Search results for: Montserrat López Mesas
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 266

Search results for: Montserrat López Mesas

266 Secondary True to Life Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanoplastics: Obtention, Characterization, and Hazard Evaluation

Authors: Aliro Villacorta, Laura Rubio, Mohamed Alaraby, Montserrat López Mesas, Victor Fuentes-Cebrian, Oscar H. Moriones, Ricard Marcos, Alba Hernández.


Micro and nano plastics (MNPLs) are emergent environmental pollutants requiring urgent information on their potential risks to human health. One of the problems associated with the evaluation of their undesirable effects is the lack of real samples matching those resulting from the environmental degradation of plastic wastes. To such end, we propose an easy method to obtain polyethylene terephthalate nano plastics from water plastic bottles (PET-NPLs) but, in principle, applicable to any other plastic goods sources. An extensive characterization indicates that the proposed process produces uniform samples of PET-NPLs of around 100 nm, as determined by using a multi-angle and dynamic light scattering methodology. An important point to be highlighted is that to avoid the metal contamination resulting from methods using metal blades/burrs for milling, trituration, or sanding, we propose to use diamond burrs to produce metal-free samples. To visualize the toxicological profile of the produced PET-NPLs, we have evaluated their ability to be internalized by cells, their cytotoxicity, and their ability to induce oxidative stress and induce DNA damage. In this preliminary approach, we have detected their cellular uptake, but without the induction of significant biological effects. Thus, no relevant increases in toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction, or DNA damage -as detected with the comet assay- have been observed. The use of real samples, as produced in this study, will generate relevant data in the discussion about the potential health risks associated with MNPLs exposures.

Keywords: nanoplastics, polyethylene terephthalate, physicochemical characterization, cell uptake, cytotoxicity

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265 Role of Physiotherapist: How Their Job and Working Area Could Be Known

Authors: Juan Pablo Hervas-Perez, Jesus Guodemar-Perez, Montserrat Ruiz-Lopez, Elena Sonsoles Rodriguez-Lopez, Noemi Mayoral-Gonzalo, Eduardo Cimadevilla Fernandez-Pola, Mario Caballero-Corella


Physiotherapy is a healthcare discipline that covers many fields of action within the recovery and prevention of health. Some are well known, but others, such as working with newborns and premature children are not so. Physical therapist functions are well defined, but the impression of the population is that there are other professionals who can develop them, and a large part are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge of the sample on the role of the physiotherapist in general, and more specifically in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) units, and estimate your level of notions on the development centered care (DCC). Method: A descriptive, transversal, observational and prospective study developed on a 125 participants' sample. Results: From the sample studied, 87.2% had already had contact with physiotherapy previously. An 80.9% believed that the physiotherapist intervention was decisive for the cure, and 84.0% would recommend physiotherapy treatment to others. Of the total surveyed, 98.0% felt that the physiotherapist is who should run the physiotherapeutic treatments, but shares with other professions 71.0% of votes. The field's best-known work is rehabilitation (94.0%); Neonatology is on the 4th place (66.0% of votes). Conclusions: Many areas of work of physical therapy are unknown to a big part of the population, including the own health workers. Less than half of the sample meets the DCC, and only 58% of the interviewed physiotherapists know them.

Keywords: functions of physiotherapist, neonatal intensive care, physiotherapy, prematurity

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
264 Risk Propagation in Electricity Markets: Measuring the Asymmetric Transmission of Downside and Upside Risks in Energy Prices

Authors: Montserrat Guillen, Stephania Mosquera-Lopez, Jorge Uribe


An empirical study of market risk transmission between electricity prices in the Nord Pool interconnected market is done. Crucially, it is differentiated between risk propagation in the two tails of the price variation distribution. Thus, the downside risk from upside risk spillovers is distinguished. The results found document an asymmetric nature of risk and risk propagation in the two tails of the electricity price log variations. Risk spillovers following price increments in the market are transmitted to a larger extent than those after price reductions. Also, asymmetries related to both, the size of the transaction area and related to whether a given area behaves as a net-exporter or net-importer of electricity, are documented. For instance, on the one hand, the bigger the area of the transaction, the smaller the size of the volatility shocks that it receives. On the other hand, exporters of electricity, alongside countries with a significant dependence on renewable sources, tend to be net-transmitters of volatility to the rest of the system. Additionally, insights on the predictive power of positive and negative semivariances for future market volatility are provided. It is shown that depending on the forecasting horizon, downside and upside shocks to the market are featured by a distinctive persistence, and that upside volatility impacts more on net-importers of electricity, while the opposite holds for net-exporters.

Keywords: electricity prices, realized volatility, semivariances, volatility spillovers

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
263 Development of new Ecological Cleaning Process of Metal Sheets

Authors: L. M. López López, J. V. Montesdeoca Contreras, A. R. Cuji Fajardo, L. E. Garzón Muñoz, J. I. Fajardo Seminario


In this article a new method of cleaning process of metal sheets for household appliances was developed, using low-pressure cold plasma. In this context, this research consist in analyze the results of metal sheets cleaning process using plasma and compare with pickling process to determinate the efficiency of each process and the level of contamination produced. Surface Cleaning was evaluated by measuring the contact angle with deionized water, diiodo methane and ethylene glycol, for the calculus of the surface free energy by means of the Fowkes theories and Wu. Showing that low-pressure cold plasma is very efficient both in cleaning process how in environment impact.

Keywords: efficient use of plasma, ecological impact of plasma, metal sheets cleaning means, plasma cleaning process.

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
262 Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence’s Association to Nutritional Status in Adolescent Schoolchildren in Chile

Authors: Peter Mc Coll, Alberto Caro, Chiara Gandolfo, Montserrat Labbe, Francisca Schnaidt, Michela Palazzi


Self-esteem and emotional intelligence are variables that are related to people's nutritional status. Self-esteem may be at low levels in people living with obesity, while emotional intelligence can play an important role in the way people living with obesity cope. The objective of the study was to measure the association between self-esteem and emotional intelligence to nutritional status in adolescent population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 179 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 19 years old from a public school. The objective was to evaluate nutritional status; weight and height were measured by calculating the body mass index and Z score. Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory adapted by Brinkmann and Segure. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Emotional Quotient Inventory: short, by Bar On, adapted questionnaire, translated into Spanish by López Zafra. For statistical analysis: Pearson's Chi-square test, Pearson's correlation, and odd ratio calculation were used, with a p value at a significance level < 5%. Results: The study group was composed of 71% female and 29% male. The nutritional status was distributed as eutrophic 41.9%, overweight 20.1%, and obesity 21.1%. In relation to self-esteem, 44.1% presented low and very low levels, without differences by gender. Emotional intelligence was distributed: low 3.4%, medium 81%, and high 13.4% -no differences according to gender. The association between nutritional status (overweight and obesity) with low and very low self-esteem, an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI 1.12 – 5.59) was obtained with a p-value = 0.02. The correlation analysis between the intrapersonal sub-dimension emotional intelligence scores and the Z score of nutritional status presented a negative correlation of r = - 0.209 with a p-value < 0.005. The correlation between emotional intelligence subdimension stress management with Z score presented a positive correlation of r = 0.0161 with a p-value < 0.05. In conclusion, the group of adolescents studied had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high prevalence of low self-esteem, and a high prevalence of average emotional intelligence. Overweight and obese adolescents were 2.5 times more likely to have low self-esteem. As overweight and obesity increase, self-esteem decreases, and the ability to manage stress increases.

Keywords: self-esteem, emotional intelligence, obesity, adolescent, nutritional status

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261 Neuromarketing: Discovering the Somathyc Marker in the Consumer´s Brain

Authors: Mikel Alonso López, María Francisca Blasco López, Víctor Molero Ayala


The present study explains the somatic marker theory of Antonio Damasio, which indicates that when making a decision, the stored or possible future scenarios (future memory) images allow people to feel for a moment what would happen when they make a choice, and how this is emotionally marked. This process can be conscious or unconscious. The development of new Neuromarketing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), carries a greater understanding of how the brain functions and consumer behavior. In the results observed in different studies using fMRI, the evidence suggests that the somatic marker and future memories influence the decision-making process, adding a positive or negative emotional component to the options. This would mean that all decisions would involve a present emotional component, with a rational cost-benefit analysis that can be performed later.

Keywords: emotions, decision making, somatic marker, consumer´s brain

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
260 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López


This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: cognitive radio, base station, best effort, MLPNN, prediction, real time

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259 Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method

Authors: Ernesto Pineda Leon, Dante Tolentino Lopez, Janis Zapata Lopez


The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good.

Keywords: boundary element method, failure, plasticity, probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
258 Anaerobic Co-digestion in Two-Phase TPAD System of Sewage Sludge and Fish Waste

Authors: Rocio López, Miriam Tena, Montserrat Pérez, Rosario Solera


Biotransformation of organic waste into biogas is considered an interesting alternative for the production of clean energy from renewable sources by reducing the volume and organic content of waste Anaerobic digestion is considered one of the most efficient technologies to transform waste into fertilizer and biogas in order to obtain electrical energy or biofuel within the concept of the circular economy. Currently, three types of anaerobic processes have been developed on a commercial scale: (1) single-stage process where sludge bioconversion is completed in a single chamber, (2) two-stage process where the acidogenic and methanogenic stages are separated into two chambers and, finally, (3) temperature-phase sequencing (TPAD) process that combines a thermophilic pretreatment unit prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Two-stage processes can provide hydrogen and methane with easier control of the first and second stage conditions producing higher total energy recovery and substrate degradation than single-stage processes. On the other hand, co-digestion is the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of a mixture of two or more substrates. The technology is similar to anaerobic digestion but is a more attractive option as it produces increased methane yields due to the positive synergism of the mixtures in the digestion medium thus increasing the economic viability of biogas plants. The present study focuses on the energy recovery by anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and waste from the aquaculture-fishing sector. The valorization is approached through the application of a temperature sequential phase process or TPAD technology (Temperature - Phased Anaerobic Digestion). Moreover, two-phase of microorganisms is considered. Thus, the selected process allows the development of a thermophilic acidogenic phase followed by a mesophilic methanogenic phase to obtain hydrogen (H₂) in the first stage and methane (CH₄) in the second stage. The combination of these technologies makes it possible to unify all the advantages of these anaerobic digestion processes individually. To achieve these objectives, a sequential study has been carried out in which the biochemical potential of hydrogen (BHP) is tested followed by a BMP test, which will allow checking the feasibility of the two-stage process. The best results obtained were high total and soluble COD yields (59.8% and 82.67%, respectively) as well as H₂ production rates of 12LH₂/kg SVadded and methane of 28.76 L CH₄/kg SVadded for TPAD.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, TPAD, two-phase, BHP, BMP, sewage sludge, fish waste

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257 Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee Wastewater from a Fast Inoculum Adaptation Stage: Replacement of Complex Substrate

Authors: D. Lepe-Cervantes, E. Leon-Becerril, J. Gomez-Romero, O. Garcia-Depraect, A. Lopez-Lopez


In this study, raw coffee wastewater (CWW) was used as a complex substrate for anaerobic digestion. The inoculum adaptation stage, microbial diversity analysis and biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed. A fast inoculum adaptation stage was used by the replacement of vinasse to CWW in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) operated at mesophilic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial diversity. While, BMP tests using inoculum adapted to CWW were carried out at different inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, on a VS basis). Results show that the adaptability percentage was increased gradually until it reaches the highest theoretical value in a short time of 10 d; with a methane yield of 359.10 NmL CH4/g COD-removed; Methanobacterium beijingense was the most abundant microbial (75%) and the greatest specific methane production was achieved at I/S ratio 4:1, whereas the lowest was obtained at 2:1, with BMP values of 320 NmL CH4/g VS and 151 NmL CH4/g VS, respectively. In conclusion, gradual replacement of substrate was a feasible method to adapt the inoculum in a short time even using complex raw substrates, whereas in the BMP tests, the specific methane production was proportional to the initial amount of inoculum.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential test, coffee wastewater, fast inoculum adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
256 Surface Integrity Improvement for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Additive Manufacturing of C300 Parts Using Ball Burnishing

Authors: Adrian Travieso Disotuar, J. Antonio Travieso Rodriguez, Ramon Jerez Mesa, Montserrat Vilaseca


The effect of the non-vibration-assisted and vibration-assisted ball burnishing on both the surface and mechanical properties of C300 obtained by Selective Laser Melting additive manufacturing technology is studied in this paper. Different vibration amplitudes preloads, and burnishing strategies were tested. A topographical analysis was performed to determine the surface roughness of the different conditions. Besides, micro tensile tests were carried out in situ on Scanning Electron Microscopy to elucidate the post-treatment effects on damaging mechanisms. Experiments show that vibration-assisted ball burnishing significantly enhances mechanical properties compared to the non-vibration-assisted method. Moreover, it was found that the surface roughness was significantly improved with respect to the reference surface.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, ball burnishing, mechanical properties, metals, surface roughness

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255 The Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Sludge Characteristics and Effluent Quality in an Aerobic Suspension Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Ali W. N. Alattabi, Clare B. Harris, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda, David A. Phipps, Ali Alzeyadi, Khalid S. Hashim


This study was performed to optimise the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and study its effects on the sludge characteristics and the effluent quality in an aerobic suspension sequencing batch reactor (ASSBR) treating synthetic wastewater. The results showed that increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h significantly improved the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency; it was increased from 78.7% - 75.7% to 94.7% – 97% for COD and Nitrate respectively. However, increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h reduced the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency from 94.7% - 97% to 91.1% – 94.4% respectively. Moreover, Increasing the HRT from 18 h to 24 h did not affect the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency. Sludge volume index (SVI) was used to monitor the sludge settling performance. The results showed a direct relationship between the HRT and SVI value. Increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h led to decrease the SVI value from 123 ml/g to 82.5 ml/g, and then it remained constant despite of increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h and to 24 h. The results obtained from this study showed that the HRT of 12 h was better for COD and Nitrate removal and a good settling performance occurred during that range.

Keywords: COD, hydraulic retention time, nitrate, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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254 In vivo Evaluation of LAB Probiotic Potential with the Zebrafish Animal Model

Authors: Iñaki Iturria, Pasquale Russo, Montserrat Nacher-Vázquez, Giuseppe Spano, Paloma López, Miguel Angel Pardo


Introduction: It is known that some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present an interesting probiotic effect. Probiotic bacteria stimulate host resistance to microbial pathogens and thereby aid in immune response, and modulate the host's immune responses to antigens with a potential to down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, probiotic therapy is valuable against intestinal infections and may be beneficial in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Several in vitro tests are available to evaluate the probiotic potential of a LAB strain. However, an in vivo model is required to understand the interaction between the host immune system and the bacteria. During the last few years, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained interest as a promising vertebrate model in this field. This organism has been extensively used to study the interaction between the host and the microbiota, as well as the host immune response under several microbial infections. In this work, we report on the use of the zebrafish model to investigate in vivo the colonizing ability and the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic LAB. Methods: Lactobacillus strains belonging to different LAB species were fluorescently tagged and used to colonize germ-free zebrafish larvae gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some of the strains had a well-documented probiotic effect (L. acidophilus LA5); while others presented an exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing phenotype, thus allowing evaluating the influence of EPS in the colonization and immunomodulatory effect. Bacteria colonization was monitored for 72 h by direct observation in real time using fluorescent microscopy. CFU count per larva was also evaluated at different times. The immunomodulatory effect was assessed analysing the differential expression of several innate immune system genes (MyD88, NF-κB, Tlr4, Il1β and Il10) by qRT- PCR. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using a chemical enterocolitis zebrafish model. The protective effect against a pathogen was also studied. To that end, a challenge test was developed using a fluorescently tagged pathogen (Vibrio anguillarum-GFP+). The progression of the infection was monitored up to 3 days using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Mortality rates and CFU counts were also registered. Results and conclusions: Larvae exposed to EPS-producing bacteria showed a higher fluorescence and CFU count than those colonized with no-EPS phenotype LAB. In the same way, qRT-PCR results revealed an immunomodulatory effect on the host after the administration of the strains with probiotic activity. A downregulation of proinflammatory cytoquines as well as other cellular mediators of inflammation was observed. The anti-inflammatory effect was found to be particularly marked following exposure to LA% strain, as well as EPS producing strains. Furthermore, the challenge test revealed a protective effect of probiotic administration. As a matter of fact, larvae fed with probiotics showed a decrease in the mortality rate ranging from 20 to 35%. Discussion: In this work, we developed a promising model, based on the use of gnotobiotic zebrafish coupled with a bacterial fluorescent tagging in order to evaluate the probiotic potential of different LAB strains. We have successfully used this system to monitor in real time the colonization and persistence of exogenous LAB within the gut of zebrafish larvae, to evaluate their immunomodulatory effect and for in vivo competition assays. This approach could bring further insights into the complex microbial-host interactions at intestinal level.

Keywords: gnotobiotic, immune system, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, zebrafish

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253 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola


In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
252 Design and Creation of a BCI Videogame for Training and Measure of Sustained Attention in Children with ADHD

Authors: John E. Muñoz, Jose F. Lopez, David S. Lopez


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects 1 out of 5 Colombian children, converting into a real public health problem in the country. Conventional treatments such as medication and neuropsychological therapy have been proved to be insufficient in order to decrease high incidence levels of ADHD in the principal Colombian cities. This work demonstrates a design and development of a videogame that uses a brain computer interface not only to serve as an input device but also as a tool to monitor neurophysiologic signal. The video game named “The Harvest Challenge” puts a cultural scene of a Colombian coffee grower in its context, where a player can use his/her avatar in three mini games created in order to reinforce four fundamental aspects: i) waiting ability, ii) planning ability, iii) ability to follow instructions and iv) ability to achieve objectives. The details of this collaborative designing process of the multimedia tool according to the exact clinic necessities and the description of interaction proposals are presented through the mental stages of attention and relaxation. The final videogame is presented as a tool for sustained attention training in children with ADHD using as an action mechanism the neuromodulation of Beta and Theta waves through an electrode located in the central part of the front lobe of the brain. The processing of an electroencephalographic signal is produced automatically inside the videogame allowing to generate a report of the theta/beta ratio evolution - a biological marker, which has been demonstrated to be a sufficient measure to discriminate of children with deficit and without.

Keywords: BCI, neuromodulation, ADHD, videogame, neurofeedback, theta/beta ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
251 Suitable Models and Methods for the Steady-State Analysis of Multi-Energy Networks

Authors: Juan José Mesas, Luis Sainz


The motivation for the development of this paper lies in the need for energy networks to reduce losses, improve performance, optimize their operation and try to benefit from the interconnection capacity with other networks enabled for other energy carriers. These interconnections generate interdependencies between some energy networks and others, which requires suitable models and methods for their analysis. Traditionally, the modeling and study of energy networks have been carried out independently for each energy carrier. Thus, there are well-established models and methods for the steady-state analysis of electrical networks, gas networks, and thermal networks separately. What is intended is to extend and combine them adequately to be able to face in an integrated way the steady-state analysis of networks with multiple energy carriers. Firstly, the added value of multi-energy networks, their operation, and the basic principles that characterize them are explained. In addition, two current aspects of great relevance are exposed: the storage technologies and the coupling elements used to interconnect one energy network with another. Secondly, the characteristic equations of the different energy networks necessary to carry out the steady-state analysis are detailed. The electrical network, the natural gas network, and the thermal network of heat and cold are considered in this paper. After the presentation of the equations, a particular case of the steady-state analysis of a specific multi-energy network is studied. This network is represented graphically, the interconnections between the different energy carriers are described, their technical data are exposed and the equations that have previously been presented theoretically are formulated and developed. Finally, the two iterative numerical resolution methods considered in this paper are presented, as well as the resolution procedure and the results obtained. The pros and cons of the application of both methods are explained. It is verified that the results obtained for the electrical network (voltages in modulus and angle), the natural gas network (pressures), and the thermal network (mass flows and temperatures) are correct since they comply with the distribution, operation, consumption and technical characteristics of the multi-energy network under study.

Keywords: coupling elements, energy carriers, multi-energy networks, steady-state analysis

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250 Controlling of Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns -Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola


A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 35 0C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-35 0C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 35 0C to the vicinity of 28 0C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.8 0C and from 29.8 to 31.9 0C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 28 0C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 35 0C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation

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249 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla


This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
248 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López


In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

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247 Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: anthropometry, biomechanics, design, ergonomics, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
246 Key Transfer Protocol Based on Non-invertible Numbers

Authors: Luis A. Lizama-Perez, Manuel J. Linares, Mauricio Lopez


We introduce a method to perform remote user authentication on what we call non-invertible cryptography. It exploits the fact that the multiplication of an invertible integer and a non-invertible integer in a ring Zn produces a non-invertible integer making infeasible to compute factorization. The protocol requires the smallest key size when is compared with the main public key algorithms as Diffie-Hellman, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman or Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Since we found that the unique opportunity for the eavesdropper is to mount an exhaustive search on the keys, the protocol seems to be post-quantum.

Keywords: invertible, non-invertible, ring, key transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
245 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: anthropometry, biomechanics, design, ergonomics, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
244 The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components

Authors: Mikel Alonso López


The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.

Keywords: emotion, consumer behaviour, feelings, decision making

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243 Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics

Authors: S. Gómez, G. Sánchez, J. Zarama, M. Castañeda Ramos, J. Escoto Alcántar, J. Torres, A. Núñez, S. Santana, F. Nájera, J. A. Lopez


This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.

Keywords: kinematics, degree of freedom, optimization, robot manipulator

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242 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-de Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, C. Cruz-Hernández, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez


In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interesting case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulated by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: chaotic laser, network, star topology, synchronization

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241 The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research

Authors: Mikel Alonso López


In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.

Keywords: decision making, emotions, fMRI, consumer behaviour

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240 Interrelationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Health Belief Dimensions and Compliance to Measles Vaccination among Filipino Mothers

Authors: Beryl Rene R. Lopez, Lesley Anne M. Lipat, Rhogene Barbette C. Lirio, Laurice Joy H. Llanes, Karl Philippe M. Llapitan, Einstein James R. Lopez, Socorro S. GuanHing


Background: Measles remain as one of the most common childhood diseases despite the availability of the vaccine that is safe and cost-effective. Because of morbidity and mortality associated with the recent measles outbreak in the Philippines, there is an increasing concern from the health care professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the compliance of Filipino mothers to measles vaccination and their health beliefs when grouped according to the given socio-demographic factors using a researcher-made questionnaire. Research Methodology: This research utilized the descriptive-correlational research design. With the use of purposive sampling technique, the study involved 200 Filipino mothers aged 18 years old and above excluding those who are healthcare professionals with children aged 2-3 years old with either urban or rural as their settlements. Pre-testing was done prior to the actual data gathering. A questionnaire composed of 26 items involving socio-demographic, compliance, and health beliefs was distributed to the sample population. Statistical analysis was done with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) for the first research question and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for the second research question. Results: Four dimensions were generated with the use of EFA namely: Vulnerability-Oriented Beliefs (VOB), Knowledge-Oriented Beliefs (KOB), Accessibility-Oriented Beliefs (AOB), and Outcomes-Oriented Beliefs (OOB). These were then correlated with the mothers’ socio-demographic factors (age, educational attainment, the area of residence, the number of children, and family income) and their compliance to the measles vaccination schedule. Results showed significant and direct relationships between area of residence and compliance, family income and compliance, KOB and compliance, education and KOB, KOB and VOB, KOB and OOB, AOB and KOB, AOB and OOB, AOB and VOB, and lastly, OOB and VOB. Conclusion: The Knowledge – Oriented Belief dimension greatly influence compliance to measles vaccination. Other determinants of compliance like the area of residence, educational attainment, and family income significantly increase the Filipino mothers’ likelihood of compliance to measles vaccination, which have implications to health education.

Keywords: socio-demographic, health beliefs, compliance, measles vaccination

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239 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.


Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

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238 The Image Redefinition of Urban Destinations: The Case of Madrid and Barcelona

Authors: Montserrat Crespi Vallbona, Marta Domínguez Pérez


Globalization impacts on cities and especially on their centers, especially on those spaces more visible and coveted. Changes are involved in processes such as touristification, gentrification or studentification, in addition of shop trendiness. The city becomes a good of interchange rather than a communal good for its inhabitants and consequently, its value is monetized. So, these different tendencies are analyzed: on one hand, the presence of tourists, the home rental increase, the explosion of businesses related to tourism; on the other hand; the return of middle classes or gentries to the center in a socio-spatial model that has changed highlighting the centers by their culture and their opportunities as well as by the value of public space and centrality; then, the interest of students (national and international) to be part of these city centers as dynamic groups and emerging classes with a higher purchasing power and better cultural capital than in the past; and finally, the conversion of old stores into modern ones, where vintage trend and the renewal of antiquity is the essence. All these transforming processes impact the European cities and redefine their image. All these trends reinforce the impression and brand of the urban center as an attractive space for investment, keeping such nonsense meaningful. These four tendencies have been spreading correlatively impacting the centers and transforming them involving the displacement of former residents of these spaces and revitalizing the center that is financed and commercialized in parallel. The cases of Madrid and Barcelona as spaces of greater evidence in Spain of these tendencies serve to illustrate these processes and represent the spearhead. Useful recommendations are presented to urban planners to find the conciliation of communal and commercialized spaces.

Keywords: gentrification, shop trendiness, studentification, touristification

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237 Fractional Calculus into Structural Dynamics

Authors: Jorge Lopez


In this work, we introduce fractional calculus in order to study the dynamics of a damped multistory building with some symmetry. Initially we make a review of the dynamics of a free and damped multistory building. Then we introduce those concepts of fractional calculus that will be involved in our study. It has been noticed that fractional calculus provides models with less parameters than those based on classical calculus. In particular, a damped classical oscilator is more naturally described by using fractional derivatives. Accordingly, we model our multistory building as a set of coupled fractional oscillators and compare its dynamics with the results coming from traditional methods.

Keywords: coupled oscillators, fractional calculus, fractional oscillator, structural dynamics

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