Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 409

Search results for: invariant moments

409 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla

Abstract:

This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
408 Face Recognition Using Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments

Authors: Fatima Akhmedova, Simon Liao

Abstract:

One of the most critical decision points in the design of a face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation. Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant and non-redundant facial information. In this work, we propose a set of Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, non-redundancy and the ability to extract features either globally and locally. To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection. Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.

Keywords: face recognition, Hahn moments, recognition-by-parts, time-lapse

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
407 Detailed Observations on Numerically Invariant Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan

Abstract:

Numerically invariant signatures were introduced as a new paradigm of the invariant recognition for visual objects modulo a certain group of transformations. This paper shows that the current formulation suffers from noise and indeterminacy in the resulting joint group-signatures and applies the n-difference technique and the m-mean signature method to minimize their effects. In our experimental results of applying the proposed numerical scheme to generate joint group-invariant signatures, the sensitivity of some parameters such as regularity and mesh resolution used in the algorithm will also be examined. Finally, several interesting observations are made.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometry, differential invariant G-signature curves, numerically invariant joint G-signatures, object recognition, noise, indeterminacy

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406 New Ways of Vocabulary Enlargement

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

Lexical invariants, being a sort of stereotypes within the frames of ordinary consciousness, are created by the members of a language community as a result of uniform division of reality. The invariant meaning is formed in person’s mind gradually in the course of different actualizations of secondary meanings in various contexts. We understand lexical the invariant as abstract language essence containing a set of semantic components. In one of its configurations it is the basis or all or a number of the meanings making up the semantic structure of the word.

Keywords: lexical invariant, invariant theories, polysemantic word, cognitive linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
405 Biases in Numerically Invariant Joint Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan

Abstract:

This paper illustrates that numerically invariant joint signatures suffer biases in the resulting signatures. Next, we classify the arising biases as Bias Type 1 and Bias Type 2 and show how they can be removed.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometries, differential invariant signature curves, numerically invariant joint signatures, numerical analysis, numerical bias, curve analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
404 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost

Abstract:

Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

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403 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

Authors: Vladimir S. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique, author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Keywords: characteristic function, distributional moments, robustness, outlier, statistical estimation problem, statistical simulation

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402 Airy Wave Packet for a Particle in a Time-Dependant Linear Potential

Authors: M. Berrehail, F. Benamira

Abstract:

We study the quantum motion of a particle in the presence of a time- dependent linear potential using an operator invariant that is quadratic in p and linear in q within the framework of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant, The special invariant operator proposed in this work is demonstrated to be an Hermitian operator which has an Airy wave packet as its Eigenfunction

Keywords: airy wave packet, ivariant, time-dependent linear potential, unitary transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
401 Video Text Information Detection and Localization in Lecture Videos Using Moments

Authors: Belkacem Soundes, Guezouli Larbi

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust and accurate method for text detection and localization over lecture videos. Frame regions are classified into text or background based on visual feature analysis. However, lecture video shows significant degradation mainly related to acquisition conditions, camera motion and environmental changes resulting in low quality videos. Hence, affecting feature extraction and description efficiency. Moreover, traditional text detection methods cannot be directly applied to lecture videos. Therefore, robust feature extraction methods dedicated to this specific video genre are required for robust and accurate text detection and extraction. Method consists of a three-step process: Slide region detection and segmentation; Feature extraction and non-text filtering. For robust and effective features extraction moment functions are used. Two distinct types of moments are used: orthogonal and non-orthogonal. For orthogonal Zernike Moments, both Pseudo Zernike moments are used, whereas for non-orthogonal ones Hu moments are used. Expressivity and description efficiency are given and discussed. Proposed approach shows that in general, orthogonal moments show high accuracy in comparison to the non-orthogonal one. Pseudo Zernike moments are more effective than Zernike with better computation time.

Keywords: text detection, text localization, lecture videos, pseudo zernike moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
400 Pyramid Binary Pattern for Age Invariant Face Verification

Authors: Saroj Bijarnia, Preety Singh

Abstract:

We propose a simple and effective biometrics system based on face verification across aging using a new variant of texture feature, Pyramid Binary Pattern. This employs Local Binary Pattern along with its hierarchical information. Dimension reduction of generated texture feature vector is done using Principal Component Analysis. Support Vector Machine is used for classification. Our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 92:24% and can be used in an automated age-invariant face verification system.

Keywords: biometrics, age invariant, verification, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
399 Visual Thing Recognition with Binary Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Support Vector Machine Classifiers Using Color Information

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Wei-Hau Du, Pau-Choo Chang, Jar-Ferr Yang, Pi-Hsia Hung

Abstract:

The demands of smart visual thing recognition in various devices have been increased rapidly for daily smart production, living and learning systems in recent years. This paper proposed a visual thing recognition system, which combines binary scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), bag of words model (BoW), and support vector machine (SVM) by using color information. Since the traditional SIFT features and SVM classifiers only use the gray information, color information is still an important feature for visual thing recognition. With color-based SIFT features and SVM, we can discard unreliable matching pairs and increase the robustness of matching tasks. The experimental results show that the proposed object recognition system with color-assistant SIFT SVM classifier achieves higher recognition rate than that with the traditional gray SIFT and SVM classification in various situations.

Keywords: color moments, visual thing recognition system, SIFT, color SIFT

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398 Multisymplectic Geometry and Noether Symmetries for the Field Theories and the Relativistic Mechanics

Authors: H. Loumi-Fergane, A. Belaidi

Abstract:

The problem of symmetries in field theory has been analyzed using geometric frameworks, such as the multisymplectic models by using in particular the multivector field formalism. In this paper, we expand the vector fields associated to infinitesimal symmetries which give rise to invariant quantities as Noether currents for classical field theories and relativistic mechanic using the multisymplectic geometry where the Poincaré-Cartan form has thus been greatly simplified using the Second Order Partial Differential Equation (SOPDE) for multi-vector fields verifying Euler equations. These symmetries have been classified naturally according to the construction of the fiber bundle used.  In this work, unlike other works using the analytical method, our geometric model has allowed us firstly to distinguish the angular moments of the gauge field obtained during different transformations while these moments are gathered in a single expression and are obtained during a rotation in the Minkowsky space. Secondly, no conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian of the mechanics with respect to its dependence in time and in qi, the currents obtained naturally from the transformations are respectively the energy and the momentum of the system.

Keywords: conservation laws, field theories, multisymplectic geometry, relativistic mechanics

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397 Relativistic Energy Analysis for Some q Deformed Shape Invariant Potentials in D Dimensions Using SUSYQM Approach

Authors: A. Suparmi, C. Cari, M. Yunianto, B. N. Pratiwi

Abstract:

D-dimensional Dirac equations of q-deformed shape invariant potentials were solved using supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) in the case of exact spin symmetry. The D dimensional radial Dirac equation for shape invariant potential reduces to one-dimensional Schrodinger type equation by an appropriate variable and parameter change. The relativistic energy spectra were analyzed by using SUSY QM and shape invariant properties from radial D dimensional Dirac equation that have reduced to one dimensional Schrodinger type equation. The SUSY operator was used to generate the D dimensional relativistic radial wave functions, the relativistic energy equation reduced to the non-relativistic energy in the non-relativistic limit.

Keywords: D-dimensional dirac equation, non-central potential, SUSY QM, radial wave function

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
396 Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution

Authors: Rafid Saeed Abdulrazak Alshkaki

Abstract:

In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.

Keywords: zero one inflated models, negative binomial distribution, moments estimator, non negative integer sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
395 Implementation of Integer Sub-Decomposition Method on Elliptic Curves with J-Invariant 1728

Authors: Siti Noor Farwina Anwar, Hailiza Kamarulhaili

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the idea of implementing the Integer Sub-Decomposition (ISD) method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The ISD method was proposed in 2013 to compute scalar multiplication in elliptic curves, which remains to be the most expensive operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). However, the original ISD method only works on integer number field and solve integer scalar multiplication. By extending the method into the complex quadratic field, we are able to solve complex multiplication and implement the ISD method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The curve with j-invariant 1728 has a unique discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. This unique discriminant of quadratic field yields a unique efficiently computable endomorphism, which later able to speed up the computations on this curve. However, the ISD method needs three endomorphisms to be accomplished. Hence, we choose all three endomorphisms to be from the same imaginary quadratic field as the curve itself, where the first endomorphism is the unique endomorphism yield from the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field.

Keywords: efficiently computable endomorphism, elliptic scalar multiplication, j-invariant 1728, quadratic field

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394 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based on the 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach can overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, statistical moments, indexing, similarity distance, histograms intersection

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393 Extreme Rainfall Frequency Analysis For Meteorological Sub-Division 4 Of India Using L-Moments.

Authors: Arti Devi, Parthasarthi Choudhury

Abstract:

Extreme rainfall frequency analysis for Meteorological Sub-Division 4 of India was analysed using L-moments approach. Serial Correlation and Mann Kendall tests were conducted for checking serially independent and stationarity of the observations. The discordancy measure for the sites was conducted to detect the discordant sites. The regional homogeneity was tested by comparing with 500 generated homogeneous regions using a 4 parameter Kappa distribution. The best fit distribution was selected based on ZDIST statistics and L-moments ratio diagram from the five extreme value distributions GPD, GLO, GEV, P3 and LP3. The LN3 distribution was selected and regional rainfall frequency relationship was established using index-rainfall procedure. A regional mean rainfall relationship was developed using multiple linear regression with latitude and longitude of the sites as variables.

Keywords: L-moments, ZDIST statistics, serial correlation, Mann Kendall test

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392 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam

Abstract:

A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

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391 A Local Invariant Generalized Hough Transform Method for Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning

Authors: Wei Feilong

Abstract:

In this study, an local invariant generalized Houghtransform (LI-GHT) method is proposed for integrated circuit (IC) visual positioning. The original generalized Hough transform (GHT) is robust to external noise; however, it is not suitable for visual positioning of IC chips due to the four-dimensionality (4D) of parameter space which leads to the substantial storage requirement and high computational complexity. The proposed LI-GHT method can reduce the dimensionality of parameter space to 2D thanks to the rotational invariance of local invariant geometric feature and it can estimate the accuracy position and rotation angle of IC chips in real-time under noise and blur influence. The experiment results show that the proposed LI-GHT can estimate position and rotation angle of IC chips with high accuracy and fast speed. The proposed LI-GHT algorithm was implemented in IC visual positioning system of radio frequency identification (RFID) packaging equipment.

Keywords: Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning, Generalized Hough Transform, Local invariant Generalized Hough Transform, ICpacking equipment

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390 The Normal-Generalized Hyperbolic Secant Distribution: Properties and Applications

Authors: Hazem M. Al-Mofleh

Abstract:

In this paper, a new four-parameter univariate continuous distribution called the Normal-Generalized Hyperbolic Secant Distribution (NGHS) is defined and studied. Some general and structural distributional properties are investigated and discussed, including: central and non-central n-th moments and incomplete moments, quantile and generating functions, hazard function, Rényi and Shannon entropies, shapes: skewed right, skewed left, and symmetric, modality regions: unimodal and bimodal, maximum likelihood (MLE) estimators for the parameters. Finally, two real data sets are used to demonstrate empirically its flexibility and prove the strength of the new distribution.

Keywords: bimodality, estimation, hazard function, moments, Shannon’s entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
389 On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Teoman Ozer, Ozlem Orhan

Abstract:

This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.

Keywords: λ-symmetry, μ-symmetry, classification, invariant solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
388 Lie Symmetry of a Nonlinear System Characterizing Endemic Malaria

Authors: Maba Boniface Matadi

Abstract:

This paper analyses the model of Malaria endemic from the point of view of the group theoretic approach. The study identified new independent variables that lead to the transformation of the nonlinear model. Furthermore, corresponding determining equations were constructed, and new symmetries were found. As a result, the findings of the study demonstrate of the integrability of the model to present an invariant solution for the Malaria model.

Keywords: group theory, lie symmetry, invariant solutions, malaria

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387 A Novel Breast Cancer Detection Algorithm Using Point Region Growing Segmentation and Pseudo-Zernike Moments

Authors: Aileen F. Wang

Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, mammography misses about 17% and up to 30% of breast cancers due to the subtle and unstable appearances of breast cancer in their early stages. Recent computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) technology using Zernike moments has improved detection accuracy. However, it has several drawbacks: it uses manual segmentation, Zernike moments are not robust, and it still has a relatively high false negative rate (FNR)–17.6%. This project will focus on the development of a novel breast cancer detection algorithm to automatically segment the breast mass and further reduce FNR. The algorithm consists of automatic segmentation of a single breast mass using Point Region Growing Segmentation, reconstruction of the segmented breast mass using Pseudo-Zernike moments, and classification of the breast mass using the root mean square (RMS). A comparative study among the various algorithms on the segmentation and reconstruction of breast masses was performed on randomly selected mammographic images. The results demonstrated that the newly developed algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy and cost effectiveness. More importantly, the new classifier RMS has the lowest FNR–6%.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, mammography, point region growing segmentation, pseudo-zernike moments, root mean square

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386 A Methodology for Characterising the Tail Behaviour of a Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Yishan Zang

Abstract:

Following a review of various approaches that are utilized for classifying the tail behavior of a distribution, an easily implementable methodology that relies on an arctangent transformation is presented. The classification criterion is actually based on the difference between two specific quantiles of the transformed distribution. The resulting categories enable one to classify distributional tails as distinctly short, short, nearly medium, medium, extended medium and somewhat long, providing that at least two moments exist. Distributions possessing a single moment are said to be long tailed while those failing to have any finite moments are classified as having an extremely long tail. Several illustrative examples will be presented.

Keywords: arctangent transformation, tail classification, heavy-tailed distributions, distributional moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
385 The Structure of Invariant Manifolds after a Supercritical Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation

Authors: Matthaios Katsanikas

Abstract:

We study the structure of the invariant manifolds of complex unstable periodic orbits of a family of periodic orbits, in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type, after a transition of this family from stability to complex instability (Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation). We consider the case of a supercritical Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation. The invariant manifolds of complex unstable periodic orbits have two kinds of structures. The first kind is represented by a disk confined structure on the 4D space of section. The second kind is represented by a complicated central tube structure that is associated with an extended network of tube structures, strips and flat structures of sheet type on the 4D space of section.

Keywords: dynamical systems, galactic dynamics, chaos, phase space

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384 A Combinatorial Representation for the Invariant Measure of Diffusion Processes on Metric Graphs

Authors: Michele Aleandri, Matteo Colangeli, Davide Gabrielli

Abstract:

We study a generalization to a continuous setting of the classical Markov chain tree theorem. In particular, we consider an irreducible diffusion process on a metric graph. The unique invariant measure has an atomic component on the vertices and an absolutely continuous part on the edges. We show that the corresponding density at x can be represented by a normalized superposition of the weights associated to metric arborescences oriented toward the point x. A metric arborescence is a metric tree oriented towards its root. The weight of each oriented metric arborescence is obtained by the product of the exponential of integrals of the form ∫a/b², where b is the drift and σ² is the diffusion coefficient, along the oriented edges, for a weight for each node determined by the local orientation of the arborescence around the node and for the inverse of the diffusion coefficient at x. The metric arborescences are obtained by cutting the original metric graph along some edges.

Keywords: diffusion processes, metric graphs, invariant measure, reversibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
383 Approximation Property Pass to Free Product

Authors: Kankeyanathan Kannan

Abstract:

On approximation properties of group C* algebras is everywhere; it is powerful, important, backbone of countless breakthroughs. For a discrete group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M₀A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. An approximate identity on G is a sequence (Φn) of finitely supported functions such that (Φn) uniformly converge to constant function 1 In this paper we prove that approximation property pass to free product.

Keywords: approximation property, weakly amenable, strong invariant approximation property, invariant approximation property

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382 Speeding-up Gray-Scale FIC by Moments

Authors: Eman A. Al-Hilo, Hawraa H. Al-Waelly

Abstract:

In this work, fractal compression (FIC) technique is introduced based on using moment features to block indexing the zero-mean range-domain blocks. The moment features have been used to speed up the IFS-matching stage. Its moments ratio descriptor is used to filter the domain blocks and keep only the blocks that are suitable to be IFS matched with tested range block. The results of tests conducted on Lena picture and Cat picture (256 pixels, resolution 24 bits/pixel) image showed a minimum encoding time (0.89 sec for Lena image and 0.78 of Cat image) with appropriate PSNR (30.01dB for Lena image and 29.8 of Cat image). The reduction in ET is about 12% for Lena and 67% for Cat image.

Keywords: fractal gray level image, fractal compression technique, iterated function system, moments feature, zero-mean range-domain block

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381 An Accurate Computation of 2D Zernike Moments via Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Mohammed S. Al-Rawi, J. Bastos, J. Rodriguez

Abstract:

Object detection and object recognition are essential components of every computer vision system. Despite the high computational complexity and other problems related to numerical stability and accuracy, Zernike moments of 2D images (ZMs) have shown resilience when used in object recognition and have been used in various image analysis applications. In this work, we propose a novel method for computing ZMs via Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Notably, this is the first algorithm that can generate ZMs up to extremely high orders accurately, e.g., it can be used to generate ZMs for orders up to 1000 or even higher. Furthermore, the proposed method is also simpler and faster than the other methods due to the availability of FFT software and/or hardware. The accuracies and numerical stability of ZMs computed via FFT have been confirmed using the orthogonality property. We also introduce normalizing ZMs with Neumann factor when the image is embedded in a larger grid, and color image reconstruction based on RGB normalization of the reconstructed images. Astonishingly, higher-order image reconstruction experiments show that the proposed methods are superior, both quantitatively and subjectively, compared to the q-recursive method.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, fourier transform, fast algorithms, image recognition, pseudo Zernike moments, Zernike moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
380 Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking

Authors: Salam M. Elhafez, Ahmed A. Ashour, Naglaa M. Elhafez, Ghada M. Elhafez, Azza M. Abdelmohsen

Abstract:

Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.

Keywords: gait analysis, ground reaction force, moment contribution, normal walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 148