Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: Arredondo Valdes Roberto

74 Bioproduction of Phytohormones by Liquid Fermentation Using a Mexican Strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Hernandez Castillo Daniel, Martinez Hernandez José Luis, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Anguiano Cabello Julia Cecilia

Abstract:

Plant hormones are a group of molecules that control different processes ranging from the growth and development of the plant until their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the capacity of production of various phytohormones was evaluated from a strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid fermentation system using the modified Mierch medium added with a hydrolyzate compound of mead all in a reactor without agitation at 28 °C for 15 days. Quantification of the metabolites was performed using high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results showed that a microbial broth with at least five different types of plant hormones was obtained: gibberellic acid, zeatin, kinetin, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid, the last one was higher than the others metabolites produced. The production of such hormones using a single type of microorganism could be in the future a great alternative to reduce production costs and similarly reduce the use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: Fermentation, Plant Hormones, biosystem, Botryodiplodia theobromae

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73 Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Hernández Castillo Francisco Daniel, Castro Del Angel Epifanio

Abstract:

The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.

Keywords: Fusarium, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, rhizoctonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
72 Peak Floor Response for Buildings with Flexible Base

Authors: Luciano Roberto Fernandez-Sola, Cesar Augusto Arredondo-Velez, Miguel Angel Jaimes-Tellez

Abstract:

This paper explores the modifications on peak acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles over the structure due to dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI). A shear beam model is used for the structure. Soil-foundation flexibility (inertial interaction) is considered by a set of springs and dashpots at the structure base. Kinematic interaction is considered using transfer functions. Impedance functions are computed using simplified expressions for rigid foundations. The research studies the influence of the slenderness ratio on the value of the peak floor response. It is shown that the modifications of peak floor responses are not the same for acceleration, velocity and displacement. This is opposite to the hypothesis used by methods included in several building codes. Results show that modifications produced by DSSI on different response quantities are not equal.

Keywords: dynamic soil-structure interaction, peak floor intensities, buildings with flexible base, kinematic and inertial interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
71 The Social and Economic Discourse of Roberto Cochrane Simonsen: The Presence of Americanism

Authors: Maxwel F. Silva, José Geraldo Pedrosa

Abstract:

The issue revolves around the discourse on development that was current in Brazil in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and its relation to industrialization as idea of civility, modernity and progress. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the workmanship of the visionary entrepreneur and organic intellectual Roberto Cochrane Simonsen (1889-1948). In the set of speeches, lectures and conferences pronounced by Simonsen, the USA constantly appears like model of civilization. The hypothesis is that, as base of the proposals of industrialization defended by him there was an idea of Americanism that would serve of foundation to a way of thinking and acting. For Simonsen, the construction of a nation is directly related to its industrialization. In his thought, develop the Brazil means to structure the country with rational economic mechanisms. This paper investigates the American influences on the discourse of Simonsen about the development of Brazil.

Keywords: Americanism, development of Brazil, Simonsen, social discourse

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70 Beyond Learning Classrooms: An Undergraduate Experience at Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico

Authors: Jorge Sandoval Lezama, Arturo Ivan Sandoval Rodriguez, Jose Arturo Correa Arredondo

Abstract:

This work aims to share innovative educational experiences at IPN Mexico, that involve collaborative learning at institutional and global level through course competition and global collaboration projects. Students from universities in China, USA, South Korea, Canada and Mexico collaborate to design electric vehicles to solve global urban mobility problems. The participation of IPN students in the 2015-2016 global competition (São Paolo, Brazil and Cincinnati, USA) Reconfigurable Shared-Use Mobility Systems allowed to apply pedagogical strategies of groups of collaboration and of learning based on projects where they shared activities, commitments and goals, demonstrating that students were motivated to develop / self-generate their knowledge with greater meaning and understanding. One of the most evident achievements is that the students are self-managed, so the most advanced students train the students who join the project with CAD, CAE, CAM tools. Likewise, the motivation achieved is evident since in 2014 there were 12 students involved in the project, and there are currently more than 70 students.

Keywords: Active Learning, collaboration projects, global competency, course competition

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
69 Electoral Mathematics and Asymmetrical Treatment to Political Parties: The Mexican Case

Authors: Veronica Arredondo, Miguel Martínez-Panero, Teresa Peña, Victoriano Ramírez

Abstract:

The Mexican Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 representatives: 300 of them elected by relative majority and another 200 ones elected through proportional representation in five electoral clusters (constituencies) with 40 representatives each. In this mixed-member electoral system, the seats distribution of proportional representation is not independent of the election by relative majority, as it attempts to correct representation imbalances produced in single-member districts. This two-fold structure has been maintained in the successive electoral reforms carried out along the last three decades (eight from 1986 to 2014). In all of them, the election process of 200 seats becomes complex: Formulas in the Law are difficult to understand and to be interpreted. This paper analyzes the Mexican electoral system after the electoral reform of 2014, which was applied for the first time in 2015. The research focuses on contradictions and issues of applicability, in particular situations where seats allocation is affected by ambiguity in the law and where asymmetrical treatment of political parties arises. Due to these facts, a proposal of electoral reform will be presented. It is intended to be simpler, clearer, and more enduring than the current system. Furthermore, this model is more suitable for producing electoral outcomes free of contradictions and paradoxes. This approach would allow a fair treatment of political parties and as a result an improved opportunity to exercise democracy.

Keywords: electoral mathematics, electoral reform, Mexican electoral system, political asymmetry, proportional representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
68 Proposal Evaluation of Critical Success Factors (CSF) in Lean Manufacturing Projects

Authors: Guilherme Gorgulho, Carlos Roberto Camello Lima

Abstract:

Critical success factors (CSF) are used to design the practice of project management that can lead directly or indirectly to the success of the project. This management includes many elements that have to be synchronized in order to ensure the project on-time delivery, quality and the lowest possible cost. The objective of this work is to develop a proposal for evaluation of the FCS in lean manufacturing projects, and apply the evaluation in a pilot project. The results show that the use of continuous improvement programs in organizations brings benefits as the process cost reduction and improve productivity.

Keywords: Project Management, continuous improvement, lean thinking, critical success factors (csf)

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67 Synthesis of Modified Cellulose for the Capture of Uranyl Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Claudia Vergara, Oscar Valdes, Jaime Tapia, Leonardo Santos

Abstract:

The poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) are a class of material introduced by D. Tomalia. Modifications of the PAMAM dendrimer with several functional groups have attracted the attention for new interesting properties and new applications in many fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, and medicine. However, in the last few years, the use of dendrimers in environmental applications has increased due to pollution concerns. In this contribution, we report the synthesis of three new PAMAM derivates modified with asparagine aminoacid supported in cellulose: PG0-Asn (PAMAM-asparagine), PG0-Asn-Trt (with trityl group) and PG0-Asn-Boc-Trt (with tert-butyl oxycarbonyl group). The functionalization of generation 0 PAMAM dendrimer was carried out by amidation reaction by using an EDC/HOBt protocol. In a second step, functionalized dendrimer was covalently supported to the cellulose surface and used to study the capture of uranyl ions from aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy. The structure and purity of the desired products were confirmed by conventional techniques such as FT-IR, MALDI, elemental analysis, and ESI-MS. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the affinity of uranyl ions with the dendrimer in aqueous solution. Firstly, the optimal conditions for uranyl capture were obtained, where the optimum pH for the removal was 6, the contact time was 4 hours, the initial concentration of uranyl was 100 ppm, and the amount of the adsorbent to be used was 2.5 mg. PAMAM significantly increased the capture of uranyl ions with respect to cellulose as the starting substrate, reaching 94.8% of capture (PG0), followed by 91.2% corresponding to PG0-Asn-Trt, then 70.3% PG0-Asn and 24.2% PG0-Asn-Boc-Trt. These results show that the PAMAM dendrimer is a good option to remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Cellulose, PAMAM dendrimer, asparagine, uranyl ions

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66 Thermoregulatory Responses of Holstein Cows Exposed to Intense Heat Stress

Authors: Rodrigo De A. Ferrazza, Henry D. M. Garcia, Viviana H. V. Aristizabal, Camilla De S. Nogueira, Cecilia J. Verissimo, Jose Roberto Sartori, Roberto Sartori, Joao Carlos P. Ferreira

Abstract:

Environmental factors adversely influence sustainability in livestock production system. Dairy herds are the most affected by heat stress among livestock industries. This clearly implies in development of new strategies for mitigating heat, which should be based on physiological and metabolic adaptations of the animal. In this study, we incorporated the effect of climate variables and heat exposure time on the thermoregulatory responses in order to clarify the adaptive mechanisms for bovine heat dissipation under intense thermal stress induced experimentally in climate chamber. Non-lactating Holstein cows were contemporaneously and randomly assigned to thermoneutral (TN; n=12) or heat stress (HS; n=12) treatments during 16 days. Vaginal temperature (VT) was measured every 15 min with a microprocessor-controlled data logger (HOBO®, Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA, USA) attached to a modified vaginal controlled internal drug release insert (Sincrogest®, Ourofino, Brazil). Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) were measured twice a day (0700 and 1500h) and dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated daily. The ambient temperature and air relative humidity were 25.9±0.2°C and 73.0±0.8%, respectively for TN, and 36.3± 0.3°C and 60.9±0.9%, respectively for HS. Respiratory rate of HS cows increased immediately after exposure to heat and was higher (76.02±1.70bpm; P<0.001) than TN (39.70±0.71bpm), followed by rising of RT (39.87°C±0.07 for HS versus 38.56±0.03°C for TN; P<0.001) and VT (39.82±0.10°C for HS versus 38.26±0.03°C for TN; P<0.001). A diurnal pattern was detected, with higher (P<0.01) afternoon temperatures than morning and this effect was aggravated for HS cows. There was decrease (P<0.05) of HR for HS cows (62.13±0.99bpm) compared to TN (66.23±0.79bpm), but the magnitude of the differences was not the same over time. From the third day, there was a decrease of DMI for HS in attempt to maintain homeothermy, while TN cows increased DMI (8.27kg±0.33kg d-1 for HS versus 14.03±0.29kg d-1 for TN; P<0.001). By regression analysis, RT and RR better reflected the response of cows to changes in the Temperature Humidity Index and the effect of climate variables from the previous day to influence the physiological parameters and DMI was more important than the current day, with ambient temperature the most important factor. Comparison between acute (0 to 3 days) and chronic (13 to 16 days) exposure to heat stress showed decreasing of the slope of the regression equations for RR and DMI, suggesting an adaptive adjustment, however with no change for RT. In conclusion, intense heat stress exerted strong influence on the thermoregulatory mechanisms, but the acclimation process was only partial.

Keywords: Bovine, thermoregulation, hyperthermia, acclimation, climate chamber

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65 The Design of a Die for the Processing of Aluminum through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: Paulo Guilherme F. Siqueira, Natanael G. S. Almeida, Pedro M. A. Stemler, Paulo Roberto Cetlin, Maria Teresa P. Aguilar

Abstract:

The processing of metals through Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) leads to their remarkable strengthening. The ECAP dies control the amount of strain imposed on the material through its geometry, especially through the angle between the die channels, and thus the microstructural and mechanical properties evolution of the material. The present study describes the design of an ECAP die whose utilization and maintenance are facilitated, and that also controls the eventual undesired flow of the material during processing. The proposed design was validated through numerical simulations procedures using commercial software. The die was manufactured according to the present design and tested. Tests using aluminum alloys also indicated to be suitable for the processing of higher strength alloys.

Keywords: Numerical Methods, Mechanical Design, SPD, ECAP

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64 Touch Interaction through Tagging Context

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Salvador Nava, Eduardo Álvarez, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Ambient Intelligence promotes a shift in computing which involves fitting-out the environments with devices to support context-aware applications. One of main objectives is the reduction to a minimum of the user’s interactive effort, the diversity and quantity of devices with which people are surrounded with, in existing environments; increase the level of difficulty to achieve this goal. The mobile phones and their amazing global penetration, makes it an excellent device for delivering new services to the user, without requiring a learning effort. The environment will have to be able to perceive all of the interaction techniques. In this paper, we present the PICTAC model (Perceiving touch Interaction through TAgging Context), which similarly delivers service to members of a research group.

Keywords: Ambient intelligence, tagging context, touch interaction, touching services

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63 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Mentoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo, Margarita Zavala, José González

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006, Mexico incorporated 'mentoring' space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, it is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. With this, they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, Mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
62 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini, Carlos Roberto Valêncio, Fábio Renato de Almeida

Abstract:

By running transactions under the Snapshot isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, Snapshot is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with Snapshot by using some special triggers that we named Daemon Triggers. Besides keeping the benefits of the Snapshot isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the Snapshot isolation and show how to preclude them with Daemon Triggers. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: Daemon Snapshot.

Keywords: Isolation, data consistency, serialization, snapshot

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
61 Dry Relaxation Shrinkage Prediction of Bordeaux Fiber Using a Feed Forward Neural

Authors: Baeza S. Roberto

Abstract:

The knitted fabric suffers a deformation in its dimensions due to stretching and tension factors, transverse and longitudinal respectively, during the process in rectilinear knitting machines so it performs a dry relaxation shrinkage procedure and thermal action of prefixed to obtain stable conditions in the knitting. This paper presents a dry relaxation shrinkage prediction of Bordeaux fiber using a feed forward neural network and linear regression models. Six operational alternatives of shrinkage were predicted. A comparison of the results was performed finding neural network models with higher levels of explanation of the variability and prediction. The presence of different reposes are included. The models were obtained through a neural toolbox of Matlab and Minitab software with real data in a knitting company of Southern Guanajuato. The results allow predicting dry relaxation shrinkage of each alternative operation.

Keywords: Neural Network, Knitting, Linear Regression, dry relaxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
60 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Tutoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo, Margarita Zavala, José González

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally at this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006 in Mexico incorporated “mentoring" space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. Whit this they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, Mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
59 Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees

Authors: David Alejandro Torres-Lopez, Lilia Albores-Gallo, Ronald Soto-Calderon, Roberto Lagunes-Cordoba

Abstract:

Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees (ASQ-DAT) is a screening instrument that assesses the risk of autism in children between 12 and 47 months, being the first free observational instrument created according to the criteria of the DSM-5 that can be applied by teachers in nurseries. The people in charge of answering the questionnaires are the daycare assistants. Its application presents a series of previous activities with which daycare assistants are familiar (dance, games, oral narration and breakfast), which are executed with the children and then answer a questionnaire with dichotomous questions "Yes/No" in approximately 3 minutes per child. The instrument was developed with the participation of nurseries according to the protocols of the creation of psychometric instruments of the Classical Test Theory having as a gold standard ADOS-2 Modules T and 1. The results of the investigation show that the use of ASQ-DAT combined with the application of M-CHAT / RF provides more information about the risk of ASD in young children, which allows improvements in the screening.

Keywords: Diagnosis, autism, Screening, daycare

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58 Analysis of the Acoustic Performance of Vertical Internal Seals with Pet Wool as NBR 15.575-4NO Green Towers Building-DF

Authors: Lucas Aerre, Wallesson Faria, Roberto Pimentel, Juliana Santos

Abstract:

An extremely disturbing and irritating element in the lives of people and organizations is the noise, the consequences that can bring us has a lot of connection with human health as well as financial and economic aspects. In order to improve the efficiency of buildings in Brazil in general, a performance standard was created, NBR 15.575 in which all buildings are seen in a more systemic and peculiar way, while following the requirements of the standard. The acoustic performance present in these buildings is one such requirement. Based on this, the present work was elaborated with the objective of evaluating through acoustic measurements the acoustic performance of vertical internal fences that are under the incidence of aerial noise of a building in the city of Brasilia-DF. A short theoretical basis is made and soon after the procedures of measurement are described through the control method established by the standard, and its results are evaluated according to the parameters of the same. The measurement performed between rooms of the same unit, presented a standardized sound pressure level difference (D nT, w) equal to 40 dB, thus being classified within the minimum performance required by the standard in question.

Keywords: Soundproofing, airborne noise, performance standard, vertical seal

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
57 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin

Abstract:

Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: Thermomechanical Processing, hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
56 A Real Time Expert System for Decision Support in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Andressa dos Santos Nicolau, João P. da S.C Algusto, Claudio Márcio do N. A. Pereira, Roberto Schirru

Abstract:

In case of abnormal situations, the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators must follow written procedures to check the condition of the plant and to classify the type of emergency. In this paper, we proposed a Real Time Expert System in order to improve operator’s performance in case of transient or accident with reactor shutdown. The expert system’s knowledge is based on the sequence of events (SoE) of known accident and two emergency procedures of the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP and uses two kinds of knowledge representation: rule and logic trees. The results show that the system was able to classify the response of the automatic protection systems, as well as to evaluate the conditions of the plant, diagnosing the type of occurrence, recovery procedure to be followed, indicating the shutdown root cause, and classifying the emergency level.

Keywords: Expert System, emergence procedure, operator support, PWR nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
55 Structural Performance of a Bridge Pier on Dubious Deep Foundation

Authors: Víctor Cecilio, Roberto Gómez, J. Alberto Escobar, Héctor Guerrero

Abstract:

The study of the structural behavior of a support/pier of an elevated viaduct in Mexico City is presented. Detection of foundation piles with uncertain integrity prompted the review of possible situations that could jeopardy the structural safety of the pier. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural conditions of the support, taking into account the type of anomaly reported and the depth at which it is located, the position of the pile with uncertain integrity in the foundation system, the stratigraphy of the surrounding soil and the geometry and structural characteristics of the pier. To carry out the above, dynamic analysis, spectral modal, and step-by-step, with elastic and inelastic material models, were performed. Results were evaluated in accordance with the standards used for the design of the original structural project and with the Construction Regulations for Mexico’s Federal District (RCDF-2017, 2017). Comments on the response of the analyzed models are issued, and the conclusions are presented from a structural point of view.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, bridge pier, inelastic models, dubious foundation

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54 Influence of the Refractory Period on Neural Networks Based on the Recognition of Neural Signatures

Authors: José Luis Carrillo-Medina, Roberto Latorre

Abstract:

Experimental evidence has revealed that different living neural systems can sign their output signals with some specific neural signature. Although experimental and modeling results suggest that neural signatures can have an important role in the activity of neural networks in order to identify the source of the information or to contextualize a message, the functional meaning of these neural fingerprints is still unclear. The existence of cellular mechanisms to identify the origin of individual neural signals can be a powerful information processing strategy for the nervous system. We have recently built different models to study the ability of a neural network to process information based on the emission and recognition of specific neural fingerprints. In this paper we further analyze the features that can influence on the information processing ability of this kind of networks. In particular, we focus on the role that the duration of a refractory period in each neuron after emitting a signed message can play in the network collective dynamics.

Keywords: neural signature, neural fingerprint, processing based on signal identification, self-organizing neural network

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53 Practices of Lean Manufacturing in the Autoparts: Brazilian Industry Overview

Authors: Guilherme Gorgulho, Carlos Roberto Camello Lima

Abstract:

Over the past five years between 2011 and 2015, the license plate of cars, light commercial vehicles, trucks and buses have suffered retraction. This sector's decline can be explained by economic and national policy in the Brazilian industry operates. In parallel to the reduction of sales and license plate of vehicles, their suppliers are also affected influencing its results, among these vendors, there is the auto parts sector. The existence of international companies, and featured strongly in Asia and Mexico due to low production costs, encourage companies to constantly seek continuous improvement and operational efficiency. Under this argument, the decision making based on lean manufacturing tools it is essential for the management of operations. The purpose of this article is to analyze between lean practices in Brazilian auto parts industries, through the application of a questionnaire with employees who practice lean thinking in organizations. The purpose is to confront the extracted data in the questionnaires, and debate on which of lean tools help organizations as a competitive advantage.

Keywords: Survey, autoparts, brazilian industry, lean practices

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52 Optimization of Production Scheduling through the Lean and Simulation Integration in Automotive Company

Authors: Guilherme Gorgulho, Carlos Roberto Camello Lima

Abstract:

Due to the competitive market in which companies are currently engaged, the constant changes require companies to react quickly regarding the variability of demand and process. The changes are caused by customers, or by demand fluctuations or variations of products, or the need to serve customers within agreed delivery taking into account the continuous search for quality and competitive prices in products. These changes end up influencing directly or indirectly the activities of the Planning and Production Control (PPC), which does business in strategic, tactical and operational levels of production systems. One area of concern for organizations is in the short term (operational level), because this planning stage any error or divergence will cause waste and impact on the delivery of products on time to customers. Thus, this study aims to optimize the efficiency of production scheduling, using different sequencing strategies in an automotive company. Seeking to aim the proposed objective, we used the computer simulation in conjunction with lean manufacturing to build and validate the current model, and subsequently the creation of future scenarios.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Computational Simulation, Production Scheduling, sequencing strategies

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51 Privacy Label: An Alternative Approach to Present Privacy Policies from Online Services to the User

Authors: Diego Roberto Goncalves De Pontes, Sergio Donizetti Zorzo

Abstract:

Studies show that most users do not read privacy policies from the online services they use. Some authors claim that one of the main causes of this is that policies are long and usually hard to understand, which make users lose interest in reading them. In this scenario, users may agree with terms without knowing what kind of data is being collected and why. Given that, we aimed to develop a model that would present the privacy policies contents in an easy and graphical way for the user to understand. We call it the Privacy Label. Using information recovery techniques, we propose an architecture that is able to extract information about what kind of data is being collected and to what end in the policies and show it to the user in an automated way. To assess our model, we calculated the precision, recall and f-measure metrics on the information extracted by our technique. The results for each metric were 68.53%, 85.61% e 76,13%, respectively, making it possible for the final user to understand which data was being collected without reading the whole policy. Also, our proposal can facilitate the notice-and-choice by presenting privacy policy information in an alternative way for online users.

Keywords: Privacy, Policies, user behavior, computer human interaction

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50 Reliability Levels of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Obtained by Mixing Approaches

Authors: Adrián D. García-Soto, Alejandro Hernández-Martínez, Jesús G. Valdés-Vázquez, Reyna A. Vizguerra-Alvarez

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete bridges designed by code are intended to achieve target reliability levels adequate for the geographical environment where the code is applicable. Several methods can be used to estimate such reliability levels. Many of them require the establishment of an explicit limit state function (LSF). When such LSF is not available as a close-form expression, the simulation techniques are often employed. The simulation methods are computing intensive and time consuming. Note that if the reliability of real bridges designed by code is of interest, numerical schemes, the finite element method (FEM) or computational mechanics could be required. In these cases, it can be quite difficult (or impossible) to establish a close-form of the LSF, and the simulation techniques may be necessary to compute reliability levels. To overcome the need for a large number of simulations when no explicit LSF is available, the point estimate method (PEM) could be considered as an alternative. It has the advantage that only the probabilistic moments of the random variables are required. However, in the PEM, fitting of the resulting moments of the LSF to a probability density function (PDF) is needed. In the present study, a very simple alternative which allows the assessment of the reliability levels when no explicit LSF is available and without the need of extensive simulations is employed. The alternative includes the use of the PEM, and its applicability is shown by assessing reliability levels of reinforced concrete bridges in Mexico when a numerical scheme is required. Comparisons with results by using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique are included. To overcome the problem of approximating the probabilistic moments from the PEM to a PDF, a well-known distribution is employed. The approach mixes the PEM and other classic reliability method (first order reliability method, FORM). The results in the present study are in good agreement whit those computed with the MCS. Therefore, the alternative of mixing the reliability methods is a very valuable option to determine reliability levels when no close form of the LSF is available, or if numerical schemes, the FEM or computational mechanics are employed.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, structural reliability, reinforced concrete bridges, combined approach, point estimate method

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49 PrEP and Risk: Challenges for an Emerging Sanitary Pact

Authors: Roberto Rubem Silva-Brandao, Aurea Maria Zollner Ianni

Abstract:

This article discusses the use and the incorporation of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) within a risk society context. Considering contemporary social theoreticians, we discuss implications of biotechnological uses for health enhancement. Firstly, we explore examples of biological manipulation and its consequences of use on given ecological dynamics, particularly taking into account other Sexually Transmitted Infections. In addition, we discuss how HIV resistance cases occurred with people on PrEP and its possible consequences on population-based interventions. Moreover, we present recent studies that analyze biological modifications on bodies of those who are on consistent use of PrEP, and how these body modifications are addressed on common practices of Public Health. Secondly, we present our theoretical references, which are intended to the analysis that situates our contemporary society in the reflexive stage of modernization. We discuss limits of biological use by individuals and how this can fabric feelings of freedom and autonomy within the individualization process and health. Finally, we argue that biotechnological uses on health, specifically on Public Health, tackling the risk aspects of its application, shows that another sanitary pact is needed.

Keywords: Social Sciences, Public Health, PrEP, risk society

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48 Ultrasound/Microwave Assisted Extraction Recovery and Identification of Bioactive Compounds (Polyphenols) from Tarbush (Fluorensia cernua)

Authors: Marisol Rodriguez-Duarte, Aide Saenz-Galindo, Carolina Flores-Gallegos, Raul Rodriguez-Herrera, Juan Ascacio-Valdes

Abstract:

The plant known as tarbush (Fluorensia cernua) is a plant originating in northern Mexico, mainly in the states of Coahuila, Durango, San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas and Chihuahua. It is a branched shrub that belongs to the family Asteraceae, has oval leaves of 6 to 11 cm in length and also has small yellow flowers. In Mexico, the tarbush is a very appreciated plant because it has been used as a traditional medicinal agent, for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, skin infections and as a healing agent. This plant has been used mainly as an infusion. Due to its traditional use, the content and type of phytochemicals present in the plant are currently unknown and are responsible for its biological properties, so its recovery and identification is very important because the compounds that it contains have relevant applications in the field of food, pharmaceuticals and medicine. The objective of this work was to determine the best extraction condition of phytochemical compounds (mainly polyphenolic compounds) from the leaf using ultrasound/microwave assisted extraction (U/M-AE). To reach the objective, U/M-AE extractions were performed evaluating three mass/volume ratios (1:8, 1:12, 1:16), three ethanol/water solvent concentrations (0%, 30% and 70%), ultrasound extraction time of 20 min and 5 min at 70°C of microwave treatment. All experiments were performed using a fractional factorial experimental design. Once the best extraction condition was defined, the compounds were recovered by liquid column chromatography using Amberlite XAD-16, the polyphenolic fraction was recovered with ethanol and then evaporated. The recovered polyphenolic compounds were quantified by spectrophotometric techniques and identified by HPLC/ESI/MS. The results obtained showed that the best extraction condition of the compounds was using a mass/volume ratio of 1:8 and solvent ethanol/water concentration of 70%. The concentration obtained from polyphenolic compounds using this condition was 22.74 mg/g and finally, 16 compounds of polyphenolic origin were identified. The results obtained in this work allow us to postulate the Mexican plant known as tarbush as a relevant source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds of food, pharmaceutical and medicinal interest.

Keywords: Identification, polyphenols, U/M-AE, tarbush

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47 A New Profile of Engineer: From Management Engineering to Entrepreneurial Engineering

Authors: Roberto Cerchione, Emilio Esposito, Mario Raffa

Abstract:

The relevance and the strategic importance of engineering skills in innovation and in the development of businesses and organizations push to investigate the role of the engineer in society today. In the twentieth century the emergence of a variety of technical and scientific knowledge has led to the rise of new areas of skills going from a "all-comprehensive" engineering to an engineering characterized by many specializations. Organizational and structural changes within companies and the emergence of an industrial society based on multiple interrelationships led to the transformation of engineering education. The objective of this work is to report main steps and many pioneering experiences, both national and international, that have led to establish a graduate degree program in Engineering Management and its subsequent evolution in Entrepreneurial Engineering. The first section of this article focuses on the origins and precursors of Engineering Management education. The second section concerns main Italian education programs. Then the attention is focused on the evolution of Engineering Management in Naples, on the intersectoral nature of this degree program, on the relationship with business community, associations, labor market, small businesses and environment. Finally, the discussion of recent years about the skills that characterize entrepreneurial engineer in society are presented.

Keywords: Engineering Management, Education, entrepreunerial engineering, engineering skills, managerial skills, entrepreneurial skills

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46 Suicide Conceptualization in Adolescents through Semantic Networks

Authors: K. P. Valdés García, E. I. Rodríguez Fonseca, L. G. Juárez Cantú

Abstract:

Suicide is a global, multidimensional and dynamic problem of mental health, which requires a constant study for its understanding and prevention. When research of this phenomenon is done, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics it may have because of the individual and sociocultural variables, the importance of this consideration is related to the generation of effective treatments and interventions. Adolescents are a vulnerable population due to the characteristics of the development stage. The investigation was carried out with the objective of identifying and describing the conceptualization of adolescents of suicide, and in this process, we find possible differences between men and women. The study was carried out in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. The sample was composed of 418 volunteer students aged between 11 and 18 years. The ethical aspects of the research were reviewed and considered in all the processes of the investigation with the participants, their parents and the schools to which they belonged, psychological attention was offered to the participants and preventive workshops were carried in the educational institutions. Natural semantic networks were the instrument used, since this hybrid method allows to find and analyze the social concept of a phenomenon; in this case, the word suicide was used as an evocative stimulus and participants were asked to evoke at least five words and a maximum 10 that they thought were related to suicide, and then hierarchize them according to the closeness with the construct. The subsequent analysis was carried with Excel, yielding the semantic weights, affective loads and the distances between each of the semantic fields established according to the words reported by the subjects. The results showed similarities in the conceptualization of suicide in adolescents, men and women. Seven semantic fields were generated; the words were related in the discourse analysis: 1) death, 2) possible triggering factors, 3) associated moods, 4) methods used to carry it out, 5) psychological symptomatology that could affect, 6) words associated with a rejection of suicide, and finally, 7) specific objects to carry it out. One of the necessary aspects to consider in the investigations of complex issues such as suicide is to have a diversity of instruments and techniques that adjust to the characteristics of the population and that allow to understand the phenomena from the social constructs and not only theoretical. The constant study of suicide is a pressing need, the loss of a life from emotional difficulties that can be solved through psychiatry and psychological methods requires governments and professionals to pay attention and work with the risk population.

Keywords: Adolescents, Suicide, psychological construct, semantic networks

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45 Effect of Cooking Process on the Antioxidant Activity of Different Variants of Tomato-Based Sofrito

Authors: Ana Beltran Sanahuja, A. Valdés García, Saray Lopez De Pablo Gallego, Maria Soledad Prats Moya

Abstract:

Tomato consumption has greatly increased worldwide in the last few years, mostly due to a growing demand for products like sofrito. In this sense, regular consumption of tomato-based products has been consistently associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases. The sofrito is a homemade tomato sauce typical of the Mediterranean area, which contains as main ingredients: tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil. There are also sofrito’s variations by adding other spices which bring at the same time not only color, flavor, smell and or aroma; they also provide medicinal properties, due to their antioxidant power. This protective effect has mainly been attributed to the predominant bioactive compounds present in sofrito, such as lycopene and other carotenoids as well as more than 40 different polyphenols. Regarding the cooking process, it is known that it can modify the properties and the availability of nutrients in sofrito; however, there is not enough information regarding this issue. For this reason, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the cooking effect on the antioxidant capacity of different variants of tomato-based sofrito combined with other spices, through the analysis of total phenols content (TPC) and to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by using the method of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Based on the results obtained, it can be confirmed that the basic sofrito composed of tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil and the sofrito with 1 g of rosemary added, are the ones with the highest content of phenols presenting greater antioxidant power than other industrial sofrito, and that of other variables of sofrito with added thyme or higher amounts of garlic. Moreover, it has been observed that in the elaboration of the tomato-based sofrito, it is possible to cook until 60 minutes, since the cooking process increases the bioavailability of the carotenoids when breaking the cell walls, which weakens the binding forces between the carotenoids and increases the levels of antioxidants present, confirmed both with the TPC and DPPH methods. It can be concluded that the cooking process of different variants of tomato-based sofrito, including spices, can improve the antioxidant capacity. The synergistic effects of different antioxidants may have a greater protective effect; increasing, also, the digestibility of proteins. In addition, the antioxidants help to deactivate the free radicals of diseases such as atherosclerosis, aging, immune suppression, cancer, and diabetes.

Keywords: Antioxidants, cooking process, phenols sofrito

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