Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Liliana Cardoza-Avendaño

24 Fuzzy Logic in Detecting Children with Behavioral Disorders

Authors: David G. Maxinez, Andrés Ferreyra Ramírez, Liliana Castillo Sánchez, Nancy Adán Mendoza, Carlos Aviles Cruz


This research describes the use of fuzzy logic in detection, assessment, analysis and evaluation of children with behavioral disorders. It shows how to acquire and analyze ambiguous, vague and full of uncertainty data coming from the input variables to get an accurate assessment result for each of the typologies presented by children with behavior problems. Behavior disorders analyzed in this paper are: hyperactivity (H), attention deficit with hyperactivity (DAH), conduct disorder (TD) and attention deficit (AD).

Keywords: alteration, behavior, centroid, detection, disorders, economic, fuzzy logic, hyperactivity, impulsivity, social

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23 The Effect of LEADER and Community-Led Local Development in Spanish Municipal Unemployment: A Difference-in-Difference Approach

Authors: Miguel A. Borrella, Ana P. Fanjul, Suca Munoz, Liliana Herrera


This paper evaluates the impact of LEADER, a remarkable Community-Led Local Development (CLLD) approach of the European Program for Rural Development applied to rural municipalities of Spain in 2018 and 2019. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy and a newly-constructed database, results show that aided municipalities have significantly lower unemployment levels than non-aided municipalities. Results are significant for the decrease in unemployment for both women and people younger than 25 years old, two of the target groups of the policy. Nevertheless, they are larger for male and older workers. Therefore, findings suggest that LEADER 2017-2018 was successful in reducing unemployment in rural areas.

Keywords: community-led local development, ex-post evaluation, LEADER, rural development

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22 Power Plants between Environmental Pollution and Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu, Mihai Cruceru


Power plants represent the main source of air pollution, through combustion processes, both by releasing large amounts of dust, greenhouse gases and acidifying, and large quantities of waste, slag and ash disposed in landfills covering significant areas. SC Turceni S.A. is one of the largest power generating unit from Romania. Their policy is focused on the production and delivery of electricity in order to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact. The paper presents environmental impact produced by slag and ash storage, while pointing out that the recovery of this waste significant improves the air quality in the area. An important aspect is the proprieties of the ash and slag evacuated by Turceni power plant in order to use them for building materials manufacturing.

Keywords: ash and slag properties, air pollution, building materials industry, power plants

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21 Pueblos Mágicos in Mexico: The Loss of Intangible Cultural Heritage and Cultural Tourism

Authors: Claudia Rodriguez-Espinosa, Erika Elizabeth Pérez Múzquiz


Since the creation of the “Pueblos Mágicos” program in 2001, a series of social and cultural events had directly affected the heritage conservation of the 121 registered localities until 2018, when the federal government terminated the program. Many studies have been carried out that seek to analyze from different perspectives and disciplines the consequences that these appointments have generated in the “Pueblos Mágicos.” Multidisciplinary groups such as the one headed by Carmen Valverde and Liliana López Levi, have brought together specialists from all over the Mexican Republic to create a set of diagnoses of most of these settlements, and although each one has unique specificities, there is a constant in most of them that has to do with the loss of cultural heritage and that is related to transculturality. There are several factors identified that have fostered a cultural loss, as a direct reflection of the economic crisis that prevails in Mexico. It is important to remember that the origin of this program had as its main objective to promote the growth and development of local economies since one of the conditions for entering the program is that they have less than 20,000 inhabitants. With this goal in mind, one of the first actions that many “Pueblos Mágicos” carried out was to improve or create an infrastructure to receive both national and foreign tourists since this was practically non-existent. Creating hotels, restaurants, cafes, training certified tour guides, among other actions, have led to one of the great problems they face: globalization. Although by itself it is not bad, its impact in many cases has been negative for heritage conservation. The entry into and contact with new cultures has led to the undervaluation of cultural traditions, their transformation and even their total loss. This work seeks to present specific cases of transformation and loss of cultural heritage, as well as to reflect on the problem and propose scenarios in which the negative effects can be reversed. For this text, 36 “Pueblos Mágicos” have been selected for study, based on those settlements that are cited in volumes I and IV (the first and last of the collection) of the series produced by the multidisciplinary group led by Carmen Valverde and Liliana López Levi (researchers from UNAM and UAM Xochimilco respectively) in the project supported by CONACyT entitled “Pueblos Mágicos. An interdisciplinary vision”, of which we are part. This sample is considered representative since it forms 30% of the total of 121 “Pueblos Mágicos” existing at that moment. With this information, the elements of its intangible heritage loss or transformation have been identified in every chapter based on the texts written by the participants of that project. Finally, this text shows an analysis of the effects that this federal program, as a public policy applied to 132 populations, has had on the conservation or transformation of the intangible cultural heritage of the “Pueblos Mágicos.” Transculturality, globalization, the creation of identities and the desire to increase the flow of tourists have impacted the changes that traditions (main intangible cultural heritage) have had in the 18 years that the federal program lasted.

Keywords: public policies, cultural tourism, heritage preservation, pueblos mágicos program

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20 Collective Movement between Two Lego EV3 Mobile Robots

Authors: Luis Fernando Pinedo-Lomeli, Rosa Martha Lopez-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio Michel-Macarty, Cesar Cruz-Hernandez, Liliana Cardoza-Avendaño, Humberto Cruz-Hernandez


Robots are working in industry and services performing repetitive or dangerous tasks, however, when flexible movement capabilities and complex tasks are required, the use of many robots is needed. Also, productivity can be improved by reducing times to perform tasks. In the last years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of collective control of mobile robots. This interest is justified as there are many advantages when two or more robots are collaborating in a particular task. Some examples are: cleaning toxic waste, transportation and manipulation of objects, exploration, and surveillance, search and rescue. In this work a study of collective movements of mobile robots is presented. A solution of collisions avoidance is developed. This solution is levered on a communication implementation that allows coordinate movements in different paths were avoiding obstacles.

Keywords: synchronization, communication, robots, legos

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19 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves


Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, polyurethane foam, Pseudotsuga bark, renewable resources, Turkey oak bark

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18 Research on Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu


In Romania, billions of tonnes of wastes are generated yearly, an important amount being stored within industrial dumps that covers high soil areas and affects the environment quality, especially of ground and surface waters. Landfill represents in Romania the most important way for wastes removal, over 75% being generated every year, the costs with the dumps construction being considerable. In most of the cases, the wastes generated mainly by the energy industry, oil exploitation and metallurgy, are still considered wastes with NO-use, and their removal and neutralization represent for transport, handling and storing, high non-productive expenses which raise the cost of the useful products obtained. The paper presents a recycling idea of three types of wastes in order to use them for building materials manufacturing, by promoting ECOWASTES LIFE+ project, whose aim is to demonstrate that the recycling of waste from energy industry (coal combustion waste), petroleum extraction (drilling mud) and metallurgy (steelmaking slag) is technically feasible.

Keywords: fly ash, drilled solid wastes, metallurgical slag, recycling, building materials

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17 A Study on Mesh Size Dependency on Bed Expansion Zone in a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Liliana Patricia Olivo Arias


The present study focused on the hydrodynamic study in a three-phase fluidized bed reactor and the influence of important aspects, such as volume fractions (Hold up), velocity magnitude of gas, liquid and solid phases (hydrogen, gasoil, and gamma alumina), interactions of phases, through of drag models with the k-epsilon turbulence model. For this purpose was employed a Euler-Euler model and also considers the system is constituted of three phases, gaseous, liquid and solid, characterized by its physical and thermal properties, the transport processes that are developed within the transient regime. The proposed model of the three-phase fluidized bed reactor was solved numerically using the ANSYS-Fluent software with different mesh refinements on bed expansion zone in order to observe the influence of the hydrodynamic parameters and convergence criteria. With this model and the numerical simulations obtained for its resolution, it was possible to predict the results of the volume fractions (Hold ups) and the velocity magnitude for an unsteady system from the initial and boundaries conditions were established.

Keywords: three-phase fluidized bed system, CFD simulation, mesh dependency study, hydrodynamic study

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16 Axiomatic Systems as an Alternative to Teach Physics

Authors: Liliana M. Marinelli, Cristina T. Varanese


In the last few years, students from higher education have difficulties in grasping mathematical concepts which support physical matters, especially those in the first years of this education. Classical Physics teaching turns to be complex when students are not able to make use of mathematical tools which lead to the conceptual structure of Physics. When derivation and integration rules are not used or developed in parallel with other disciplines, the physical meaning that we attempt to convey turns to be complicated. Due to this fact, it could be of great use to see the Classical Mechanics from an axiomatic approach, where the correspondence rules give physical meaning, if we expect students to understand concepts clearly and accurately. Using the Minkowski point of view adapted to a two-dimensional space and time where vectors, matrices, and straight lines (worked from an affine space) give mathematical and physical rigorosity even when it is more abstract. An interesting option would be to develop the disciplinary contents from an axiomatic version which embraces the Classical Mechanics as a particular case of Relativistic Mechanics. The observation about the increase in the difficulties stated by students in the first years of education allows this idea to grow as a possible option to improve performance and understanding of the concepts of this subject.

Keywords: axioms, classical physics, physical concepts, relativity

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15 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina


Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: pollutant, trend, air quality monitoring, Mann-Kendall

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14 Evaluation Practices in Colombia: Between Beliefs and National Exams

Authors: Danilsa Lorduy, Liliana Valle


Assessment and evaluation are inextricable parts of the teaching learning process. Evaluation practices concerns are gaining popularity among curriculum developers an educational researchers, particularly in Colombian regions where English language is taught as a foreign language EFL. This study addressed one of those issues, which are the unbalanced in –services’ evaluation practices perceived in school classes. They present predominance on the written test among the procedures they use to evaluate; therefore, the purpose of this case study was to explore in-service teachers’ evaluation practices, their beliefs about evaluation and to establish an eventual connection between practices and beliefs. To this end, classroom observations, questionnaires, and a semi structured interview were applied to three in-service English teachers from different schools in a city in Colombia. The findings suggested that teachers’ beliefs indicate a formative inclination and they actually are using a variety of procedures different from test but they seem to have some issues regarding their appropriateness for application Moreover, it was found that teachers’ practices are being influenced by external factors such as school requirements and national policies. It could be concluded that the predominance in using tests is not only elicited by teachers’ beliefs but also by national test results 'Pruebas Saber' and law 115 demanding. It was also suggested that further quantitative research is needed to demonstrate connections between overuse of testing procedures and 'Pruebas Saber' national test.

Keywords: beliefs, evaluation, external factors, national test

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13 Pain Analysis in Musicians Using Digital Pain Drawings

Authors: Cinzia Cruder, Deborah Falla, Francesca Mangili, Laura Azzimonti, Liliana Araujo, Aaron Williamon, Marco Barbero


Background and aims: According to the existing literature, musicians are at risk to experience a range of musculoskeletal painful conditions. Recently, digital technology has been developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing analysis. Additionally, the association between pain drawing (PD) variables and clinical features in musicians with pain were explored. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; age 22.4±3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and UK conservatoires. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the Quick Dash (QD) questionnaire and the digital PDs. Results: Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with more prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back and the right arm. The mean of pain extent was 3.1% ±6.5. The mean of QD was larger for musicians showing the presence of pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. Conclusions: The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital PD. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability has been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians.

Keywords: pain location, pain extent, musicians, pain drawings

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12 Body, Sex and Culture: Gender Dissidences through Cinema

Authors: Piedad Lucia Bolivar Goez, Daniel Ignacio Garzon Luna, Maria Camila Balcero Angel, Sara Carolina Martinez Roman, Daniela Natalia Polo Rivas, Sandra Liliana Rocha Guitierrez


This article provides a critical analysis on the conception of disorders of sexual development (DSDs) within the bioethics framework. By means of analytical thought, the objective is to approach topics such as the rediscovery of the body, the reinvention of sexuality and link them to the liability that health personnel have to inform people about the options they have to decide over their health and body. The medicalization of sexed bodies in both psychosocial and anatomo-morpho-physiological dimensions from a legal standpoint were analyzed. Its also explored the gender stereotypes established by society and the role of laws in guaranteeing the right of autonomy that takes on greater relevance in DSD. Through this analysis, it was concluded that despite intersexuality having been analyzed by Colombia’s Constitutional Court, that it is stated as a fair entity, the stigmatization by society has not allowed these individuals to belong to an egalitarian context in which everyone has the same opportunities of access to the goods and services that they need. This leads individuals to hide their identity and expression of genre in order to be accepted in a set of contexts. Thus creating a vulnerability that the health system must be able to identify and in which it is necessary to intervene at a biopsychosocial level, in order to guarantee the protection of the individual within an unquestionable frame of equality and solidarity.

Keywords: disorders of sex development, gender identity, sexuality, transgender persons

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11 The Transcriptome of Carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus) of Elicited Cells with Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

Authors: Juan Jose Filgueira, Daniela Londono-Serna, Liliana Maria Hoyos


Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is one of the most important products of exportation in the floriculture industry worldwide. Fusariosis is the disease that causes the highest losses on farms, in particular the one produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, called vascular wilt. Gene identification and metabolic routes of the genes that participate in the building of the plant response to Fusarium are some of the current targets in the carnation breeding industry. The techniques for the identifying of resistant genes in the plants, is the analysis of the transcriptome obtained during the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, we report the cell transcriptome of different varieties of carnation that present differential response from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi attack. The cells of the different hybrids produced in the outbreeding program were cultured in vitro and elicited with the parasite in a dual culture. The isolation and purification of mRNA was achieved by using affinity chromatography Oligo dT columns and the transcriptomes were obtained by using Illumina NGS techniques. A total of 85,669 unigenes were detected in all the transcriptomes analyzed and 31,000 annotations were found in databases, which correspond to 36.2%. The library construction of genic expression techniques used, allowed to recognize the variation in the expression of genes such as Germin-like protein, Glycosyl hydrolase family and Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. These have been reported in this study for the first time as part of the response mechanism to the presence of Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: Carnation, Fusarium, vascular wilt, transcriptome

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10 Carbon Aerogel Spheres from Resorcinol/Phenol and Formaldehyde for CO₂ Adsorption

Authors: Jessica Carolina Hernandez Galeano, Juan Carlos Moreno Pirajan, Liliana Giraldo


Carbon gels are materials whose structure and porous texture can be designed and controlled on a nanoscale. Among their characteristics it is found their low density, large surface area and high degree of porosity. These materials are produced by a sol-gel polymerization of organic monomers using basic or acid catalysts, followed by drying and controlled carbonization. In this work, the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels from resorcinol, phenol and formaldehyde in ethanol is described. The aim of this study is obtaining different carbonaceous materials in the form of spheres using the Stöber method to perform a further evaluation of CO₂ adsorption of each material. In general, the synthesis consisted of a sol-gel polymerization process that generates a cluster (cross-linked organic monomers) from the precursors in the presence of NH₃ as a catalyst. This cluster was subjected to specific conditions of gelling and curing (30°C for 24 hours and 100°C for 24 hours, respectively) and CO₂ supercritical drying. Finally, the dry material was subjected to a process of carbonization or pyrolysis, in N₂ atmosphere at 350°C (1° C / min) for 2 h and 600°C (1°C / min) for 4 hours, to obtain porous solids that retain the structure initially desired. For this work, both the concentrations of the precursors and the proportion of ammonia in the medium where modify to describe the effect of the use of phenol and the amount of catalyst in the resulting material. Carbon aerogels were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), N₂ isotherms, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) showing the obtention of carbon spheres in the nanometric scale with BET areas around 500 m2g-1.

Keywords: carbon aerogels, carbon spheres, CO₂ adsorption, Stöber method

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9 Collaborative Platform for Learning Basic Programming (Algorinfo)

Authors: Edgar Mauricio Ruiz Osuna, Claudia Yaneth Herrera Bolivar, Sandra Liliana Gomez Vasquez


The increasing needs of professionals with skills in software development in industry are incremental, therefore, the relevance of an educational process in line with the strengthening of these competencies, are part of the responsibilities of universities with careers related to the area of Informatics and Systems. In this sense, it is important to consider that in the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan for the development of the Electronics, Information Technologies and Communications (2013) sectors, it is established as a weakness in the SWOT Analysis of the Software sector and Services, Deficiencies in training and professional training. Accordingly, UNIMINUTO's Computer Technology Program has addressed the analysis of students' performance in software development, identifying various problems such as dropout in programming subjects, academic averages, as well as deficiencies in strategies and competencies developed in the area of programming. As a result of this analysis, it was determined to design a collaborative learning platform in basic programming using heat maps as a tool to support didactic feedback. The pilot phase allows to evaluate in a programming course the ALGORINFO platform as a didactic resource, through an interactive and collaborative environment where students can develop basic programming practices and in turn, are fed back through the analysis of time patterns and difficulties frequent in certain segments or program cycles, by means of heat maps. The result allows the teacher to have tools to reinforce and advise critical points generated on the map, so that students and graduates improve their skills as software developers.

Keywords: collaborative platform, learning, feedback, programming, heat maps

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8 Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Internal Loads at Insulating Glass Units

Authors: Nina Penkova, Kalin Krumov, Liliana Zashcova, Ivan Kassabov


The insulating glass units (IGU) are widely used in the advanced and renovated buildings in order to reduce the energy for heating and cooling. Rules for the choice of IGU to ensure energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the indoor space are well known. The existing of internal loads - gage or vacuum pressure in the hermetized gas space, requires additional attention at the design of the facades. The internal loads appear at variations of the altitude, meteorological pressure and gas temperature according to the same at the process of sealing. The gas temperature depends on the presence of coatings, coating position in the transparent multi-layer system, IGU geometry and space orientation, its fixing on the facades and varies with the climate conditions. An algorithm for modeling and numerical simulation of thermal fields and internal pressure in the gas cavity at insulating glass units as function of the meteorological conditions is developed. It includes models of the radiation heat transfer in solar and infrared wave length, indoor and outdoor convection heat transfer and free convection in the hermetized gas space, assuming the gas as compressible. The algorithm allows prediction of temperature and pressure stratification in the gas domain of the IGU at different fixing system. The models are validated by comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained by Hot-box testing. Numerical calculations and estimation of 3D temperature, fluid flow fields, thermal performances and internal loads at IGU in window system are implemented.

Keywords: insulating glass units, thermal loads, internal pressure, CFD analysis

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7 Assessment of Functional Properties and Antioxidant Capacity Murta (Ugni molinae T.) Berry Subjected to Different Drying Methods

Authors: Liliana Zura-Brravo, Antonio Vega-Galvez, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Jessica Lopez


Murta (Ugni molinae T.) is an endemic fruit of Southern Chile, possesses qualities exceptional as its high antioxidants content, that make it increasingly more appreciated for marketing. Dehydration has the potential providing safe food products through the decreased activity water while maintaining their functional properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity (AC), total flavonoid content (TFC), rehydration indexes and texture the dried murta berry. Five drying technologies were used: convective drying, vacuum drying, sun-air drying, infrared drying and freezing-drying. The antioxidant capacity was measured by the ORAC method, CFT was determined by spectrophotometry, rehydration capacity (CR) and water retention (WHC) by gravimetry, texture profile (TPA) by a texture analyzer TA-XT2 and microstructure by SEM. The results showed that the lyophilized murta had smaller losses AC and TFC with values of 2886.27 routine mg rutin/ 100 g dm and 23359.99 μmol ET/100 g dm, respectively. According to the rehydration indexes, these were affected by the drying methods, where the maximum value of WHC was 92.60 g retained water/100 g sample for the vacuum drying, and the lowest value of CR was 1.43 g water absorbed/g dm for the sun-air drying. Furthermore, the microstructure and TPA showed that lyophilized samples had characteristics similar to the fresh sample. Therefore, it is possible to mention that lyophilization achieved greater extent preserving the characteristics of the murta samples, showing that this method can be used in the food industry and encourage the consumption of dried fruit and thus give it greater added value.

Keywords: antioxidant, drying method, flavonoid, murta berry, texture

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6 Analysis of Expression of SP and NOS in the Porcine Nodose Ganglion (NG) Sensory Neurons Supplying Prepyloric Stomach Region after Intragastric Hydrochloric Acid Infusion

Authors: Liliana Rytel, Jarosław Całka


One of the diseases that are very common health problem of modern man is the stomach hyperacidity. It is well known that this pathological state, during which gastric glands secrete too much of hydrochloric acid can be caused due to various factors such as stress, eating habits, alcohol, smoking and some, especially anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, hyperacidity is recognized as one of factors leading to development of peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, we analyzed expression of substance P (SP) and neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the porcine nodose ganglion sensory neurons innervating prepyloric stomach region in physiological state and following intragastric infusion of hydrochloric acid. The study was performed on 8 immature gilts of the Large White Polish breed. All animals were injected retrograde marker Fast Blue (FB) into the anterior prepyloric stomach wall. After injections of FB, pigs were divided into two groups: control (group C; n = 4) and experimental (HCL group, n = 4) and after convalescence period of 23 days, animals of HCL group were subjected to renewed anaesthesia. Then, 0.25 M aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid with a dose of 5 ml/kg body weight was administered intragastrically with use of a stomach tube. On 28th day, all control and HCL pigs were euthanized and bilateral reght (rNG) and left (lNG) were collected. Cryostat sections were processed for double immunofluorescence using anibodies against SP and NOS. Immunofluorescence staining in the even-numbered ganglia nodes showed the presence of FB-positive cells expressing SP (45,9 ± 3,38% in rNG and 60,4 ± 1,71% in lNG), and nNOS (34,9 ± 6,83% in rNG and 49,9 ± 9,32% in lNG). In HCL group increased expression of both SP (54,8 ± 5,34% in rNG and 56,9 ± 3,28 % in lNG) as well as nNOS (54,9 ± 4,45% in rNG and 52,5 ± 2,17 % in lNG) in FB+ perikaria was found. The acquired results suggest that SP and nNOS are neurotransmitters and/ or neuromodulators participating in the sensory regulation of the prepyloric region of porcine stomach function as well as their potential role in development of the stomach inflamatory state.

Keywords: nNOS, nodose ganglion, pig, SP

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5 Numerical Methodology to Support the Development of a Double Chamber Syringe

Authors: Lourenço Bastos, Filipa Carneiro, Bruno Vale, Rita Marques Joana Silva, Ricardo Freitas, Ângelo Marques, Sara Cortez, Alberta Coelho, Pedro Parreira, Liliana Sousa, Anabela Salgueiro, Bruno Silva


The process of flushing is considered to be an adequate technique to reduce the risk of infection during the clinical practice of venous catheterization. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of adhesion to this method, in part due to the complexity of this procedure. The project SeringaDuo aimed to develop an innovative double-chamber syringe for intravenous sequential administration of drugs and serums. This device served the purpose of improving the adherence to the practice, through the reduction of manipulations needed, which also improves patient safety, and though the promotion of flushing practice by health professionals, by simplifying this task. To assist on the development of this innovative syringe, a numerical methodology was developed and validated in order to predict the syringe’s mechanical and flow behavior during the fluids’ loading and administration phases, as well as to allow the material behavior evaluation during its production. For this, three commercial numerical simulation software was used, namely ABAQUS, ANSYS/FLUENT, and MOLDFLOW. This methodology aimed to evaluate the concepts feasibility and to optimize the geometries of the syringe’s components, creating this way an iterative process for product development based on numerical simulations, validated by the production of prototypes. Through this methodology, it was possible to achieve a final design that fulfils all the characteristics and specifications defined. This iterative process based on numerical simulations is a powerful tool for product development that allows obtaining fast and accurate results without the strict need for prototypes. An iterative process can be implemented, consisting of consecutive constructions and evaluations of new concepts, to obtain an optimized solution, which fulfils all the predefined specifications and requirements.

Keywords: Venous catheterization, flushing, syringe, numerical simulation

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4 An Overview of the Wind and Wave Climate in the Romanian Nearshore

Authors: Liliana Rusu


The goal of the proposed work is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the wind and wave climate in the Romanian nearshore, using the results provided by numerical models. The Romanian coastal environment is located in the western side of the Black Sea, the more energetic part of the sea, an area with heavy maritime traffic and various offshore operations. Information about the wind and wave climate in the Romanian waters is mainly based on observations at Gloria drilling platform (70 km from the coast). As regards the waves, the measurements of the wave characteristics are not so accurate due to the method used, being also available for a limited period. For this reason, the wave simulations that cover large temporal and spatial scales represent an option to describe better the wave climate. To assess the wind climate in the target area spanning 1992–2016, data provided by the NCEP-CFSR (U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction - Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) and consisting in wind fields at 10m above the sea level are used. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the wind fields is good enough to represent the wind variability over the area. For the same 25-year period, as considered for the wind climate, this study characterizes the wave climate from a wave hindcast data set that uses NCEP-CFSR winds as input for a model system SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) based. The wave simulation results with a two-level modelling scale have been validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data. The second level of the system, with a higher resolution in the geographical space (0.02°×0.02°), is focused on the Romanian coastal environment. The main wave parameters simulated at this level are used to analyse the wave climate. The spatial distributions of the wind speed, wind direction and the mean significant wave height have been computed as the average of the total data. As resulted from the amount of data, the target area presents a generally moderate wave climate that is affected by the storm events developed in the Black Sea basin. Both wind and wave climate presents high seasonal variability. All the results are computed as maps that help to find the more dangerous areas. A local analysis has been also employed in some key locations corresponding to highly sensitive areas, as for example the main Romanian harbors.

Keywords: numerical simulations, Romanian nearshore, waves, wind

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3 Phytoremediation Alternative for Landfill Leachate Sludges Doña Juana Bogotá D.C. Colombia Treatment

Authors: Pinzón Uribe Luis Felipe, Chávez Porras Álvaro, Ruge Castellanos Liliana Constanza


According to global data, solid waste management of has low economic investment for its management in underdeveloped countries; being the main factor the advanced technologies acknowledge for proper operation and at the same time the technical development. Has been evidenced that communities have a distorted perception of the role and legalized final destinations for waste or "Landfill" places specific management; influenced primarily by their physical characteristics and the information that the media provide of these, as well as their wrong association with "open dumps". One of the major inconveniences in these landfills is the leachate sludge management from treatment plants; as this exhibit a composition highly contaminating (physical, chemical and biological) for the natural environment due to improper handling and disposal. This is the case Landfill Doña Juana (RSDJ), Bogotá, Colombia, considered among the largest in South America; where management problems have persisted for decades, since its creation being definitive on the concept that society has acquired about this form of waste disposal and improper leachate handling. Within this research process for treating phytoremediation alternatives were determined by using plants that are able to degrade heavy metals contained in these; allowing the resulting sludge to be used as a seal in the final landfill cover; within a restoration process, providing option to solve the landscape contamination problem, as well as in the communities perception and conflicts that generates landfill. For the project chemical assays were performed in sludge leachate that allowed the characterization of metals such as chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg), in order to meet the amount in the biosolids regard to the provisions of the USEPA 40 CFR 503. The evaluations showed concentrations of 102.2 mg / kg of Cr, 0.49 mg / kg Pb, 0.390 mg / kg of As and 0.104 mg / kg of Hg; being lower than of the standards. A literature review on native plant species suitable for an alternative process of phytoremediation, these metals degradation capable was developed. Concluding that among them, Vetiveria zizanioides, Eichhornia crassipes and Limnobium laevigatum, for their hiperacumulativas in their leaves, stems and roots characteristics may allow these toxic elements reduction of in the environment, improving the outlook for disposal.

Keywords: health, filling slurry of leachate, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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2 Climate Change Impact on Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases: Case Study of Bucharest, Romania

Authors: Zenaida Chitu, Roxana Bojariu, Liliana Velea, Roxana Burcea


A number of studies show that extreme air temperature affects mortality related to cardiovascular diseases, particularly among elderly people. In Romania, the summer thermal discomfort expressed by Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is highest in the Southern part of the country, where Bucharest, the largest Romanian urban agglomeration, is also located. The urban characteristics such as high building density and reduced green areas enhance the increase of the air temperature during summer. In Bucharest, as in many other large cities, the effect of heat urban island is present and determines an increase of air temperature compared to surrounding areas. This increase is particularly important during heat wave periods in summer. In this context, the researchers performed a temperature-mortality analysis based on daily deaths related to cardiovascular diseases, recorded between 2010 and 2019 in Bucharest. The temperature-mortality relationship was modeled by applying distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) that includes a bi-dimensional cross-basis function and flexible natural cubic spline functions with three internal knots in the 10th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the temperature distribution, for modelling both exposure-response and lagged-response dimensions. Firstly, this study applied this analysis for the present climate. Extrapolation of the exposure-response associations beyond the observed data allowed us to estimate future effects on mortality due to temperature changes under climate change scenarios and specific assumptions. We used future projections of air temperature from five numerical experiments with regional climate models included in the EURO-CORDEX initiative under the relatively moderate (RCP 4.5) and pessimistic (RCP 8.5) concentration scenarios. The results of this analysis show for RCP 8.5 an ensemble-averaged increase with 6.1% of heat-attributable mortality fraction in future in comparison with present climate (2090-2100 vs. 2010-219), corresponding to an increase of 640 deaths/year, while mortality fraction due to the cold conditions will be reduced by 2.76%, corresponding to a decrease by 288 deaths/year. When mortality data is stratified according to the age, the ensemble-averaged increase of heat-attributable mortality fraction for elderly people (> 75 years) in the future is even higher (6.5 %). These findings reveal the necessity to carefully plan urban development in Bucharest to face the public health challenges raised by the climate change. Paper Details: This work is financed by the project URCLIM which is part of ERA4CS, an ERA-NET initiated by JPI Climate, and funded by Ministry of Environment, Romania with co-funding by the European Union (Grant 690462). A part of this work performed by one of the authors has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme from the project EXHAUSTION under grant agreement No 820655.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, climate change, extreme air temperature, mortality

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1 Upon Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-Co-3, 9-Divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-Tetraoxaspiro (5.5) Undecane) as Polymer Matrix Ensuring Intramolecular Strategies for Further Coupling Applications

Authors: Aurica P. Chiriac, Vera Balan, Mihai Asandulesa, Elena Butnaru, Nita Tudorachi, Elena Stoleru, Loredana E. Nita, Iordana Neamtu, Alina Diaconu, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau


The interest for studying ‘smart’ materials is entirely justified and in this context were realized investigations on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane), which is a macromolecular compound with sensibility at pH and temperature, gel formation capacity, binding properties, amphilicity, good oxidative and thermal stability. Physico-chemical characteristics in terms of the molecular weight, temperature-sensitive abilities and thermal stability, as well rheological, dielectric and spectroscopic properties were evaluated in correlation with further coupling capabilities. Differential scanning calorimetry investigation indicated Tg at 36.6 °C and a melting point at Tm=72.8°C, for the studied copolymer, and up to 200oC two exothermic processes (at 99.7°C and 148.8°C) were registered with losing weight of about 4 %, respective 19.27%, which indicate just processes of thermal decomposition (and not phenomena of thermal transition) owing to scission of the functional groups and breakage of the macromolecular chains. At the same time, the rheological studies (rotational tests) confirmed the non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid behavior of the copolymer solution. The dielectric properties of the copolymer have been evaluated in order to investigate the relaxation processes and two relaxation processes under Tg value were registered and attributed to localized motions of polar groups from side chain macromolecules, or parts of them, without disturbing the main chains. According to literature and confirmed as well by our investigations, β-relaxation is assigned with the rotation of the ester side group and the γ-relaxation corresponds to the rotation of hydroxy- methyl side groups. The fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the copolymer structure, the spiroacetal moiety getting an axial conformation, more stable, with lower energy, able for specific interactions with molecules from environment, phenomena underlined by different shapes of the emission spectra of the copolymer. Also, the copolymer was used as template for indomethacin incorporation as model drug, and the biocompatible character of the complex was confirmed. The release behavior of the bioactive compound was dependent by the copolymer matrix composition, the increasing of 3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane comonomer amount attenuating the drug release. At the same time, the in vivo studies did not show significant differences of leucocyte formula elements, GOT, GPT and LDH levels, nor immune parameters (OC, PC, and BC) between control mice group and groups treated just with copolymer samples, with or without drug, data attesting the biocompatibility of the polymer samples. The investigation of the physico-chemical characteristics of poly(2-hydrxyethyl methacrylate-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) in terms of temperature-sensitive abilities, rheological and dielectrical properties, are bringing useful information for further specific use of this polymeric compound.

Keywords: bioapplications, dielectric and spectroscopic properties, dual sensitivity at pH and temperature, smart materials

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