Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Zhor. Rahmani

40 Total Phenols, Total Flavonoids Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Seeds Extracts of Lawsonia alba (henna) from Algeria

Authors: Rekia. Cherbi, Mokhtar. Saidi, Mohamed. Yousfi, Zhor. Rahmani

Abstract:

Lawsonia alba (Henna) is widely used in folkloric medicinal for a treatment of various skin diseases such as Eczema (atopic dermatitis), boils and sores. The aim of the present study is to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba grown in Algeria and selected from three different regions (Adrar, Biskra, and Ouargla). Total phenolics content ranged from 68,42 ± 0,54 to 88,31 ± 0,78mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight, the flavonoids content varied from 1,13 ± 0,0035 to 1,367 ± 0,002mg quercetin equivalents (Q)/ g dry weight and condensed tannins (14,47 ± 0,138 to 25,50 ± 0,076 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that all extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba seem to be good trappers of radicals, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 0,00826 and 0,01 g/l.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Lawsonia. alba, phenolic compounds, seeds

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39 Smart Speed Bump

Authors: Mohammad Rahmani Rezaiyeh, Mojtaba Rahmani Rezaiyeh, Mehrdad Rahmani Rezaiyeh

Abstract:

Smart speed bump is a new invention and I am invented it. Smart speed bump is a system that can change the position of speed bumps either active or passive in necessary situations. The basic system of smart speed bumps is based on a robotic system which includes mechanic, electronic and artificial intelligence. The smart speed bump is capable of smart decision making and can change its position by anticipating the peak of terrific hours. It can be noted to the advantages of this system such as preventing the waste of petrol while crossing speed bumps, traffic management, accelerating, flowing and securing traffic, reducing accidents and judicial records.

Keywords: invention, smart, robotic system, speed bump, traffic, management

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38 A Method for Harvesting Atmospheric Lightning-Energy and Utilization of Extra Generated Power of Nuclear Power Plants during the Low Energy Demand Periods

Authors: Akbar Rahmani Nejad, Pejman Rahmani Nejad, Ahmad Rahmani Nejad

Abstract:

we proposed the arresting of atmospheric lightning and passing the electrical current of lightning-bolts through underground water tanks to produce Hydrogen and restoring Hydrogen in reservoirs to be used later as clean and sustainable energy. It is proposed to implement this method for storage of extra electrical power (instead of lightning energy) during low energy demand periods to produce hydrogen as a clean energy source to store in big reservoirs and later generate electricity by burning the stored hydrogen at an appropriate time. This method prevents the complicated process of changing the output power of nuclear power plants. It is possible to pass an electric current through sodium chloride solution to produce chlorine and sodium or human waste to produce Methane, etc. however atmospheric lightning is an accidental phenomenon, but using this free energy just by connecting the output of lightning arresters to the output of power plant during low energy demand period which there is no significant change in the design of power plant or have no cost, can be considered completely an economical design

Keywords: hydrogen gas, lightning energy, power plant, resistive element

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37 Determining the Appropriate Methodology for the Security Evaluation of Equipment Related to Information and Communication Technology in the Industry

Authors: Sofia Ahanj Sofia Ahanj, Mahsa Rahmani Mahsa Rahmani, Zahra Sadeghigol, Vida Nobakht Vida Nobakht

Abstract:

Providing security in the electricity industry, as one of the vital infrastructures of the country, is one of the essential operations that must be taken in order to improve the security of the country. Resistant security strategies need to be regularly implemented as a dynamic process to improve security, and security evaluation is one of the most important steps in this process. Methodology in the field of evaluation in both technical and managerial dimensions is discussed in the laboratory. There are various standards in the field of general ICT technical-security evaluation. The most important are ISO / IEC 15408, ISO / IEC 27001 and NIST SP 800-53. In the present paper, these standards are first examined. Then, the standards and reports in the industrial field have been reviewed and compared, and finally, based on the results and special considerations of information and communication technology equipment in the electricity industry, the appropriate methodology has been presented.

Keywords: security standards, ISO/IEC 15408, ISA/IEC 62443 series, NIST SP 800-53, NISTIR 7628

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36 Phylogenetic Studies of Six Egyptian Sheep Breeds Using Cytochrome B

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman, Agnés Germot, Daniel Petit, Muhammad Khodary, Abderrahman Maftah

Abstract:

Recently, the control (D-loop) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) regions of mtDNA have received more attention due to their role in the genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies in different livestock which give important knowledge towards the genetic resource conservation. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. By using cytochrome B sequencing, we aimed to clarify the genetic affinities and phylogeny of six Egyptian sheep breeds. Blood samples were collected from 111 animals belonging to six Egyptian sheep breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi, Sohagi and Fallahi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primers were used for conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA. PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of sequences was done using BioEdit software and DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 39 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 29 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in six tested breeds ranged from 0.643 in Rahmani breed to 0.871 in Barki breed. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.436 and Dxy: 0.00127) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 6.050 and Dxy: 0.00534). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of 111 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups; A, B, C, D and E. The phylogeny result showed the presence of four haplogroups; HapA, HapB, HapC and HapE in the examined samples whereas the haplogroup D was not found. The result showed that 88 out of 111 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.28%), whereas 12 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (10.81%), 10 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.01%) and one animal belongs to haplogroup E (0.90%).

Keywords: phylogeny, genetic biodiversity, MtDNA, cytochrome B, Egyptian sheep

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35 Cytochrome B Diversity and Phylogeny of Egyptian Sheep Breeds

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Agnés Germot, Daniel Petit, Abderrahman Maftah

Abstract:

Threats to the biodiversity are increasing due to the loss of genetic diversity within the species utilized in agriculture. Due to the progressive substitution of the less productive, locally adapted and native breeds by highly productive breeds, the number of threatened breeds is increased. In these conditions, it is more strategically important than ever to preserve as much the farm animal diversity as possible, to ensure a prompt and proper response to the needs of future generations. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequencing has been used to explain the origins of many modern domestic livestock species. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. Because of the eastern location of Egypt in the Mediterranean basin and the presence of fat-tailed sheep breeds- character quite common in Turkey and Syria- where genotypes that seem quite primitive, the phylogenetic studies of Egyptian sheep breeds become particularly attractive. We aimed in this work to clarify the genetic affinities, biodiversity and phylogeny of five Egyptian sheep breeds using cytochrome B sequencing. Blood samples were collected from 63 animals belonging to the five tested breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi and Sohagi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primer allowed the conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA (approximately 1272 bp). PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of Sixty-three samples was done using BioEdit software. DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 34 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 18 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in five tested breeds ranged from 0.676 in Rahmani breed to 0.894 in Sohagi breed. The genetic distances (D) and the average number of pairwise differences (Dxy) between breeds were estimated. The lowest distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.674 and Dxy: 0.00150) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 5.233 and Dxy: 0.00475). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of the 63 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups. The phylogeny result showed the presence of three haplogroups (HapA, HapB and HapC) in the 63 examined samples. The other two haplogroups described in literature (HapD and HapE) were not found. The result showed that 50 out of 63 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.37%) whereas 7 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (11.11%) and 6 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.52%). In conclusion, the phylogenetic reconstructions showed that the majority of Egyptian sheep breeds belonging to haplogroup B which is the dominant haplogroup in Eastern Mediterranean countries like Syria and Turkey. Some individuals are belonging to haplogroups A and C, suggesting that the crosses were done with other breeds for characteristic selection for growth and wool quality.

Keywords: cytochrome B, diversity, phylogheny, Egyptian sheep breeds

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34 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Different Dithiolethiones

Authors: Zehour Rahmani, Messouda Dekmouche, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mokhtar Saidi

Abstract:

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the study of disease – causing microorganisms became concentrated on bacteria and largely institutionalized. In earlier years, the scientists interested in bacteria had originally been chemists like Pasteur, physicists like Tyndall, or botanists like Cohn and ward. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of some dithiolethiones on standard microorganism strains as well as multi-drug resistant bacteria, which were isolated from hospitals. Recent studies have demonstrated, that several dithiolethione compounds, particularly (3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione), exhibit the biological activities against several bacteria.

Keywords: bacteria, dithiolethiones, microorganism, potential

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33 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 20% Sulfuric Acid

Authors: M. Dekmouche, M. Hadjada, Z. Rahmani, M. Saidi

Abstract:

The effect of iodide ions on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 20% sulfuric acid in the presence of 3-méthylthio-5-p-méthoxyphényl-1,2-dithiolylium against anion (I-) A1 synthesized in our laboratory,was studied by different electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization. The obtained results showed that A1 effectively reduces the corrosion rate of steel. The adsorption of 3-méthylthio-5-p-méthoxyphényl-1,2-dithiolylium against anion (I-) followed Langmuir and temkin adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: steel XC52, corrosion, inhibition, 3-méthylthio-5-p-méthoxyphényl-1, 2-dithiolylium against anion (I-) , sulfuric acid

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32 Numerical Study of Two Mechanical Stirring Systems for Yield Stress Fluid

Authors: Amine Benmoussa, Mebrouk Rebhi, Rahmani Lakhdar

Abstract:

Mechanically agitated vessels are commonly used for various operations within a wide range process in chemical, pharmaceutical, polymer, biochemical, mineral, petroleum industries. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. In this paper, the laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with straight and circular gate impellers in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), where the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power consumption was analyzed.

Keywords: CFD, mechanical stirring, power consumption, yield stress fluid

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31 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: kaolinite, Nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus

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30 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

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29 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: reinforcement, silt, soil improvement, triaxial test, waste bottle chips

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28 Power Consumption for Viscoplastic Fluid in a Rotating Vessel with an Anchor Impeller

Authors: Draoui Belkacem, Rahmani Lakhdar, Benachour Elhadj, Seghier Oussama

Abstract:

Rheology is known to have a strong impact on the flow behavior and the power consumption of mechanically agitated vessels. The laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with an anchor impeller in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work the objective of this paper is: to evaluate the power consumption for yield stress fluids in standard mixing system. The power consumption is calculated for the different types of anchor impeller configurations and an optimum configuration is proposed.The hydrodynamic fields of incompressible yield stress fluid with model of Bingham in a cylindrical vessel not chicaned equipped with anchor stirrer was undertaken by means of numerical simulation. The flow structures, and especially the effect of inertia, the plasticity and the yield stress, are discussed.

Keywords: rheology, 2D, numerical, anchor, rotating vissel, non-Newtonien fluid

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27 Determine the Optimal Path of Content Adaptation Services with Max Heap Tree

Authors: Shilan Rahmani Azr, Siavash Emtiyaz

Abstract:

Recent development in computing and communicative technologies leads to much easier mobile accessibility to the information. Users can access to the information in different places using various deceives in which the care variety of abilities. Meanwhile, the format and details of electronic documents are changing each day. In these cases, a mismatch is created between content and client’s abilities. Recently the service-oriented content adaption has been developed which the adapting tasks are dedicated to some extended services. In this method, the main problem is to choose the best appropriate service among accessible and distributed services. In this paper, a method for determining the optimal path to the best services, based on the quality control parameters and user preferences, is proposed using max heap tree. The efficiency of this method in contrast to the other previous methods of the content adaptation is related to the determining the optimal path of the best services which are measured. The results show the advantages and progresses of this method in compare of the others.

Keywords: service-oriented content adaption, QoS, max heap tree, web services

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26 Optimal Design of Redundant Hybrid Manipulator for Minimum Singularity

Authors: Arash Rahmani, Ahmad Ghanbari, Abbas Baghernezhad, Babak Safaei

Abstract:

In the design of parallel manipulators, usually mean value of a dexterity measure over the workspace volume is considered as the objective function to be used in optimization algorithms. The mentioned indexes in a hybrid parallel manipulator (HPM) are quite complicated to solve thanks to infinite solutions for every point within the workspace of the redundant manipulators. In this paper, spatial isotropic design axioms are extended as a well-known method for optimum design of manipulators. An upper limit for the isotropy measure of HPM is calculated and instead of computing and minimizing isotropy measure, minimizing the obtained limit is considered. To this end, two different objective functions are suggested which are obtained from objective functions of comprising modules. Finally, by using genetic algorithm (GA), the best geometric parameters for a specific hybrid parallel robot which is composed of two modified Gough-Stewart platforms (MGSP) are achieved.

Keywords: hybrid manipulator, spatial isotropy, genetic algorithm, optimum design

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25 Sliding Mode Speed Controller of Photovoltaic Pumping System

Authors: Kessal Abdelhalim, Zebiri Fouad, Rahmani Lazhar

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis by which the dynamic performances of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor is controlled through a hysteresis current loop and an outer speed loop with different controllers. The dynamics of the photovoltaic pumping drive system with sliding mode speed controllers are presented. The proposed structure is constituted of photovoltaic generator associated to DC-DC converter controlled by fuzzy logic to ensure the maximum power point tracking. The PWM signals are generated by the interaction of the motor speed closed-loop system and the current hysteresis. The motor reference current is compared with the motor speed feedback signal. The considered model has been implemented in Matlab/Simpower environment. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method to increase the performance of the water pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic, permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor, MPPT, speed control, fuzzy, sliding mode

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24 The Role of Personality Type as Predictor of Trust among Ridesharing Community: Study in Nebengers Community Jakarta

Authors: Firdaus Amri, Ima Sri Rahmani

Abstract:

Traffic jam becomes the main problem among the people in a metropolitan city, especially in Indonesia. Nebengers, as one of ridesharing community in Indonesia, offer solutions against this problem. Nebengers is a social media community that connect people who want to give the ride and who want to ask for the ride. But in reality, Nebengers still have quite problems, especially regarding the safety issue. Practically, in this issue, they (people in Nebengers) only depend on trust between the one who gives the ride and who asks for the ride. Trust is defined as an expectation that partners, including potential partners, have goodwill and benign intent in their dealing with one and another. This paper will examine the role of personality type as predictor of trust among Nebengers community. Hexaco Personality consists of six dimensions (honesty-humility, emotionality, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience) is used in this research. By using snowball sampling, we took 250 respondents from Nebengers community as participants for this research. They complete questionnaires which are provided in online form. The role of each personality type as a basic analysis to understand trust among Nebengers community will be discussed in this research.

Keywords: Nebengers, personality type, ridesharing, trust

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23 Electron Density Analysis and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Zwitterionic Compound

Authors: A. Chouaih, N. Benhalima, N. Boukabcha, R. Rahmani, F. Hamzaoui

Abstract:

Zwitterionic compounds have received the interest of chemists and physicists due to their applications as nonlinear optical materials. Recently, zwitterionic compounds exhibiting high nonlinear optical activity have been investigated. In this context, the molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer. The study reveals the nature of intermolecular interactions including charge transfer and hydrogen bonds in the title compound. In this crystal, the molecules form dimers via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The dimers are further linked by C–H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along the c crystallographic axis. This study has also allowed us to determine various nonlinear optical properties such as molecular electrostatic potential, polarizability, and hyperpolarizability of the title compound.

Keywords: organic compounds, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, dipole moment

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22 Assessment of Solar Hydrogen Production in Energetic Hybrid PV-PEMFC System

Authors: H. Rezzouk, M. Hatti, H. Rahmani, S. Atoui

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design and analysis of a hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82% whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to the electrolyzer.

Keywords: electrolyzer, hydrogen, hydrogen fueled cell, photovoltaic

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21 Identify the Factors Affecting Employment and Prioritize in the Economic Sector Jobs of Increased Employment MADM approach of using SAW and TOPSIS and POSET: Ministry of Cooperatives, Do Varamin City Social Welfare

Authors: Mina Rahmani Pour

Abstract:

Negative consequences of unemployment are: increasing age at marriage, addiction, depression, drug trafficking, divorce, immigration, elite, frustration, delinquency, theft, murder, etc., has led to addressing the issue of employment by economic planners, public authorities, chief executive economic conditions in different countries and different time is important. All countries are faced with the problem of unemployment. By identifying the influential factors of occupational employment and employing strengths in the basic steps can be taken to reduce unemployment. In this study, the most significant factors affecting employment has identified 12 variables based on interviews conducted Choose Vtasyrafzaysh engaged in three main business is discussed. DRGAM next question the 8 expert ministry to respond to it is distributed and for weight Horns AZFN Shannon entropy and the ranking criteria of the (SAW, TOPSIS) used. According to the results of the above methods are not compatible with each other, to reach a general consensus on the rating criteria of the technique of integrating (POSET) involving average, Borda, copeland is used. Ultimately, there is no difference between the employments in the economic sector jobs of increased employment.

Keywords: employment, effective techniques, SAW, TOPSIS

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20 The Role of Moringa oleifera Extract Leaves in Inducing Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: V. Yurina, H. Sujuti, E. Rahmani, A. R. Nopitasari

Abstract:

Breast cancer has the highest prevalence cancer in women. Moringa leaves (M. oleifera) contain quercetin, kaempferol, and benzyl isothiocyanate which can enhance induction of apoptosis. This research aimed to study the role of the leaf extract of Moringa to increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. This research used in vitro experimental, post-test only, control group design on breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro. Moringa leaves were extracted by maceration method with ethanol 70%. Cells were treated with drumstick leaves extract on 1100, 2200, and 4400 μg/ml for Hsp27 and caspase-9 expression (immunocytochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) test. The results of this study found that the IC50 2200 µg/ml. Moringa leaves extract can significantly increase the expression of caspase-9 (p<0.05) and decreased Hsp 27 expression (p<0.05). Moreover it can increase apoptosis (p<0.05) significantly in MCF-7 cells. The conclusion of this study is Moringa leaves extract is able to increase the expression of caspase-9, decrease Hsp27 expression and increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell-line MCF-7.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, caspase-9, Hsp27, Moringa oleifera

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19 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: bearing capacity, reinforcement, geogrid, plate load test, layered soils

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18 Checking Energy Efficiency by Simulation Tools: The Case of Algerian Ksourian Models

Authors: Khadidja Rahmani, Nahla Bouaziz

Abstract:

Algeria is known for its rich heritage. It owns an immense historical heritage with a universal reputation. Unfortunately, this wealth is withered because of abundance. This research focuses on the Ksourian model, which constitutes a large portion of this wealth. In fact, the Ksourian model is not just a witness to a great part of history or a vernacular culture, but also it includes a panoply of assets in terms of energetic efficiency. In this context, the purpose of our work is to evaluate the performance of the old techniques which are derived from the Ksourian model , and that using the simulation tools. The proposed method is decomposed in two steps; the first consists of isolate and reintroduce each device into a basic model, then run a simulation series on acquired models. And this in order to test the contribution of each of these dialectal processes. In another scale of development, the second step consists of aggregating all these processes in an aboriginal model, then we restart the simulation, to see what it will give this mosaic on the environmental and energetic plan .The model chosen for this study is one of the ksar units of Knadsa city of Bechar (Algeria). This study does not only show the ingenuity of our ancestors in their know-how, and their adapting power to the aridity of the climate, but also proves that their conceptions subscribe in the current concerns of energy efficiency, and respond to the requirements of sustainable development.

Keywords: dialectal processes, energy efficiency, evaluation, Ksourian model, simulation tools

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17 Feasibility Study of Iraq' Decomposition and Its Effects on the Region

Authors: Ebrahim Rahmani, Siyamak Moazeni

Abstract:

According to the Iraq's first constitutional law (approved 2005), Iraq is an independent with sovereignty and its governmental structure is parliamentary democratic republic and federal. Even in reforms in 2009, this article of law did not changed at all. But considering the existence of this emphasis and clarity which is mentioned in the law, different and sometimes contradictory interpretations and positions are expressed about federalism in the way that we can say, considering the importance of the matter, federalism is a focus point to create and expansion of the cold war among leaders of different groups of the country. Iraq's today political and security position has granted the suitable opportunity to Iraq's Kurdistan in appearing of the recent security crisis to increase its share from the central political power or to achieve to its independent dream. The federalism the weakest point of Iraq's territorial integrity in a way that if different groups do not come to a consensus about it and do not think about a mechanism which is accepted by all of them, this can effect on and Iraq's political stability and security. Iraq's Kurdistan follows the option of disintegration and separation under the shadow of political and security changes, even with existence of some Iraqi groups' hopes regarding the improvement of situation after parliament election and also considering Masoud Barezani's power will for separation from Iraq as well as regarding special international changes and disintegration of Karime from Ukraine and ISIS crises; concerns have been created among regional and international powers and interior players. In this article, a paradox due constitutional law about federalism, Iraq's central government view and its politicians to the matter and the regional effect of this action on region's geopolitics are reviewed as well.

Keywords: constitutional law, federalism, decomposition, Iraq's Kurdistan

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16 Iron Influx, Its Root-Shoot Relations and Utilization Efficiency in Wheat

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani

Abstract:

Plant cultivars of the same species differ in their Fe efficiency. This paper studied the Fe influx and root-shoot relations of Fe at different growth stages in wheat. The four wheat cultivars (HD 2967, PDW 233, PBW 550 and PDW 291) were grown in pots in Badam Bagh agricultural researching farm, Kabul under two Fe treatments: (i) 0 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil (soil with 2.7 mg kg⁻¹ of DTPA-extractable Fe) and (ii) 50 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil. Root length (RL), shoot dry matter (SDM), Fe uptake, and soil parameters were measured at tillering and anthesis. Application of Fe significantly increased RL, root surface area, SDM, and Fe uptake in all wheat cultivars. Under Fe deficiency, wheat cv. HD 2967 produced 90% of its maximum RL and 75% of its maximum SDM. However, PDW 233 produced only 69% and 60%, respectively. Wheat cultivars HD 2967, and PDW 233 exhibited the highest and lowest value of root surface area and Fe uptake, respectively. The concentration difference in soil solution Fe between bulk soil and root surface (ΔCL) was maximum in wheat cultivar HD 2967, followed by PBW 550, PDW 291, and PDW 233. More depletion at the root surface causes steeper concentration gradients, which result in a high influx and transport of Fe towards root. Fe influx in all the wheat cultivars increased with the Fe application, but the increase was maximum, i.e., 4 times in HD 2967 and minimum, i.e., 2.8 times in PDW 233. It can be concluded that wheat cultivars HD 2967 and PBW 550 efficiently utilized Fe as compared to other cultivars. Additionally, iron efficiency of wheat cultivars depends upon uptake of each root segment, i.e., the influx, which in turn depends on depletion of Fe in the rhizosphere during vegetative phase and higher utilization efficiency of acquired Fe during reproductive phase that governs the ultimate grain yield.

Keywords: Fe efficiency, Fe influx, Fe uptake, Rhizosphere

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15 The Impact of Leadership Style and Managers Decision Making on Organizational Resulting in Ship Manufacturing Company

Authors: ZeinolAbedin Rahmani, Marzieh Evazi Borazjani, Nooshin Salehi

Abstract:

Organizations are increasingly facing changes and developments scientific, technological, social, cultural changes among these organizations those ones are reckoned successful and effective that in addition to coordinating the development of modern society can forecast future changes and be able to accommodate these changes in order to create favorable developments to build a better future. But we can change that with the changes that occur in the organization of the program it will distinguish. Today's organizations need leaders that change and grow them have to survive. In fact, without transformational managers and leaders, it is certainly difficult to create changes in organizations. Both private and public organizations need to increase knowledge and awareness of the cause widespread changes in the structure, culture and practice for the viability and sustainability of life and growth and development. By now, different signs have determined different causes for a suitable function of employees. However, the important thing is that the commitment of the employees to their organization has always been very important. Since the decrease of organization commitment causes the high rate of absenteeism, turnover intentions, and even to reduce the impact of health staff. and these factors prevent organizations from achieving its goals. If organizations want to retain staff, the organization must find a way to be happy and continue their work with commitment, motivation, and willingness. So here is the need for strong leaders, analysts, creative and transformational upper ranks more than ever is felt. The aim of this study is to revise history, the leadership style of managers shipbuilding company by using the MLQ model.

Keywords: leadership style, managers, organizational, manufacturing company, sustainability of life

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14 Improving Comfort and Energy Mastery: Application of a Method Based on Indicators Morpho-Energetic

Authors: Khadidja Rahmani, Nahla Bouaziz

Abstract:

The climate change and the economic crisis, which are currently running, are the origin of the emergence of many issues and problems, which are related to the domain of energy and environment in à direct or indirect manner. Since the urban space is the core element and the key to solve the current problem, particular attention is given to it in this study. For this reason, we rented to the later a very particular attention; this is for the opportunities that it provides and that can be invested to attenuate a little this situation, which is disastrous and worried, especially in the face of the requirements of sustainable development. Indeed, the purpose of this work is to develop a method, which will allow us to guide designers towards projects with a certain degree of thermo-aeraulic comfort while requiring a minimum energy consumption. In this context, the architects, the urban planners and the engineers (energeticians) have to collaborate jointly to establish a method based on indicators for the improvement of the urban environmental quality (aeraulic-thermo comfort), correlated with a reduction in the energy demand of the entities that make up this environment, in areas with a sub-humid climate. In order to test the feasibility and to validate the method developed in this work, we carried out a series of simulations using computer-based simulation. This research allows us to evaluate the impact of the use of the indicators in the design of the urban sets, on the economic and ecological plan. Using this method, we prove that an urban design, which carefully considered energetically, can contribute significantly to the preservation of the environment and the reduction of the consumption of energy.

Keywords: comfort, energy consumption, energy mastery, morpho-energetic indicators, simulation, sub-humid climate, urban sets

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13 Nonlocal Beam Models for Free Vibration Analysis of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Various End Supports

Authors: Babak Safaei, Ahmad Ghanbari, Arash Rahmani

Abstract:

In the present study, the free vibration characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are investigated. The small-scale effects are taken into account using the Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The nonlocal elasticity equations are implemented into the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT) to analyze the free vibrations of DWCNTs in which each wall of the nanotubes is considered as individual beam with van der Waals interaction forces. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to discretize the governing differential equations of each nonlocal beam model along with four commonly used boundary conditions. Then molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed for a series of armchair and zigzag DWCNTs with different aspect ratios and boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those of nonlocal beam models to extract the appropriate values of the nonlocal parameter corresponding to each type of chirality, nonlocal beam model and boundary condition. It is found that the present nonlocal beam models with their proposed correct values of nonlocal parameter have good capability to predict the vibrational behavior of DWCNTs, especially for higher aspect ratios.

Keywords: double-walled carbon nanotubes, nonlocal continuum elasticity, free vibrations, molecular dynamics simulation, generalized differential quadrature method

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12 Effects of Adding Gypsum in Agricultural Land on Mitigating Splash Erosion on Sandy Loam and Loam Soil Textures, Afghanistan

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani

Abstract:

Splash erosion in field has affected by factors; slope, rain intensity, soil properties, and plant cover. And also, soil erosion affects not only farmland productivity but also water quality downstream. There are a number of potential soil conservation practices, but many of these are complicated and relatively expensive, such as buffer strips, agro-forestry, counter banking, catchment canal, terracing, surface mulching, reduced tillage, etc. However, mitigation soil and water loss in agricultural land, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions, is indispensable for environmental protection and agricultural production. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding gypsum mineral on mitigating splash erosion caused by rain drop. The research was conducted in soil laboratory Badam Bagh Agricultural Researching Farm, Kabul, Afghanistan. The stainless steel cores were used, and constant water pressure was controlled by a Mariotte’s bottle with kinetic energy of raindrops 2.36 x 10⁻⁵J. Gypsum mineral was applied at a rate of 5 and 10 t ha⁻¹ and using a sandy loam and loam soil textures. The result was showed an average soil loss from sandy loam soil texture; control was 8.22%, 4.31% and 4.06% similar from loam soil texture, control was 7.26%, 2.89%, and 2.72% respectively. The application of gypsum mineral significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dispersion of soil particles caused by the impact of raindrops compared to control. Therefore, it was concluded that the addition of gypsum was effective as a measure for mitigating splash erosion.

Keywords: gypsum, soil loss, splash erosion, Afghanistan

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11 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Chile earthquake, damage detection, earthquake response, impulse response, layered shear beam, structural health monitoring, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

Procedia PDF Downloads 299