Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 134

Search results for: Yusuf Uzun

134 Suitability of Indonesia's Tax Administration with Abu Yusuf Thought

Authors: Dina Safrina

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the suitability of tax administration in Indonesia based on Islamic Shari'a by looking at Abu Yusuf's idea of taxation. This research is a qualitative research and using data collection method by library research, that is by studying, deepening and citing theories or concepts from a number of literature. The purpose of this paper is to find out whether taxation in Indonesia is consistent with the thinking of Islamic economists, namely Abu Yusuf's idea which became known by economists as the canons of taxation. The ability to pay, lax time giving for taxpayers and the centralization of decision-making in the tax administration are some of the principles it emphasizes. In taxation he recommends the use of the Muqassamah (Proportional Tax) system rather than the Mixed (Fixed Tax) system. In this case, the determination of tax rates in Indonesia there are using fixed tax system, proportional tax, progressive tax and regressive tax. Abu Yusuf opposed the existence of Qabalah institution (the guarantor of tax payments to the state) at the time and suggested a tax administration centered and paid directly to the state. This is in accordance with those already applied in Indonesia where tax collection is done centrally. The tax system in Indonesia using self assessment system, which is the authority and responsibility given by the government to the taxpayer to calculate, pay and report the tax itself becomes the gap for taxpayers to commit fraud. Prerequisites that must be met for the success of this system is with the tax consciousness, tax honesty, tax mindedness, and tax discipline.

Keywords: Abu Yusuf, Indonesia, tax, tax administration

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
133 Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Authors: Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu, Mehmet Celik, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Ladine Celik, Yusuf Uzun

Abstract:

A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked and no signs of viral, microbial or ecto-parasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and warmed fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextrose solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextrose solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living creature has right and deserves a chance to live.

Keywords: wild life, barn owl, Tyto alba, rescue, life support, feeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
132 Job in Modern Arabic Poetry: A Semantic and Comparative Approach to Two Poems Referring to the Poet Al-Sayyab

Authors: Jeries Khoury

Abstract:

The use of legendary, folkloric and religious symbols is one of the most important phenomena in modern Arabic poetry. Interestingly enough, most of the modern Arabic poetry’s pioneers were so fascinated by the biblical symbols and they managed to use many modern techniques to make these symbols adequate for their personal life from one side and fit to their Islamic beliefs from the other. One of the most famous poets to do so was al-Sayya:b. The way he employed one of these symbols ‘job’, the new features he adds to this character and the link between this character and his personal life will be discussed in this study. Besides, the study will examine the influence of al-Sayya:b on another modern poet Saadi Yusuf, who, following al-Sayya:b, used the character of Job in a special way, by mixing its features with al-Sayya:b’s personal features and in this way creating a new mixed character. A semantic, cultural and comparative analysis of the poems written by al-Sayya:b himself and the other poets who evoked the mixed image of al-Sayya:b-Job, can reveal the changes Arab poets made to the original biblical figure of Job to bring it closer to Islamic culture. The paper will make an intensive use of intertextuality idioms in order to shed light on the network of relations between three kinds of texts (indeed three palimpsests’: 1- biblical- the primary text; 2- poetic- al-Syya:b’s secondary version; 3- re-poetic- Sa’di Yusuf’s tertiary version). The bottom line in this paper is that that al-Sayya:b was directly influenced by the dramatic biblical story of Job more than the brief Quranic version of the story. In fact, the ‘new’ character of Job designed by al-Sayya:b himself differs from the original one in many aspects that we can safely say it is the Sayyabian-Job that cannot be found in the poems of any other poets, unless they are evoking the own tragedy of al-Sayya:b himself, like what Saadi Yusuf did.

Keywords: Arabic poetry, intertextuality, job, meter, modernism, symbolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
131 Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Microhardness of AA7039 Rods Joined by Friction Welding

Authors: H. Karakoc, A. Uzun, G. Kırmızı, H. Çinici, R. Çitak

Abstract:

The main objective of this investigation was to apply friction welding for joining of AA7039 rods produced by powder metallurgy. Friction welding joints were carried out using a rotational friction welding machine. Friction welds were obtained under different rotational speeds between (2700 and 2900 rpm). The friction pressure of 10 MPa and friction time of 30 s was kept constant. The cross sections of joints were observed by optical microscopy. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Vickers micro hardness measurement of the interface was evaluated using a micro hardness testing machine. Finally the results obtained were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, powder metallurgy, friction welding, microstructure

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130 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

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129 Relational and Personal Variables Predicting Marital Satisfaction

Authors: Sezen Gulec, Bilge Uzun

Abstract:

Almost all of the world population marries at least once in their lifetime. Nevertheless, in reality, only half of all marriages last a lifetime. The most important factor in marriage to manage is the satisfaction that they obtain. It is reality that marital satisfaction does not only related to maintain the relationship but also related to the social and work relationships. In this respect, the purpose of the present research is to find the personal and relational factors predicted marital satisfaction. The sample including 378 (178 male and 200 females) married individuals were administered to marital life scale, multidimensional perfectionism scale, trait forgivingness scale, adjective based personality test and relationship happiness questionnaire. The findings revealed marital happiness, forgiveness and extravertedness and emotional inconsistency factors were found to be significant predictors of marital satisfaction.

Keywords: marital satisfaction, happiness, perfectionism, forgiveness, five factor personality

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128 Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions Related to the Concept of Laboratory: A Metaphorical Analysis

Authors: Salih Uzun

Abstract:

The laboratory activities are seen an indispensable part of science, teaching, and learning. In this study, the aim was to identify pre-service science teachers’ perceptions related to the concept of laboratory through metaphors. It is expressed that metaphors can be used as a powerful research tool in order to understand personal perceptions. Therefore, metaphors were used with the aim of revealing a picture regarding how pre-service science teachers perceive laboratory. Within the scope of this aim, phenomenographic research design was adopted for this study and an answer was sought to the question; ‘What are pre-service science teachers’ perceptions about the concept of laboratory?’. The sample of this study was a total of 80 pre-service science teachers at various grade levels in Turkey. Participants were asked to complete the sentence; ‘Laboratory is like…; because…’. Documents including pre-service science teachers’ answers to the open-ended questions were used as data sources and the data were analysed with content analysis.

Keywords: laboratory, metaphor, phenomenology, pre-service science teachers

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127 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

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In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements, and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined, and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight

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126 Producing TPU/Propolis Nanofibrous Membrane as Wound Dressing

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Wound dressings have strategically and economic importance considering increase of chronic wounds in the world. In this study, TPU nanofibrous membranes containing propolis as wound dressing are produced by two different methods. Firstly, TPU solution and propolis extract were mixed and this solution was electrospun. The other method is that TPU/propolis blend was centrifugally spun. Properties of nanofibrous membranes obtained by these methods were compared. While realizing the experiments, both systems were optimized to produce nanofibers with nearly same average fiber diameter.

Keywords: nanofiber, wound dressing, electrospinning, centrifugal spinning

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125 Socio-Religious Mythology of the Igala of Central Nigeria Area

Authors: Abdullahi Musa Yusuf

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Culture and traditions are an embodiment of every society. In Africa, people are socialized into believing that the world is full of mysteries. Mysteries that can only be explain through the interpretation of some forces which are ordinarily beyond the comprehension of Man. These forces have the power and capability of influencing the lives of the living either benevolently or malevolently. To decipher these mysteries various religious and cultural practices were evolved. This paper is therefore an attempt to explain the traditional religious belief system and the relationship existing between the forces of the living and dead among the Igala people of the Central Nigeria Region.

Keywords: culture, tradition, mythology, Nigeria

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124 Psychoanalytical Foreshadowing: The Application of a Literary Device in Quranic Narratology

Authors: Fateme Montazeri

Abstract:

Literary approaches towards the text of the Quran predate the modern period. Suyuti (d.1505)’s encyclopedia of Quranic sciences, Al-Itqan, provides a notable example. In the modern era, the study of the Quranic rhetorics received particular attention in the second half of the twentieth century by Egyptian scholars. Amin Al-Khouli (d. 1966), who might be considered the first to argue for the necessity of applying a literary-rhetorical lens toward the tafseer, Islamic exegesis, and his students championed the literary analysis as the most effective approach to the comprehension of the holy text. Western scholars continued the literary criticism of the Islamic scripture by applying to the Quran similar methodologies used in biblical studies. In the history of the literary examination of the Quran, the scope of the critical methods applied to the Quranic text has been limited. For, the rhetorical approaches to the Quran, in the premodern as well as the modern period, concerned almost exclusively with the lexical layer of the text, leaving the narratological dimensions insufficiently examined. Recent contributions, by Leyla Ozgur Alhassen, for instance, attempt to fill this lacunae. This paper aims at advancing the studies of the Quranic narratives by investigating the application of a literary device whose role in the Quranic stories remains unstudied, that is, “foreshadowing.” This paper shall focus on Chapter 12, “Surah al-Yusuf,” as its case study. Chapter 12, the single chapter that includes the story of Joseph in one piece, contains several instances in which the events of the story are foreshadowed. As shall be discussed, foreshadowing occurs either through a monolog or dialogue whereby one or more of the characters allude to the future happenings or through the manner in which the setting is described. Through a close reading of the text, it will be demonstrated that the usage of the rhetorical tool of foreshadowing meets a dual purpose: on the one hand, foreshadowing prepares the reader/audience for the upcoming events in the plot, and on the other hand, it highlights the psychological dimensions of the characters, their thoughts, intentions, and disposition. In analyzing the story, this study shall draw on psychoanalytical criticism to explore the layers of meanings embedded in the Quranic narrative that are unfolded through foreshadowing.

Keywords: foreshadowing, quranic narrative, literary criticism, surah yusuf

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123 The Element of Episode and Idea in the Descriptive Poetry of Hutai'A

Authors: Abubakar Ismaila Yusuf

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This research studied element of episode (events) and idea in the descriptive poetry of Hutai’a with the intention to sale the opinion of this type of analysis to others, and also encourage and open door for researchers that thinks only in drama and novel those elements can be implemented. The research uses explanatory method to point out the element of episode and ideology from the said poetry to show that the same element of drama can be seen in poetry. The research finds that element of drama and novel can be seen and implemented analytically in dramatic and some descriptive poetry and its likes. The researcher finally advice colleague to widened scope of research and always think of modernizing it.

Keywords: Hutai'a, poetry, drama, novel

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122 A Smart Contract Project: Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading with Price Forecasting in Microgrid

Authors: Şakir Bingöl, Abdullah Emre Aydemir, Abdullah Saado, Ahmet Akıl, Elif Canbaz, Feyza Nur Bulgurcu, Gizem Uzun, Günsu Bilge Dal, Muhammedcan Pirinççi

Abstract:

Smart contracts, which can be applied in many different areas, from financial applications to the internet of things, come to the fore with their security, low cost, and self-executing features. In this paper, it is focused on peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading and the implementation of the smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain. It is assumed a microgrid consists of consumers and prosumers that can produce solar and wind energy. The proposed architecture is a system where the prosumer makes the purchase or sale request in the smart contract and the maximum price obtained through the distribution system operator (DSO) by forecasting. It is aimed to forecast the hourly maximum unit price of energy by using deep learning instead of a fixed pricing. In this way, it will make the system more reliable as there will be more dynamic and accurate pricing. For this purpose, Istanbul's energy generation, energy consumption and market clearing price data were used. The consistency of the available data and forecasting results is observed and discussed with graphs.

Keywords: energy trading smart contract, deep learning, microgrid, forecasting, Ethereum, peer to peer

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121 Survival Data with Incomplete Missing Categorical Covariates

Authors: Madaki Umar Yusuf, Mohd Rizam B. Abubakar

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The survival censored data with incomplete covariate data is a common occurrence in many studies in which the outcome is survival time. With model when the missing covariates are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining parameter estimates is the EM by the method of weights. The survival outcome for the class of generalized linear model is applied and this method requires the estimation of the parameters of the distribution of the covariates. In this paper, we propose some clinical trials with ve covariates, four of which have some missing values which clearly show that they were fully censored data.

Keywords: EM algorithm, incomplete categorical covariates, ignorable missing data, missing at random (MAR), Weibull Distribution

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120 Root Causes of Child Labour in Hargeisa, Somaliland

Authors: Abdikarim Yusuf

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This study uses data from Somalia to analyse child labour using a descriptive and qualitative method. The study set out to identify root causes of child labour in Hargeisa and its implications for children. The study shows that poverty, droughts, family separation, and loss of properties are primary drivers of child labour in Hargeisa. The study found that children work in very difficult jobs such as car wash, casual work, and shoe shining for boys while girls work as housemaids, selling tea, Khat and sometimes are at risk of exploitation such as sexual abuse, rape and harassment. The majority of the parents responded that they don’t know any policy, act or law that protects children. Men showed greater awareness than the women respondents in recognizing child labour as a child rights violation.

Keywords: abuse, child, violence, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
119 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

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The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

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118 Evaluation of Flood Events in Respect of Disaster Management in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Hasan Uzun

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Flood is the event which damage to the surrounding lands, residential places, infrastructure and vibrant, because of the streams overflow events from its bed for several reasons. Flood is a natural formation which develops due to its region's climatic conditions, technical and topographical characteristics. However, factors causing floods with global warming caused by human activity are events such as uncontrolled urbanization. Floods in Turkey are natural disasters which cause huge economic losses after the earthquake. At the same time, the flood disaster is one of the most observed hydrometeorological disasters, compared to 30%, in Turkey. Every year, there are around 200 flood-flood disasters and the disaster as a result of financial losses of $ 100 million per year are reported to occur in public institutions. The amount allocated for carrying out investment-project activities for reducing and controlling of flood damage control are around US $ 30 million per year. The existence of a linear increase in the number of flood disasters is noteworthy due to various reasons in the last 50 years of observation. In this study, first of all, big events of the flood in Turkey and their reasons were examined. And then, the information about the work to be done in order to prevent flooding by government was given with examples. Meteorological early warning systems, flood risk maps and regulation of urban development studies are described for this purpose. As a result, recommendations regarding in the event of the occurrence of floods disaster management were issues raised.

Keywords: flood, disaster, disaster management, Türkiye

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
117 Synthesis and Use of Bio Polyols in Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

Authors: A. Esra Pişkin, L. Yusuf Yivlik

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Polyurethane consumption in the world increases every year. Polyetherpolyol, which is the main raw material of polyurethane, is produced from petroleum, and bioresources are needed in polyol production due to the damage it causes to the environment and the consumption of too much energy during the production phase. In this present work, bio polyol was synthesized with castor oil and soybean oil, and its use in rigid polyurethane systems was investigated. Transesterification and ring opening methods were applied for polyol synthesis, and the obtained bio polyols were compared with polyols derived petroleum. The goal of the present study was to synthesize biopolyols and to investigate the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of bio polyols.

Keywords: polyurethane, polyol, biopolyol, vegetable oil, foam, rigid polyurethane foam, ring opening, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
116 Strong Convergence of an Iterative Sequence in Real Banach Spaces with Kadec Klee Property

Authors: Umar Yusuf Batsari

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Let E be a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex real Banach space and C be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of E. Let $V= \{S_i : C\to C, ~i=1, 2, 3\cdots N\}$ be a convex set of relatively nonexpansive mappings containing identity. In this paper, an iterative sequence obtained from CQ algorithm was shown to have strongly converge to a point $\hat{x}$ which is a common fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings in V and also solve the system of equilibrium problems in E. The result improve some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: relatively nonexpansive mappings, strong convergence, equilibrium problems, uniformly smooth space, uniformly convex space, convex set, kadec klee property

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115 Citation Analysis on the Articles published in Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (BAJOPAS), from 2008-2020: An International Journal in Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Babalola, Yusuf Muhammad

Abstract:

An analysis was carried out on 19,759 citations appended to the References Section of 881 research articles published in Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. It was found that journals publications were the most cited source of information among pure and applied sciences scientists with 12,090 (61.2%). The study also revealed that researchers in the field of pure and applied sciences used very current and up to date information sources in writing theirs articles with 10,091 (51.1%) citations and an average mean 11.1 per article in the journal.

Keywords: citation analysis, BAJOPAS, journal article, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

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114 Entrepreneurship in Nigeria-Funding and Financing Strategies

Authors: Yusuf Abdullahi

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The contribution of entrepreneurship in the economic development cannot be over-emphasized neither it should be underestimated for any reason as this is already a known fact that it plays an important role as a change agent and as a prime mover of economy. In developed or underdeveloped economy, the essence of entrepreneurship is highly significant as this exist in both private as well as public sectors of any economy. The roles of entrepreneurship are worldly acclaimed but yet as laudable as these roles there can be no significant success by any entrepreneur except with availability of finance. Nonetheless, mere availability of finance also cannot guarantee the success of an enterprise but there must be in place appropriate financial strategies for the funding/investment needs of an enterprise. Thus, little has been said when it comes to strategies needed to access various sources of finance. This paper, therefore, establishes appropriate strategies to obtain funds sources of finance by both small and as well as medium enterprises.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Nigeria, financial strategies, economic development

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
113 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

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Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

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112 Africa’s Political and Economic Transformation and the Role of the Disporas

Authors: Noah Yusuf

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The present paper examined the current level of socio-political and economic development in Africa. Models and experiences from other regions of the world, especially, developing ones with similar historical experience with Africa, were explored. The paper concluded that recommendations emanating from past conferences, seminars and symposia on the continent’s socio-economic and political challenges have been poorly implemented because of lack of strong political will; the donor syndrome; weak resource base; capacity constraints in institutions; and lack of accountability, transparency and poor governance. It is, therefore, recommended that African countries need implement sound policies and reforms on a comprehensive basis, if they are to achieve the desired socio-economic and political transformation; and the African in Diasporas represent critical instruments in attaining the socio-economic and political objectives of the continent.

Keywords: Africa, political transformation, economic transformation, Africans in diasporas

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111 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas

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Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.

Keywords: electrical steels, hot rolling, magnetic properties, roughing mill

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110 Arabic Language in Modern Era: Some Challenges

Authors: Tajudeen Yusuf

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Arabic language and its instruction occupy a prominent status in the contemporary world, especially in academic and research institutions. Arabic, like other international languages, consolidates understanding among people of different nations and societies. It is a promising medium of sharing thoughts and feelings. As a means of communication and interaction, the language has gained its outstanding status since ancient times, especially because of the relationship it maintains with Islam and its heritage. Adding to its importance is the rapid growth and advancement of Science and Technology in the contemporary Era which has eventually made communication between human societies all over the world inevitable. Despite, the Arabic language still experiences many challenges especially in some area such as irrelevant textbooks and other teaching materials, old versions of teaching methods and inadequate teachers who professionally trained. Eventually, these have resulted in difficulties in the teaching and learning of the language. Therefore, urgent and necessary measures to enhance the teaching and learning of Arabic language within and outside Arab countries are therefore needed to be taken.

Keywords: Arabic, language, challenges, modern era

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109 Effect of Storage Time on the Properties of Seeds, Oil and Biodiesel from Reutealis trisperma

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Syaripudin, Laksmitha Dyanie, Robert Manurung

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The time profile of moisture content for different fractions (PT-3, PT-7, PT-14, NPT-21) of trisperma seeds (Reutealis trisperma) was determined at a relative humidity of 67% and 27°C for a four months period. The diffusion coefficient of water in the trisperma seeds was determined using an analytical solution of instationary diffusion equation and used to model the moisture content in the seeds. The total oil content of the seeds and the acid value of the extracted oil from the stored seeds were periodically measured for four months. The acid value of the extracted oil from the stored seeds increased for all conditions (1.1 to 2.8 mg KOH/g for PT-3, 1.9 to 9.9 mg KOH/g for PT-7, 3.4 to 11.6 mg KOH/g for PT-14 and 4.7 to 25.4 mg KOH/g for NPT-21). The acid value of trisperma oil and biodiesel that has been stored for four months (27°C, closed container) was also determined. Upon storage, the acid value of trisperma oil and biodiesel only slightly increased from 1.1 to 1.3 mg KOH/g and 0.4 to 0.43 mg KOH/g, respectively.

Keywords: acid value, biodiesel, moisture content, Reutealis trisperma, storage

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108 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese

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This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. These issue is extremely important in research and development(R&D) process for wind turbine applications.

Keywords: direct drive, gearless wind turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), small-scale wind turbine, thermal management

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107 Age-Based Interface Design for Children’s CAPT Systems

Authors: Saratu Yusuf Ilu, Mumtaz B. Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Mehdi Malekzadeh

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Children today use computer based application in various activities especially for learning and education. Many of these tools and application such as the Computer Aided Pronunciation Training (CAPT) system enable children to explore and experience them with little supervision from the adults. In order for these tools and application to have maximum effect on the children’s learning and education, it must be attractive to the children to use them. This could be achieved with the proper user interface (UI) design. As children grow, so do their ability, taste and preferences. They interact differently with these applications as they grow older. This study reviews several articles on how age factor influences the UI design. The review focuses on age related abilities such as cognitive, literacy, concentration and feedback requirement. We have also evaluated few of existing CAPT systems and determine the influence of age-based factors on the interface design.

Keywords: children, age-based interaction, learning application, age-based capability

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106 RNA Interference Technology as a Veritable Tool for Crop Improvement and Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance

Authors: M. Yusuf

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The recent discovery of the phenomenon of RNA interference has led to its application in various aspects of plant improvement. Crops can be modified by engineering novel RNA interference pathways that create small RNA molecules to alter gene expression in crops or plant pests. RNA interference can generate new crop quality traits or provide protection against insects, nematodes and pathogens without introducing new proteins into food and feed products. This is an advantage in contrast with conventional procedures of gene transfer. RNA interference has been used to develop crop varieties resistant to diseases, pathogens and insects. Male sterility has been engineered in plants using RNA interference. Better quality crops have been developed through the application of RNA interference etc. The objective of this paper is to highlight the application of RNA interference in crop improvement and to project its potential future use to solve problems of agricultural production in relation to plant breeding.

Keywords: RNA interference, application, crop Improvement, agricultural production

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105 Microstructural Investigations of Metal Oxides Encapsulated Thermochromic Materials

Authors: Yusuf Emirov, Abdullatif Hakami, Prasanta K Biswas, Elias K Stefanakos, Sesha S Srinivasan

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This study is aimed to develop microencapsulated thermochromic materials and the analysis of core-shell formation using high resolution electron microscopy. The candidate metal oxides (e.g., titanium oxide and silicon oxide) used for the microencapsulation of thermochromic materials are based on the microemulsion route that involves the micelle formation using different surfactants. The effectiveness of the core-shell microstructure formationrevealed the influence of surfactants and the metal oxide precursor concentrations. Additionally, a detailed thermal and color chromic behavior of these core-shell microcapsules are evaluated with the pristine thermochromic dye particles.

Keywords: core-shell thermochromic materials, core-shell microstructure formation, thermal and color chromic behavior of core-shell microcapsules, development micro-capsulated thermochromic materials

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