly called ‘Amunututu’ and Solanecio biafrae called ‘Worowo’ among the Yoruba tribe in the southwest part of Nigeria are reported to be of great ethnomedicinal importance but are among many underutilized green leafy vegetables in the country. Many studies have established the nutritional values of these vegetables, utilization are very poor and indepth information on their chemical profiles is scarce. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of these vegetables were subjected to phytochemical screening and phenolic profiles of the alcoholic extracts were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined, antioxidant activities were evaluated using five in vitro assays to assess DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging abilities, as well as reducing power with ferric reducing antioxidant assay and phosphomolybdate method. The antibacterial activities of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi were evaluated by using agar well diffusion method and the antifungal activity evaluated against food-associated filamentous fungi by using poisoned food technique with the aim of assessing their nutraceutical potentials to encourage their production and utilization. The results revealed the presence of saponnin, steroids, tannin, terpenoid and flavonoid as well as phenolic compounds: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumarin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaemferol. The vegetables showed varying concentration dependent reducing and radical scavenging abilities from weak to strong compared with gallic acid, rutin, trolox and ascorbic acid used as positive controls; the aqueous extracts which gave higher concentrations of total phenol displayed higher ability to reduce Fe (lll) to Fe (ll) and stronger inhibiting power against hydroxyl radical than the alcoholic extracts and in most cases exhibited more potency than the ascorbic acids used as positive controls, at the same concentrations, whereas, methanol and / or ethanol extracts were found to be more effective in scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical and showed higher ability to reduce Mo (VI) to Mo (V) in total antioxidant assay than the aqueous extracts. However, the inhibition abilities of all the extracts against nitric oxide were comparable with the ascorbic acid control at the same concentrations. There were strong positive correlations with total phenol (mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid (mg RE/g) contents in the range TFC (r=0.857- 0999 and r= 0.904-1.000) and TPC (r= 0.844- 0.992 and r= 0.900 -0.999) for Basella alba and Senecio biafrae respectively. Inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50) for each extract to scavenge DPPH, OH and NO radicals ranged from 32.73 to 1.52 compared with control (0.846 - -6.42) mg/ml. At 0.05g/ml, the vegetables were found to exhibit mild antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi compared with streptomycin sulphate used as control but appreciable antifungi activities against (Trichoderma rubrum and Aspergillus fumigates) compared with bonlate antibiotic positive control. The vegetables possess appreciable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for promoting good health, their cultivation and utilization should be encouraged especially in the face of increasing health and economic challenges and food insecurity in many parts of the world.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidants, extracts, phytochemicals

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26 Disability, Technology and Inclusion: Fostering and Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in an Interdisciplinary Project

Authors: M. Lopez-Pereyra, I. Cisneros Alvarado, M. Del Socorro Lobato Alba

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This paper aims to discuss a conceptual, pedagogical approach that foster inclusive education and that create an awareness of the use of assistive technology in Mexico. Interdisciplinary understanding of disabilities and the use of assistive technology as a frame for an inclusive education have challenged the reality of the researchers’ participation in decision-making. Drawing upon a pedagogical inquiry process within an interdisciplinary academic project that involved the sciences, design, biotechnology, psychology and education fields, this paper provides a discussion on the challenges of assistive technology and inclusive education in interdisciplinary research on disabilities and technology project. This study is frame on an educational action research design where the team is interested in integrating, disability, technology, and inclusion, theory, and practice. Major findings include: (1) the concept of inclusive education as a strategy for interdisciplinary research; (2) inclusion as a pedagogical approach that challenges the creation of assistive technology from diverse academic fields; and, (3) inclusion as a frame, problem-focused, for decision-making. The findings suggest that inclusive pedagogical approaches provide a unique insight into interdisciplinary teams on disability and assistive technology in education.

Keywords: assistive technology, inclusive education, inclusive pedagogy, interdisciplinary research

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25 Investigation of Changes of Physical Properties of the Poplar Wood in Radial and Longitudinal Axis at Chaaloos Zone

Authors: Afshin Veisi

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In this study, the physical properties of wood in poplar wood (Populous sp.) were analyzed in longitudinal and radial directions of the stem. Three Populous Alba tree were cut in chaloos zone and from each tree, 3 discs were selected at 130cm, half of tree and under of crown. The test samples from pith to bark (heartwood to sapwood) were prepared from these discs for measuring the involved properties such as, wet, dry and critical specific gravity, porosity, volume shrinkage and swelling based on the ASTM standard, and data in two radial and longitudinal directions in the trank were statistically analyzed. Such as, variations of wet, dry and critical specific gravity had in radial direction respectively: irregular increase, increase and increase, and in longitudinal direction respectively: irregular decrease, irregular increase and increase. Results of variations to moisture content and porosity show that in radial direction respectively: irregular increasing and decreasing, and in longitudinal direction from down to up respectively: irregular decreasing and stability. Volume shrinkage and swelling variations show in radial direction irregular and in longitudinal axial regular decreasing.

Keywords: poplar wood, physical properties, shrinkage, swelling, critical specific gravity, wet specific gravity, dry specific gravity

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24 Designing a Functional Bread Premixes Recipes Involving White Mulberry Fruit

Authors: Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Flaczyk Ewa, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Kmiecik Dominik, Przeor Monika, Marcinkowska Agata, Korczak Józef

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The object of this study was to develop recipes and technology of production of functional bread with morus alba fruit addition. There were prepared four samples of functional breads and the control sample also. Bread recipe was designed for supporting the treatment of anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Samples of bread were baked with mixes directly after preparation and after three months' storage, each time preparing the water and methanol extracts. The sensory analysis and nutritional value were estimated. The antioxidant activity were estimated used tests such as the ability to scavenge free radical DPPH, the ability to scavenge the ABTS cation, chelating properties and the total content of polyphenols. The study results showed that the prepared sample of functional breads were characterized by a high nutritional value with high concentration of biologically active compounds which showed antioxidant activity. In addition, the profile sensory of bread samples was highly rated. However, to determine whether they can be considered as a new product preset pro-health properties require additional nutritional studies - clinical trials.

Keywords: functional food, breads, white mulberry, bioactive components

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23 Analysis of Veterinary Drug Residues and Pesticide Residues in Beehive Products

Authors: Alba Luna Jimenez, Maria Dolores Hernando

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The administration of veterinary treatments at higher doses than the recommended Varroa mite control in beehive matrices has the potential to generate residues in the honeybee colony and in the derived products for consumption. Honeybee colonies can also be indirectly exposed to residues of plant protection products when foraging in crops, wildflowers near the crops, or in urban gardens just after spraying. The study evaluates the presence of both types of residues, veterinary treatments, and pesticides in beeswax, bee bread, and honey. The study was carried out in apiaries located in agricultural zones and forest areas in Andalusia, Spain. Up to nineteen residues were identified above LOQ using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by a modified QuEChERs method. Chlorfenvinphos was detected in beeswax and bee bread despite its use is not authorized for Varroa mite control. Residues of fluvalinate-tau, authorized as veterinary treatment, were detected in most of the samples of beeswax and bee bread, presumably due to overdose or also to its potential for accumulation associated with its marked liposolubility. Residues of plant protection products were also detected in samples of beeswax and bee bread. Pesticide residues were detected above the LOQ that was established at 5 µg.kg⁻¹, which is the minimum concentration that can be quantified with acceptable accuracy and precision, as described in the European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis SANTE/11945/2015. No residues of phytosanitary treatments used in agriculture were detected in honey.

Keywords: honeybee colony, mass spectrometry analysis, pesticide residues, Varroa destructor, veterinary treatment

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22 Analyzing the Factors That Influence Students' Professional Identity Using Hierarchical Regression Analysis to Ease Higher Education Transition

Authors: Alba Barbara-i-Molinero, Rosalia Cascon Pereira, Ana Beatriz Hernandez Lara

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Our general motivation in undertaking this study is to propose alternative measures to lighten students experienced tensions during the transitions from high school to higher education based on the concept of professional identity strength. In order to do so, we measured the influence that three different factors external motivational conditionals, educational experience conditionals and personal motivation conditionals exerted over students’ professional identity strength and proposed the measures considering the obtained results. By using hierarchical regression analysis we addressed this issue, across disciplines and bachelor degrees, allowing us to gain also deeper insight into first-year university students PID. Our findings suggest that students’ from the different disciplines are influenced by personal motivational conditionals; while students from sciences are also influenced by external motivational conditionals. Based on the obtained results we propose three different alternative educational and recruitment strategies which aim to increase students’ professional identity strength and reduce the tensions generated during high school-university transitions. From this study theoretical contributions regarding the differences in the influence of these factors on students from different bachelor degrees arise; and practical implications for universities, derived from the proposed strategies.

Keywords: professional identity, transitions, higher education, strategies

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21 Urban Dust Influence on the Foliar Surface and Biochemical Constituents of Selected Plants in the National Capital Region of Delhi, India

Authors: G. P. Gupta, B. Kumar, S. Singh, U. C. Kulshrestha

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Very high loadings of atmospheric dust in the Indian region contribute to remarkably higher levels of particulate matter. During dry weather conditions which prevail most of the year, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces affecting their morphology, stomata and biochemical constituents. This study reports chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of two medicinal plants i.e. Morus (Morus alba) and Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) in the urban environment of National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi at two sites i.e. Jawaharlal Nehru University (residential) and Sahibabad (industrial). Atmospheric dust was characterized for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg++, Ca++) along with the biochemical parameters Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total soluble sugar, relative water content (RWC), pH, and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the concentrations of major ions in dustfall were higher at the industrial site as compared to the residential site due to the higher level of anthropogenic activities. Both the plant species grown at industrial site had significantly lower values of chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll, carotenoid but relatively higher values of total soluble sugar and ascorbic acid indicating stressful conditions due to industrial and vehicular emissions.

Keywords: dustfall, urban environment, biochemical constituents, atmospheric dust

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20 Heavy Metal Contamination of Mining-Impacted Mangrove Sediments and Its Correlation with Vegetation and Sediment Attributes

Authors: Jumel Christian P. Nicha, Severino G. Salmo III

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This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HM) in mangrove sediments of Lake Uacon, Zambales, Philippines. The relationship among the studied HM (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe) and the mangrove vegetation and sediment characteristics were assessed. Fourteen sampling plots were designated across the lake (10 vegetated and 4 un-vegetated) based on distance from the mining effluents. In each plot, three sediment cores were collected at 20 cm depth. Among the dominant mangrove species recorded were (in order of dominance): Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora stylosa, Avicennia marina, Excoecaria agallocha and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Sediment samples were digested with aqua regia, and the HM concentrations were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that HM concentrations were higher in the vegetated plots as compared to the un-vegetated sites. Vegetated sites had high Ni (mean: 881.71 mg/kg) and Cr (mean: 776.36 mg/kg) that exceeded the threshold values (cf. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; USEPA). Fe, Pb, Cu and Cd had a mean concentration of 2597.92 mg/kg, 40.94 mg/kg, 36.81 mg/kg and 2.22 mg/kg respectively. Vegetation variables were not significantly correlated with HM concentration. However, the HM concentration was significantly correlated with sediment variables particularly pH, redox, particle size, nitrogen, phosphorus, moisture and organic matter contents. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicated moderate to high pollution in the lake. Risk assessment and management should be designed in order to mitigate the ecological risk posed by HM. The need of a regular monitoring scheme for lake and mangrove rehabilitation programs and management should be designed.

Keywords: heavy metals, mangrove vegetation, mining, Philippines, sediment

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