Publications | World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46
46 Door Fan Test in Data Processing Center at Portopalo Test Site

Authors: F. Noto, M. Castro, R. Garraffo, An. Mirabella, A. Rizzo, G. Cuttone

Abstract:

The door fan test is a verification procedure on the tightness of a room, necessary following the installation of saturation extinguishing systems and made mandatory according to the UNI 15004-1: 2019 standard whenever a gas extinguishing system is designed and installed. The door fan test was carried out at the Portopalo di Capo Passero headquarters of the Southern National Laboratories and highlighted how the Data Processing Center (CED) is perfectly up to standard, passing the door fan test in an excellent way. The Southern National Laboratories constitute a solid research reality, well established in the international scientific panorama. The CED in the Portopalo site has been expanded, so the extinguishing system has been expanded according to a detailed design. After checking the correctness of the design to verify the absence of air leaks, we carried out the door fan test. The activities of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) are mainly aimed at basic research in the field of Nuclear Physics, Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics. The Portopalo site will host some of the largest submarine wired scientific research infrastructures built in Europe and in the world, such as KM3NeT and EMSO ERIC; in particular, the site research laboratory in Portopalo will host the power supply and data acquisition systems of the underwater infrastructures, and a technological backbone will be created, unique in the Mediterranean, capable of allowing the connection, at abyssal depths, of dozens of real-time surveying and research structures of the marine environment deep.

Keywords: KM3Net, fire protection, door fan test, CED.

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45 Comparison of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of 80 Different Pollen Species

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jimmy Nagau, Jack Molinié

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest in many disciplines due to its multiple applications: chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which are becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. In this context, the automation of this task is urgent. In this work, we compare classical feature extraction methods (Shape, GLCM, LBP, and others) and Deep Learning (CNN and Transfer Learning) to perform a recognition task over 80 regional pollen species. It has been found that the use of Transfer Learning seems to be more precise than the other approaches.

Keywords: Image segmentation, stuck particles separation, Sobel operator, thresholding.

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44 Influence of Transverse Steel and Casting Direction on Shear Response and Ductility of Reinforced Ultra-High Performance Concrete Beams

Authors: Timothy E. Frank, Peter J. Amaddio, Elizabeth D. Decko, Alexis M. Tri, Darcy A. Farrell, Cole M. Landes

Abstract:

Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is a class of cementitious composites with a relatively large percentage of cement generating high compressive strength. Additionally, UHPC contains disbursed fibers, which control crack width, carry the tensile load across narrow cracks, and limit spalling. These characteristics lend themselves to a wide range of structural applications when UHPC members are reinforced with longitudinal steel. Efficient use of fibers and longitudinal steel is required to keep lifecycle cost competitive in reinforced UHPC members; this requires full utilization of both the compressive and tensile qualities of the reinforced cementitious composite. The objective of this study is to investigate the shear response of steel-reinforced UHPC beams to guide design decisions that keep initial costs reasonable, limit serviceability crack widths, and ensure a ductile structural response and failure path. Five small-scale, reinforced UHPC beams were experimentally tested. Longitudinal steel, transverse steel, and casting direction were varied. Results indicate that an increase in transverse steel in short-spanned reinforced UHPC beams provided additional shear capacity and increased the peak load achieved. Beams with very large longitudinal steel reinforcement ratios did not achieve yield and fully utilized the tension properties of the longitudinal steel. Casting the UHPC beams from the end or from the middle affected load-carrying capacity and ductility, but image analysis determined that the fiber orientation was not significantly different. It is believed that the presence of transverse and longitudinal steel reinforcement minimized the effect of different UHPC casting directions. Results support recent recommendations in the literature suggesting that a 1% fiber volume fraction is sufficient within UHPC to prevent spalling and provide compressive fracture toughness under extreme loading conditions.

Keywords: Fiber orientation, reinforced ultra-high performance concrete beams, shear, transverse steel.

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43 Techno-Economic Study on the Potential of Dimethyl Ether as a Substitute for LPG

Authors: W. A. Pamungkas, R. B. Setyawati, A. F. Rifai, C. P. Setiawan, A. W. Budiman, Inayati, J. Waluyo, S. H. Pranolo

Abstract:

The increase in LPG consumption in Indonesia is not balanced with the amount of supply. The high demand for LPG due to the success of the government's kerosene-to-LPG conversion program and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 led to an increase in LPG consumption in the household sector and caused Indonesia's trade balance to experience a deficit. The high consumption of LPG encourages the need for alternative fuels which aims to substitute LPG. Dimethyl Ether (DME) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3OCH3, has a high cetane number and has characteristics similar to LPG. DME can be produced from various sources such as coal, biomass and natural gas. Based on the economic analysis conducted at 10% Internal Rate of Return (IRR), coal has the largest Net Present Value (NPV) of Rp. 20,034,837,497,241 with a payback period of 3.86 years, then biomass with an NPV of Rp. 10,401,526,072,850 and payback period of 5.16. The latter is natural gas with an NPV of IDR 7,401,272,559,191 and a payback period of 6.17 years. Of the three sources of raw materials used, if the sensitivity is calculated using the selling price of DME equal to the selling price of LPG, it will get an NPV value that is greater than the NPV value when using the current DME price. The advantages of coal as a raw material for DME are profitableness, low price and abundant resources, but it has high greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: LPG, DME, coal, biomass, natural gas.

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42 Comparison of Experimental Relationships to Determine Flow Discharge in Meandering Compound Channels Using M5 Decision Tree Model

Authors: Mehdi Kheradmand, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam, Abdolreza Zahiri, Khalil Ghorbani

Abstract:

This research compares results of major methods of determining the flow discharge using experimental relationships with results from the M5 decision tree model in meandering compound sections in several laboratory channels. It was found that the M5 decision tree model enjoyed greater accuracy of statistical parameters compared to methods to the said methods. This suggested that the M5 decision tree model has highly improved the calculated accuracy of the flow discharge in meandering compound channels.

Keywords: Stage-discharge relationship, M5 decision tree model, compound section, meandering compound channel.

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41 Evaluating Hourly Sulphur Dioxide and Ground Ozone Simulated with the Air Quality Model in Lima, Peru

Authors: Odón R. Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Elizabeth Ayma-Choque, Alan Llacza

Abstract:

Sulphur dioxide (SO₂) and surface-ozone (O₃) concentrations are associated with diseases. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the air-quality Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with a horizontal resolution of 5 km x 5 km. For this purpose, the measurements of the hourly SO₂ and O₃ concentrations available in three air quality monitoring stations in Lima, Peru were used for the purpose of validating the simulations of the SO₂ and O₃ concentrations obtained with the WRF-Chem model in February 2018. For the quantitative evaluation of the simulations of these gases, statistical techniques were implemented, such as the average of the simulations; the average of the measurements; the Mean Bias (MeB); the Mean Error (MeE); and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results of these statistical metrics indicated that the simulated SO₂ and O₃ values over-predicted the SO₂ and O₃ measurements. For the SO₂ concentration, the MeB values varied from 0.58 to 26.35 µg/m³; the MeE values varied from 8.75 to 26.5 µg/m³; the RMSE values varied from 13.3 to 31.79 µg/m³; while for O₃ concentrations the statistical values of the MeB varied from 37.52 to 56.29 µg/m³; the MeE values varied from 37.54 to 56.70 µg/m³; the RMSE values varied from 43.05 to 69.56 µg/m³.

Keywords: Ground-ozone, Lima, Sulphur dioxide, WRF-Chem.

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40 Effects of Knitting Variables for Pressure Controlling of Tubular Compression Fabrics

Authors: Yu Shi, Rong Liu, Jingyun Lv

Abstract:

Compression textiles with ergonomic-fit and controllable pressure performance have demonstrated positive effect on prevention and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Well-designed compression textile products contribute to improving user compliance in their daily application. This study explored the effects of multiple knitting variables (yarn-machinery settings) on the physical-mechanical properties and the produced pressure magnitudes of tubular compression fabrics (TCFs) through experimental testing and multiple regression modeling. The results indicated that fabric physical (stitch densities and circumference) and mechanical (tensile) properties were affected by the linear density of inlay yarns, which, to some extent, influenced pressure magnitudes of the TCFs. Knitting variables (e.g., feeding velocity of inlay yarns and loop size settings) can alter circumferences and tensile properties of tubular fabrics, respectively, and significantly varied pressure values of the TCFs. This study enhanced the understanding of the effects of knitting factors on pressure controlling of TCFs, thus facilitating dimension and pressure design of compression textiles in future development.

Keywords: Laid-in knitted fabric, yarn-machinery settings, pressure magnitudes, quantitative analysis, compression textiles.

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39 Defining a Pathway to Zero Energy Building: A Case Study on Retrofitting an Old Office Building into a Net Zero Energy Building for Hot-Humid Climate

Authors: Kwame B. O. Amoah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on retrofitting an old existing office building to a net-zero energy building (NZEB). An existing small office building in Melbourne, Florida, was chosen as a case study to integrate state-of-the-art design strategies and energy-efficient building systems to improve building performance and reduce energy consumption. The study aimed to explore possible ways to maximize energy savings and renewable energy generation sources to cover the building's remaining energy needs necessary to achieve net-zero energy goals. A series of retrofit options were reviewed and adopted with some significant additional decision considerations. Detailed processes and considerations leading to zero energy are well documented in this study, with lessons learned adequately outlined. Based on building energy simulations, multiple design considerations were investigated, such as emerging state-of-the-art technologies, material selection, improvements to the building envelope, optimization of the HVAC, lighting systems, and occupancy loads analysis, as well as the application of renewable energy sources. The comparative analysis of simulation results was used to determine how specific techniques led to energy saving and cost reductions. The research results indicate that this small office building can meet net-zero energy use after appropriate design manipulations and renewable energy sources.

Keywords: Energy consumption, building energy analysis, energy retrofits, energy-efficiency.

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38 Nurturing National Progress: The Crucial Role of Philosophy and Education in the Post-Pandemic Era

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat

Abstract:

Philosophy offers a systematic approach to reflective, logical, and innovative thinking, which involves a thorough investigation of various concepts. On the other hand, national development encompasses a country’s ability to embrace its unique identity and take charge of its future. Education, meanwhile, provides individuals with enlightening experiences and specialized training in different fields. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how philosophy and education can serve as catalysts for national progress. Given the Philippines' diverse socio-cultural, religious, ethnic, and political backgrounds, this study seeks to answer two crucial questions: Can the country achieve development despite its differences? If that is the case, what are the critical elements propelling this advancement? By means of historical interpretation and philosophical analysis, this article posits that philosophy and education are essential components in driving the country's progress in the era following the pandemic.

Keywords: Philosophy, national progress, educational discourse, pandemic.

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37 Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Optimizing Self-Esteem and Well-Being: The Key Role of Contingent Self-Esteem in Predicting Well-Being Compared to Explicit Self-Esteem

Authors: Sergio Luna, Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal

Abstract:

This research examines the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in optimizing psychological well-being, with a particular focus on self-esteem, due to the rapid growth and consolidation of social network use and the increased frequency and intensity of upward comparisons of the self. The study aims to assess the potential of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve self-esteem and, in particular, to contribute to its greater stability by reducing levels of contingent self-esteem. Results show that an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program was effective in increasing participants' (n = 206) trait mindfulness, explicit self-esteem, and well-being, while decreasing contingent self-esteem. Furthermore, the study found that improvements in both explicit and contingent self-esteem were significantly correlated with increases in psychological well-being, but that contingent self-esteem had a stronger effect on well-being than explicit self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering additional dimensions of self-esteem beyond levels and suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may be a valuable tool for promoting a healthier form of self-esteem that contributes to personal well-being.

Keywords: Mindfulness-based stress reduction, contingent self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, well-being.

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36 Review of Affected Parameters on Flexural Behavior of Hollow Concrete Beams Reinforced by Steel/GFRP Rebars

Authors: Shahrad Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

Nowadays, the main efforts of the researchers aim to constantly evolve new, optimized, and efficient construction materials and methods related to reinforced concrete beams. Due to the fewer applied materials and higher structural efficiency than solid concrete beams with the same concrete area, hollow reinforced concrete beams (HRCBs) internally reinforced with steel rebars have been employed extensively for bridge structural members and high-rise buildings. Many experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the behavior of hollow beams subjected to bending loading and found that the structural performance of HRCBs is critically affected by many design parameters. While the proper design of the HRCBs demonstrated comparable behavior to solid sections, inappropriate design leads beams to be extremely prone to brittle failure. Another potential issue that needs further investigation is replacing steel bars with suitable materials due to their susceptibility to corrosion. Hence, to develop a reliable construction system, the application of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars as a non-corroding material has been utilized. Furthermore, this study aims to critically review the different design parameters that affect the flexural performance of the HRCBs and recognize the gaps of knowledge in the better design and more effective use of this construction system.

Keywords: Design parameters, experimental investigations, hollow reinforced concrete beams, steel, GFRP, flexural strength.

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35 Overview of Development of a Digital Platform for Building Critical Infrastructure Protection Systems in Smart Industries

Authors: Bruno Vilić Belina, Ivan Župan

Abstract:

Smart industry concepts and digital transformation are very popular in many industries. They develop their own digital platforms, which have an important role in innovations and transactions. The main idea of smart industry digital platforms is central data collection, industrial data integration and data usage for smart applications and services. This paper presents the development of a digital platform for building critical infrastructure protection systems in smart industries. Different service contraction modalities in Service Level Agreements (SLAs), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) relations, trends and changes in business architectures (especially process business architecture) for the purpose of developing infrastructural production and distribution networks, information infrastructure meta-models and generic processes by critical infrastructure owner demanded by critical infrastructure law, satisfying cybersecurity requirements and taking into account hybrid threats are researched.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, critical infrastructure, smart industries, digital platform.

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34 PID Control Design Based on Genetic Algorithm with Integrator Anti-Windup for Automatic Voltage Regulator and Speed Governor of Brushless Synchronous Generator

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, M. A. Badr, Kh. H. Gharib, H. K. Temraz

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology based on genetic algorithm (GA) to tune the parameters of proportional-integral-differential (PID) controllers utilized in the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and speed governor of a brushless synchronous generator driven by three-stage steam turbine. The parameter tuning is represented as a nonlinear optimization problem solved by GA to minimize the integral of absolute error (IAE). The problem of integral windup due to physical system limitations is solved using simple anti-windup scheme. The obtained controllers are compared to those designed using classical Ziegler-Nichols technique and constrained optimization. Results show distinct superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: Brushless synchronous generator, Genetic Algorithm, GA, Proportional-Integral-Differential control, PID control, automatic voltage regulator, AVR.

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33 The Future of Hospitals: A Systematic Review in the Field of Architectural Design with a Disruptive Research and Development Approach

Authors: María Araya Léon, Ainoa Abella, Aura Murillo, Ricardo Guasch, Laura Clèries

Abstract:

This article aims to examine scientific theory framed within the term hospitals of the future from a multidisciplinary and cross-sectional perspective. To understand the connection that the various cross-sectional areas, we studied have with architectural spaces and to determine the future outlook of the works examined and how they can be classified into the categories of need/solution, evolution/revolution, collective/individual, and preventive/corrective. The changes currently taking place within the context of healthcare demonstrate how important these projects are and the need for companies to face future changes. A systematic review has been carried out focused on what will the hospitals of the future be like in relation to the elements that form part of their use, design, and architectural space experience, using the WOS database from 2016 to 2019. The large number of works about sensoring & big data and the scarce amount related to the area of materials is worth highlighting. Furthermore, no growth concerning future issues is envisaged over time. Regarding classifications, the articles we reviewed address evolutionary and collective solutions more, and in terms of preventive and corrective solutions, they were found at a similar level. Although our research focused on the future of hospitals, there is little evidence representing this approach. We also detected that, given the relevance of the research on how the built environment influences human health and well-being, these studies should be promoted within the context of healthcare. This article allows to find evidence on the future perspective from within the domain of hospital architecture, in order to create bridges between the productive sector of architecture and scientific theory. This will make it possible to detect R&D opportunities in each analyzed cross-section.

Keywords: Hospitals, trends, architectural space, disruptive approach.

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32 Methodology for Bioenergy Potential and Assessment for Energy Deployment in Rural Vhembe District Areas

Authors: Clement M. Matasane, Mohamed T. Kahn

Abstract:

Biomass resources such as animal waste, agricultural and acro-industrial residues, forestry and woodland waste, and industrial and municipal solid wastes provide alternative means to utilize its untapped potential for biomass/biofuel renewable energy systems. In addition, crop residues (i.e., grain, starch, and energy crops) are commonly available in the district and play an essential role in community farming activities. The remote sensing technology (mappings) and geographic information systems tool will be used to determine the biomass potential in the Vhembe District Municipality. The detailed assessment, estimation, and modeling in quantifying their distribution, abundance, and quality yield an effective and efficient use of their potential. This paper aims to examine the potential and prospects of deploying bioenergy systems in small or micro-systems in the district for community use and applications. This deployment of the biofuels/biomass systems will help communities for sustainable energy supply from their traditional energy use into innovative and suitable methods that improve their livelihood. The study demonstrates the potential applications of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in spatial mapping analysis, evaluation, modeling, and decision support for easy access to renewable energy systems.

Keywords: Agricultural crops, waste materials, biomass potentials, bioenergy potentials, GIS mappings, environmental data, renewable energy deployment, sustainable energy supply.

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31 The Suffering God and Its Relevance to the Understanding of Human Suffering in Jürgen Moltmann’s Theology

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat

Abstract:

This paper explores Jürgen Moltmann’s The Crucified God, focusing on his concept of a suffering God and its relevance to the understanding of suffering in the world. Moltmann argues that the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, understood as a Trinitarian event, provides a response to the problem of suffering in the world. Through a dialectical theological method, Moltmann suggests that God’s omnipotence is revealed in the impotency of the crucified one, and that the Son's abandonment by the Father confirms their unity to act in response to the world's suffering. Human suffering has been assumed and transformed by God, and through the event of the cross, all those who suffer can participate in the fullness of life in the Trinity. Moltmann’s theology suggests that God identifies with those who suffer, and the resurrection provides the possibility of justification for those who follow Christ's invitation to obedience.

Keywords: Suffering, Crucifixion, Trinitarian, Moltmann’s Theology.

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30 Mathematical Analysis of Stock Prices Prediction in a Financial Market Using Geometric Brownian Motion Model

Authors: Edikan E. Akpanibah, Ogunmodimu Dupe Catherine

Abstract:

The relevance of geometric Brownian motion (GBM) in modelling the behaviour of stock market prices (SMP) cannot be over emphasized taking into consideration the volatility of the SMP. Consequently, there is need to investigate how GBM models are being estimated and used in financial market to predict SMP. To achieve this, the GBM estimation and its application to the SMP of some selected companies are studied. The normal and log-normal distributions were used to determine the expected value, variance and co-variance. Furthermore, the GBM model was used to predict the SMP of some selected companies over a period of time and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were calculated and used to determine the accuracy of the GBM model in predicting the SMP of the four companies under consideration. It was observed that for all the four companies, their MAPE values were within the region of acceptance. Also, the MAPE values of our data were compared to an existing literature to test the accuracy of our prediction with respect to time of investment. Finally, some numerical simulations of the graphs of the SMP, expectations and variance of the four companies over a period of time were presented using MATLAB programming software.

Keywords: Stock Market, Geometric Brownian Motion, normal and log-normal distribution, mean absolute percentage error.

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29 Start Talking in an e-Learning Environment: Building and Sustaining Communities of Practice

Authors: Melissa C. LaDuke

Abstract:

The purpose of this targeted analysis was to identify the use of online communities of practice (CoP) within e-learning environments as a method to build social interaction and student-centered educational experiences. A literature review was conducted to survey and collect scholarly thoughts concerning CoPs from a variety of sources. Data collected included best practices, ties to educational theories, and examples of online CoPs. Social interaction has been identified as a critical piece of the learning infrastructure, specifically for adult learners. CoPs are an effective way to help students connect to each other and the material of interest. The use of CoPs falls in line with many educational theories, including situated learning theory, social constructivism, connectivism, adult learning theory, and motivation. New literacies such as social media and gamification can help increase social interaction in online environments and provide methods to host CoPs. Steps to build and sustain a CoP were discussed in addition to CoP considerations and best practices.

Keywords: Community of practice, knowledge sharing, social interaction, online course design, new literacies.

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28 Optimum Tuning Capacitors for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles Considering Variation in Coil Distances

Authors: Muhammad Abdullah Arafat, Nahrin Nowrose

Abstract:

Wireless charging of electric vehicles is becoming more and more attractive as large amount of power can now be transferred to a reasonable distance using magnetic resonance coupling method. However, proper tuning of the compensation network is required to achieve maximum power transmission. Due to the variation of coil distance from the nominal value as a result of change in tire condition, change in weight or uneven road condition, the tuning of the compensation network has become challenging. In this paper, a tuning method has been described to determine the optimum values of the compensation network in order to maximize the average output power. The simulation results show that 5.2% increase in average output power is obtained for 10% variation in coupling coefficient using the optimum values without the need of additional space and electro-mechanical components. The proposed method is applicable to both static and dynamic charging of electric vehicles.

Keywords: Coupling coefficient, electric vehicles, magnetic resonance coupling, tuning capacitor, wireless power transfer.

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27 IoT Device Cost Effective Storage Architecture and Real-Time Data Analysis/Data Privacy Framework

Authors: Femi Elegbeleye, Seani Rananga

Abstract:

This paper focused on cost effective storage architecture using fog and cloud data storage gateway, and presented the design of the framework for the data privacy model and data analytics framework on a real-time analysis when using machine learning method. The paper began with the system analysis, system architecture and its component design, as well as the overall system operations. Several results obtained from this study on data privacy models show that when two or more data privacy models are integrated via a fog storage gateway, we often have more secure data. Our main focus in the study is to design a framework for the data privacy model, data storage, and real-time analytics. This paper also shows the major system components and their framework specification. And lastly, the overall research system architecture was shown, including its structure, and its interrelationships.

Keywords: IoT, fog storage, cloud storage, data analysis, data privacy.

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26 Vancomycin and Rifaximin Combination Therapy for Diarrhoea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Observational Study

Authors: P. Murphy, D. Vasic, A. W. Gunaratne, T. Tugonon, M. Ison, C. Pagonis, E. T. Sitchon, A. Le Busque, T. J. Borody

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by an alteration in bowel movements. There are three different types of IBS: diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C) and IBS with mixed bowel habit (IBS-M). Antimicrobials are increasingly being used as treatment for all types of IBS. Due to this increased use and subsequent success, the gut microbiome as a factor in the etiology of IBS is becoming more apparent. Accepted standard treatment has focused on IBS-C and involves either vancomycin or rifaximin. Here, we report on a cohort of 18 patients treated with both vancomycin and rifaximin for IBS-D. These patients’ records were reviewed retrospectively. In this cohort, patients were aged between 24-74 years (mean 44 years) and nine were female. At baseline all patients had diarrhea, four with mucus and one with blood. Other reported symptoms include abdominal pain (n = 11) bloating (n = 9), flatulence (n = 7), fatigue (n = 4) and nausea (n = 3). Patient’s treatments were personalized according to their symptom severity and tolerability and were treated with a combination of rifaximin (500-3000 mg/d) and vancomycin (500 mg-1500 mg/d) for an ongoing period. Follow-ups were conducted between 2-32 weeks. Of all patients, 89% reported improvement of at least 1 symptom, one reported no change and one patient’s symptoms got worse. The success of this combination treatment could be due to the different mechanisms of action undertaken by each medication. Vancomycin works by inhibiting the cell wall of the bacteria and rifaximin by inhibiting protein synthesis. This success in treatment validates the idea that IBS-D may be driven by a bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal microbiome. As IBS-D presents similarly to Clostridium difficile and symptom improvement can occur with the same treatment as Clostridium difficile of rifaximin and vancomycin, there is reason to suggest that the infectious agent could be an unidentified strain of Clostridium. Although these results offer some validity to the theory, more research is required.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile infection, diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome, microbiome, vancomycin/rifaximin combination.

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25 Analyzing Factors Impacting COVID-19 Vaccination Rates

Authors: Dongseok Cho, Mitchell Driedger, Sera Han, Noman Khan, Mohammed Elmorsy, Mohamad El-Hajj

Abstract:

Since the approval of the COVID-19 vaccine in late 2020, vaccination rates have varied around the globe. Access to a vaccine supply, mandated vaccination policy, and vaccine hesitancy contribute to these rates. This study used COVID-19 vaccination data from Our World in Data and the Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19 to create two COVID-19 vaccination indices. The first index is the Vaccine Utilization Index (VUI), which measures how effectively each country has utilized its vaccine supply to doubly vaccinate its population. The second index is the Vaccination Acceleration Index (VAI), which evaluates how efficiently each country vaccinated their populations within their first 150 days. Pearson correlations were created between these indices and country indicators obtained from the World Bank. Results of these correlations identify countries with stronger Health indicators such as lower mortality rates, lower age-dependency ratios, and higher rates of immunization to other diseases display higher VUI and VAI scores than countries with lesser values. VAI scores are also positively correlated to Governance and Economic indicators, such as regulatory quality, control of corruption, and GDP per capita. As represented by the VUI, proper utilization of the COVID-19 vaccine supply by country is observed in countries that display excellence in health practices. A country’s motivation to accelerate its vaccination rates within the first 150 days of vaccinating, as represented by the VAI, was largely a product of the governing body’s effectiveness and economic status, as well as overall excellence in health practises.

Keywords: Data mining, Pearson Correlation, COVID-19, vaccination rates, hesitancy.

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24 Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using Charcoal and Graphene Saturable Absorbers to Generate 20-GHz and 50-GHz Pulse Trains, Respectively

Authors: Ashiq Rahman, Sunil Thapa, Shunyao Fan, Niloy K. Dutta

Abstract:

A 20-GHz and a 50-GHz pulse train are generated using a fiber ring laser setup that incorporates rational harmonic mode-locking (RHML). Two separate experiments were carried out using charcoal nanoparticles and graphene nanoparticles acting as saturable absorbers to reduce the pulse width generated from RHML. Autocorrelator trace shows that the pulse width is reduced from 5.6 ps to 3.2 ps using charcoal at 20 GHz, and to 2.7 ps using graphene at 50-GHz repetition rates, which agrees with the simulation findings. Numerical simulations have been carried out to study the effect of varying the linear and nonlinear absorbance parameters of both absorbers on output pulse widths. Experiments closely agree with the simulations.

Keywords: Fiber optics, fiber lasers, mode locking, saturable absorbers.

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23 Information Construction of Higher Education in Teaching Practice

Authors: Yang Meng, James L. Patnao

Abstract:

With the rapid development of information technology and the impact of the epidemic environment, the traditional teaching model can no longer meet the requirements of the development of the times. The development of teaching mechanisms is the inevitable trend of the future development of higher education. We must further promote the informatization of higher education in teaching practice, let modern information technology penetrate and practice in classroom teaching, and provide promising opportunities for the high-quality development of higher education. This article, mainly through the distribution of questionnaires to teachers of colleges and universities, aims to understand the degree of informatization in the teaching of colleges and universities. And on the basis of domestic and foreign scholars' research on higher education informatization, it analyzes the existing problems, and finds the optimal solution based on the needs of education and teaching development. According to the survey results, most college teachers will use information technology in teaching practice, but the information technology teaching tools used by teachers are relatively simple, and most of them use only slides. In addition, backward informatization infrastructure and less informatization training are the main challenges facing the current teaching informatization construction. If colleges and universities can make good use of information technology and multimedia technology and combine it with traditional teaching, it will definitely promote the development of college education and further promote the modernization and informatization of higher education.

Keywords: Higher education, teaching practice, informatization construction, e-education.

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22 A Descriptive Study on Syrian Entrepreneurs in Turkey

Authors: Rudainah Alkhazam, Özlem Yaşar Uğurlu

Abstract:

Immigrant entrepreneurship arises from the start of entrepreneurial activity by immigrants in the country they relocate to. The future prosperity and stability of the refugee-hosting countries depends on the mutual social and economic benefits between the residents and the refugees. Syrian refugees and workers in host countries necessitate efforts to assist their residents and refugees in meeting their daily needs, contributing lawfully to local and possibly regional economies through trade, and instilling hope in their future. This study investigates the effects of Syrian refugee entrepreneurs on host communities' business sectors, focusing on Turkey. Specifically, we examine entrepreneurship in general and its role in the country's economy. Because Turkey is the most popular resettlement destination for Syrian refugees, this study will shed light on the challenges of successful migrant entrepreneurship in Turkey and their role in the business sector. The research relies on a mixed-method approach which helps identify recurring themes, favorable results, and conflicting results across methods, allowing us to draw accurate conclusions. The study will adopt a quantitative method in collecting numerical data from Syrian refugees in Turkey. The self-administered survey would be translated into Arabic to ensure that the respondents understood the questions and possible replies. The research will use survey questionnaires to gather the majority of the data. These surveys would have closed-ended questions with nominal ratio and Likert scales. The data will be analyzed using linear regression and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to ascertain the role of Syrian entrepreneurs in the business sectors of Turkey. The research will use the findings to make future recommendations. Syrian entrepreneurs, among the migrant entrepreneurs, contribute to the labor market, the majority of whom are young people. This research noted the significant participation of Syrian immigrant women in the entrepreneurship sector. The previous experience of Syrians in the field of trade and running their own business plays a vital role in the success of their business in the host countries. The study shows that Syrian entrepreneurs could integrate effectively into the various Turkish business sectors and could rely on themselves, open and manage their projects, and market them in the Turkish market. Syrian entrepreneurs consider that the investment and labor laws, commercial arrangements, and facilities for obtaining financial resources in Turkey need to be more flexible and available to immigrant entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, immigration, Syrian, Turkey, refugees, investors, socio-economic benefits, unemployment.

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21 Empowering Student Success: Innovative Modelling Techniques for Enhancing Self-Efficacy in Education

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat, Marianne Christine Jane B. Capio

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the impact of modelling techniques on the self-efficacy of first year Bachelor of Science Major in Hospitality Management (BSHM) college students at City College of Calapan, Oriental Mindoro. The research utilized a ten-point general self-efficacy scale and collected responses from a sample of 107 students across five BSHM sections. The study found that the majority of students had a moderate level of self-efficacy, with 49.53% of total respondents falling within this category. However, 35.51% of students had high self-efficacy, and 14.95% had low self-efficacy levels. The two-tailed t-test for independent samples indicated a significant difference between the mean post-test scores of the experimental and control groups. Furthermore, Wilcoxon test showed that there were significant differences in the experimental group's self-efficacy before and after treatment, while no such difference was observed in the control group. Thus, the modelling technique proved to be effective in improving the self-efficacy levels of first year BSHM college students. Ultimately, the use of modelling techniques helped to elevate students’ self-efficacy levels into higher categories.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, counselling, modelling techniques, hospitality management.

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20 Resting-State Functional Connectivity Analysis Using an Independent Component Approach

Authors: Eric Jacob Bacon, Chaoyang Jin, Dianning He, Shuaishuai Hu, Lanbo Wang, Han Li, Shouliang Qi

Abstract:

Refractory epilepsy is a complicated type of epilepsy that can be difficult to diagnose. Recent technological advancements have made resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rsfMRI) a vital technique for studying brain activity. However, there is still much to learn about rsfMRI. Investigating rsfMRI connectivity may aid in the detection of abnormal activities. In this paper, we propose studying the functional connectivity of rsfMRI candidates to diagnose epilepsy. 45 rsfMRI candidates, comprising 26 with refractory epilepsy and 19 healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. A data-driven approach known as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was used to achieve our goal. First, rsfMRI data from both patients and healthy controls were analyzed using group ICA. The components that were obtained were then spatially sorted to find and select meaningful ones. A two-sample t-test was also used to identify abnormal networks in patients and healthy controls. Finally, based on the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), a chi-square statistic test was used to distinguish the network properties of the patient and healthy control groups. The two-sample t-test analysis yielded abnormal in the default mode network, including the left superior temporal lobe and the left supramarginal. The right precuneus was found to be abnormal in the dorsal attention network. In addition, the frontal cortex showed an abnormal cluster in the medial temporal gyrus. In contrast, the temporal cortex showed an abnormal cluster in the right middle temporal gyrus and the right fronto-operculum gyrus. Finally, the chi-square statistic test was significant, producing a p-value of 0.001 for the analysis. This study offers evidence that investigating rsfMRI connectivity provides an excellent diagnosis option for refractory epilepsy.

Keywords: Independent Component Analysis, Resting State Network, refractory epilepsy, rsfMRI.

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19 An Investigation into the Isolation and Bandwidth Characteristics of X-Band Chireix PA Combiners

Authors: D. P. Clayton, E. A. Ball

Abstract:

This paper describes an investigation into the isolation characteristics and bandwidth performance of radio frequency (RF) combiners that are used as part of Chireix power amplifier (PA) architectures, designed for use in the X-Band range of frequencies. Combiner designs investigated are the typical Chireix and Wilkinson configurations which also include simulation of the Wilkinson using manufacturer’s data for the isolation resistor. Another simulation was the less common approach of using a Branchline coupler to form the combiner, as well as simulation results from adding an additional stage. This paper presents the findings of this investigation and compares the bandwidth performance and isolation characteristics to determine suitability.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Chireix, couplers, outphasing, power amplifiers, Wilkinson, X-Band.

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18 Determining of Stage-Discharge Relationship for Meandering Compound Channels Using M5 Decision Tree Model

Authors: Mehdi Kheradmand, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam, Abdolreza Zahiri, Khalil Ghorbani

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In modeling phenomena, the presence of local conditions may cause the use of a general relation not to produce good results and thus fail to demonstrate local changes. If possible, identifying homogenous limits and providing simple linear relations for each of these limits will increase the accuracy of models. Accordingly, the models are divided into simpler and smaller problems to solve complicated problems, and the obtained answers will be combined. This simple idea can be applied to decision tree models. For this aim, the input data values are divided into several sub-intervals or sub-regions, and an appropriate model is extracted for an appropriate model or equation. This research proposes the M5 decision tree method as a solution to accurately compute the flow discharge in meandering compound channels.

Keywords: Stage-discharge relationship, decision tree, M5 decision tree model, meandering compound channels.

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17 Heading for Modern Construction Management: Recommendation for Employers

Authors: Robin Becker, Maike Eilers, Nane Roetmann, Manfred Helmus

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The shortage of junior staff in the construction industry is a problem that will be further exacerbated in the coming years by the retirement of the baby-boom generations (1955-1969) from employment. In addition, the current working conditions in the field of construction management are not attractive for young professionals. A survey of students as part of the paper revealed a desire for an increase in flexibility and an improved work-life balance in everyday working life. Students of civil engineering and architecture are basically interested in a career in construction management but have reservations due to the image of the profession and the current working conditions. A survey among experts from the construction industry, also as a part of the paper, shows that the profession can become more attractive. This report provides recommendations for action in the form of working modules to improve the working conditions of employees. If these are taken into account, graduates can be attracted to the profession of construction management, and existing staff can be retained more effectively. The aim of this report is to show incentives for employers to respond to the wishes and needs of their current and future employees to the extent that can be implemented.

Keywords: Modern construction management, construction industry, work modules, shortage of junior staff, sustainable personnel management, making construction management more attractive, working time model.

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16 Assessment of Energy Demand Considering Different Model Simulations in a Low Energy Demand House

Authors: M. Cañada-Soriano, C. Aparicio-Fernández, P. Sebastián Ferrer Gisbert, M. Val Field, J.-L. Vivancos-Bono

Abstract:

The lack of insulation along with the existence of air leakages constitute a meaningful impact on the energy performance of buildings. Both of them lead to increases in the energy demand through additional heating and/or cooling loads. Additionally, they cause thermal discomfort. In order to quantify these uncontrolled air currents, the Blower Door test can be used. It is a standardized procedure that determines the airtightness of a space by characterizing the rate of air leakages through the envelope surface. In this sense, the low-energy buildings complying with the Passive House design criteria are required to achieve high levels of airtightness. Due to the invisible nature of air leakages, additional tools are often considered to identify where the infiltrations take place such as the infrared thermography. The aim of this study is to assess the airtightness of a typical Mediterranean dwelling house, refurbished under the Passive House standard, using the Blower Door test. Moreover, the building energy performance modelling tools TRNSYS (TRaNsient System Simulation program) and TRNFlow (TRaNsient Flow) have been used to estimate the energy demand in different scenarios. In this sense, a sequential implementation of three different energy improvement measures (insulation thickness, glazing type and infiltrations) have been analyzed.

Keywords: Airtightness, blower door, TRNSYS, infrared thermography, energy demand.

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15 Road Safety in Great Britain: An Exploratory Data Analysis

Authors: Jatin Kumar Choudhary, Naren Rayala, Abbas Eslami Kiasari, Fahimeh Jafari

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Great Britain has one of the safest road networks in the world. However, the consequences of any death or serious injury are devastating for loved ones, as well as for those who help the severely injured. This paper aims to analyse Great Britain's road safety situation and show the response measures for areas where the total damage caused by accidents can be significantly and quickly reduced. For the past 30 years, the UK has had a good record in reducing fatalities over the past 30 years, there is still a considerable number of road deaths. The government continues to scale back road deaths empowering responsible road users by identifying and prosecuting the parameters that make the roads less safe. This study represents an exploratory analysis with deep insights which could provide policy makers with invaluable insights into how accidents happen and how they can be mitigated. We use STATS19 data published by the UK government. Since we need more information about locations which is not provided in STATA19, we first expand the features of the dataset using OpenStreetMap and Visual Crossing. This paper also provides a discussion regarding new road safety methods.

Keywords: Road safety, data analysis, OpenStreetMap, feature expanding.

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14 Optimization of Thermopile Sensor Performance of Polycrystalline Silicon Film

Authors: Li Long, Thomas Ortlepp

Abstract:

A theoretical model for the optimization of thermopile sensor performance is developed for thermoelectric-based infrared radiation detection. It is shown that the performance of polycrystalline silicon film thermopile sensor can be optimized according to the thermoelectric quality factor, sensor layer structure factor and sensor layout shape factor. Based on the properties of electrons, phonons, grain boundaries and their interactions, the thermoelectric quality factor of polycrystalline silicon is analyzed with the relaxation time approximation of Boltzmann transport equation. The model includes the effects of grain structure, grain boundary trap properties and doping concentration. The layer structure factor of sensor is analyzed with respect to infrared absorption coefficient. The effect of layout design is characterized with the shape factor, which is calculated for different sensor designs. Double layer polycrystalline silicon thermopile infrared sensors on suspended support membrane have been designed and fabricated with a CMOS-compatible process. The theoretical approach is confirmed with measurement results.

Keywords: Polycrystalline silicon film, relaxation time approximation, specific detectivity, thermal conductivity, thermopile infrared sensor.

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13 English as a Foreign Language Students’ Perceptions towards the British Culture: The Case of Batna 2 University, Algeria

Authors: Djelloul Nedjai

Abstract:

The issue of cultural awareness triggers many controversies, especially in a context where individuals do not share the same cultural backgrounds and characteristics. The Algerian context is no exception. It is extensively important to highlight how culture remains essential in many areas. In higher education, for instance, culture plays a pivotal role in shaping individuals’ perceptions and attitudes. Henceforth, the current paper attempts to look at the perceptions of the British culture held by students engaged in learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the department of English at Banta 2 University, Algeria. It also inquiries into EFL students’ perceptions of British culture. To address the aforementioned research queries, a descriptive study has been carried out wherein a questionnaire of 15 items has been deployed to collect students’ attitudes and perceptions toward British culture. Results showcase that, indeed, EFL students of the department of English at Banta 2 University hold both positive and negative perceptions towards British culture at different levels. The explanation could relate to the student's lack of acquaintance with and awareness of British culture. Consequently, this paper is an attempt to address the issue of cultural awareness from the perspective of EFL students.

Keywords: British culture, cultural awareness, EFL students’ perceptions, higher education.

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12 Helping Others and Youth Mental Health: A Qualitative Study Exploring Perspectives of Youth Engaging in Prosocial Activities

Authors: Saima Hirani, Emmanuela Ojukwu, Nilanga Aki Bandara

Abstract:

Mental health challenges that begin during the youth age period may continue across the entire life course. One way to support youth mental health is to encourage youth engagement in prosocial activities. This study aimed to explore youth’s perceptions about helping others and mental wellbeing, barriers, and enablers for youth to initiate and continue prosocial activities, and strategies for developing the attribute of helping others in youth. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, virtual interviews with 18 young individuals (aged 16-24 years) living in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Youth perceived helping others as a source of feeling peace and calm, finding meaning in life, experiencing social connection and promoting self-care, and relieving stress. Participants reported opportunities to learn new skills, the role of religion, social connections, previous positive experiences, and role modeling as enablers for their prosocial behavior. Heavy time commitment, negative behavior from others, self-doubt, and late exposure to such activities were considered barriers by youth when participating in prosocial activities. Youth also brought forward key recommendations for engaging youth in helping others. The findings of this study support the notion that youth have positive experiences when engaging in helping others and that involving young people in prosocial activities could be used as a protective intervention for promoting youth mental health and overall wellbeing.

Keywords: Helping others, prosocial behavior, youth, mental wellbeing.

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11 Effect of Exit Annular Area on the Flow Field Characteristics of an Unconfined Premixed Annular Swirl Burner

Authors: Vishnu Raj, Chockalingam Prathap

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to explore the impact of variation in the exit annular area on the local flow field features and the flame stability of an annular premixed swirl burner (unconfined) operated with a premixed n-butane air mixture at an equivalence ratio (Φ) = 1, 1 bar, and 300K. A swirl burner with an axial swirl generator having a swirl number of 1.5 was used. Three different burner heads were chosen to have the exit area increased from 100%, 160%, and 220% resulting in inner and outer diameters and cross-sectional areas as (1) 10 mm & 15 mm, 98 mm2 (2) 17.5 mm & 22.5 mm, 157 mm2 and (3) 25 mm & 30 mm, 216 mm2. The bulk velocity and Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter and unburned gas properties were kept constant at 12 m/s and 4000. (i) Planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with TiO2 seeding particles and (ii) CH* chemiluminescence was used to measure the velocity fields and reaction zones of the swirl flames at 5 Hz, respectively. Velocity fields and the jet spreading rates measured at the isothermal and reactive conditions revealed that the presence of a flame significantly altered the flow field in the radial direction due to the gas expansion. Important observations from the flame measurements were: the height and maximum width of the recirculation bubbles normalized by the hydraulic diameter, and the jet spreading angles for the flames for the three exit area cases were: (a) 4.52, 1.95, 34◦, (b) 6.78, 2.37, 26◦, and (c) 8.73, 2.32, 22◦. The lean blowout (LBO) was also measured, and the respective equivalence ratios were: 0.80, 0.92, and 0.82. LBO was relatively narrow for the 157 mm2 case. For this case, PIV measurements showed that Turbulent Kinetic Energy and turbulent intensity were relatively high compared to the other two cases, resulting in higher stretch rates and narrower LBO.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence, jet spreading rate, lean blow out, swirl flow.

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10 Suicide Wrongful Death: Standard of Care Problems Involving the Inaccurate Discernment of Lethal Risk When Focusing on the Elicitation of Suicide Ideation

Authors: Bill D. Geis, Frederick Newman

Abstract:

Suicide and wrongful death forensic cases are the fastest rising tort in mental health law. Most suicide-related personal injury claims fall into the legal category of “wrongful death.” Though mental health experts may be called on to address a range of forensic questions in wrongful death cases, the central consultation that most experts provide is about the negligence element—specifically, the issue of whether the clinician met the clinical standard of care in assessing, treating, and managing the deceased person’s mental health care. Standards of care, varying from US state to state, are broad and address what a reasonable clinician might do in a similar circumstance. This fact leaves the issue of the suicide standard of care, in each case, up to forensic experts to put forth a reasoned estimate of what the standard of care should have been in the specific case under litigation. Because the general state guidelines for standard of care are broad, forensic experts are readily retained to provide scientific and clinical opinions about whether or not a clinician met the standard of care in their suicide assessment, treatment, and management of the case. In the past and in much of current practice, the assessment of suicide has centered on the elicitation of verbalized suicide ideation. But suicide ideation, in the matter of suicide risk determination, may be a necessary but insufficient target of lethal suicide risk assessment. Assessment of near-term suicide risk—assessment that goes beyond verbalized suicide ideation and relates to acute crisis variables—is likely needed. Specifically, such other or additional suicide risk variable assessment may be required in the context of lethal suicide risk situations, as opposed to the discernment of general, nonlethal suicide behavior as a standard of practice (whether a patient is having suicidal thoughts or exhibiting an ambivalent suicide attempt potential). In the current study, verbalized suicide ideation information was unhelpful in the assessment of lethal risk. The Lethal Suicide Risk Assessment, Acute Model, and other dynamic, near-term risk models (such as the Acute Suicide Affective Disorder Model and the Suicide Crisis Syndrome Model)—going beyond elicited suicide ideation—need to be incorporated into current clinical suicide assessment training and become the legal standard of care for expected clinical behavior. Without this expanded clinical assessment perspective, the standard of care for suicide assessment is out of sync with current knowledge—an emerging dilemma for the forensic evaluation of suicide wrongful death cases.

Keywords: Forensic evaluation, standard of care, suicide, suicide assessment, wrongful death.

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9 Improved Triple Integral Inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard Type

Authors: Leila Nasiri

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the concept of preinvex functions on the co-ordinates on an invex set and establish some triple integral inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type for functions whose third order partial derivatives in absolute value are preinvex on the co-ordinates. The results presented here generalize the obtained results in earlier works for functions whose triple order partial derivatives in absolute value are convex on the co-ordinates on a rectangular box in R3.

Keywords: Co-ordinated preinvex functions, Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities, partial derivatives, triple integral.

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8 Design and Development of Graphene Oxide Modified by Chitosan Nanosheets Showing pH-Sensitive Surface as a Smart Drug Delivery System for Controlled Release of Doxorubicin

Authors: Parisa Shirzadeh

Abstract:

Drug delivery systems in which drugs are traditionally used, multi-stage and at specified intervals by patients, do not meet the needs of the world's up-to-date drug delivery. In today's world, we are dealing with a huge number of recombinant peptide and protean drugs and analogues of hormones in the body, most of which are made with genetic engineering techniques. Most of these drugs are used to treat critical diseases such as cancer. Due to the limitations of the traditional method, researchers sought to find ways to solve the problems of the traditional method to a large extent. Following these efforts, controlled drug release systems were introduced, which have many advantages. Using controlled release of the drug in the body, the concentration of the drug is kept at a certain level, and in a short time, it is done at a higher rate. Graphene is a natural material that is biodegradable, non-toxic, natural and wide surfaces of graphene plates makes it more effective to modify graphene than carbon nanotubes. Graphene oxide is often synthesized using concentrated oxidizers such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and potassium permanganate based on Hummer method. graphene oxide is very hydrophilic and easily dissolves in water and creates a stable solution. Graphene oxide (GO) has been modified by chitosan (CS) covalently, developed for control release of doxorubicin (DOX). In this study, GO is produced by the hummer method under acidic conditions. Then, it is chlorinated by oxalyl chloride to increase its reactivity against amine. After that, in the presence of CS, the amino reaction was performed to form amide transplantation, and the DOX was connected to the carrier surface by π-π interaction in buffer phosphate. GO, GO-CS, and GO-CS-DOX were characterized by FT-IR and TGA to recognize new functional groups which show the new bonding of CS to GO, RAMA and SEM to recognize size of layers that show changing in size and number of layers. The ability to load and release is determined by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The loading result showed a high capacity of DOX absorption (99%) and pH dependence identified as a result of DOX release from GO-CS nanosheet at pH 5.3 and 7.4, which show a fast release rate in acidic conditions.

Keywords: Graphene oxide, chitosan, nanosheet, controlled drug release, doxorubicin.

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7 Politic Iconography: The Sky and Pants of Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (1755-1830)

Authors: Bárbara Dantas

Abstract:

Nicolas-Antoine Taunay had everything to have a quiet life with his family, his colleagues from the Paris Academy of Art, and as a renowned painter of the French Court, but the conjuncture was quite complicated in those final years of the eighteenth century and first decades of the 19th century. The painter had to adapt to various political and social ruptures: from royalty to the French Revolution, from the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte to the empire of King John VI. We wish to insert Taunay in its context through the analysis of his portrait made by a colleague of the profession and of a Brazilian landscape painted of his own (1816-1821) and, in which he represented himself. Finally, the intention is to find in these two paintings how Nicolas-Antoine Taunay faced himself and in the middle that surrounded him in the traffic that was forced to make it between Paris and Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: Nicolas-Antoine Taunay, politic iconography, French Art, Brazilian Art, 19th century.

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6 Artificial Intelligence: A Comprehensive and Systematic Literature Review of Applications and Comparative Technologies

Authors: Z. M. Najmi

Abstract:

Over the years, the question around Artificial Intelligence has always been one with many answers. Whether by means of use in business and industry or complicated algorithmic programming, management of these technologies has always been the core focus. More recently, technologies have been questioned in industry and society alike as to whether they have improved human-centred design, assisted choices and objectives, and had a hand in systematic processes across the board. With these questions the answer may lie within AI technologies, and the steps needed in removing common human error. Elements such as Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Recommender Systems and Natural Language Processing will all be features to consider moving forward. Our previous intervention with AI applications has resulted in increased productivity, however, raised concerns for the continuation of traditional human-centred occupations. Emerging technologies such as Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality have all played a part in this during AI’s prominent rise. As mentioned, AI has been constantly under the microscope; the benefits and drawbacks may seem endless is wide, but AI is something we must take notice of and adapt into our everyday lives. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the technologies surrounding A.I. and its’ related technologies. A comprehensive review has been written as a timeline of the developing events and key points in the history of Artificial Intelligence. This research is gathered entirely from secondary research, academic statements of knowledge and gathered to produce an understanding of the timeline of AI.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, Augmented Reality, Reinforcement Learning, Machine Learning, Supervised Learning.

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5 Testing of Electronic Control Unit Communication Interface

Authors: Petr Šimek, Kamil Kostruk

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of testing the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for the specified function validation. Modern ECUs have many functions which need to be tested. This process requires tracking between the test and the specification. The technique discussed in this paper explores the system for automating this process. The paper focuses on the introduction to the problem in general, then it describes the proposed test system concept and its principle. It looks at how the process of the ECU interface specification file for automated interface testing and test tracking works. In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed.

Keywords: Electronic control unit testing, embedded system, test generate, test automation, process automation, CAN bus, Ethernet.

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4 A Lactose-Free Yogurt Using Membrane Systems and Modified Milk Protein Concentrate: Production and Characterization

Authors: Shahram Naghizadeh Raeisi, Ali Alghooneh

Abstract:

Using membrane technology and modification of milk protein structural properties, a lactose free yogurt was developed. The functional, textural and structural properties of the sample were evaluated and compared with the commercial ones. Results showed that the modification of protein in high fat set yogurt resulted in 11.55%, 18%, 20.21% and 7.08% higher hardness, consistency, water holding capacity, and shininess values compared with the control one. Furthermore, these indices of modified low fat set yogurt were 21.40%, 25.41%, 28.15% & 10.58% higher than the control one, which could be related to the gel network microstructural properties in yogurt formulated with modified protein. In this way, in comparison with the control one, the index of linkage strength (A), the number of linkages (z), and time scale of linkages (λrel) of the high fat modified yogurt were 22.10%, 50.68%, 21.82% higher than the control one; whereas, the average linear distance between two adjacent crosslinks (ξ), was 16.77% lower than the control one. For low fat modified yogurt, A, z, λrel, and ξ indices were 34.30%, 61.70% and 42.60% higher and 19.20% lower than the control one, respectively. The shelf life of modified yogurt was extended to 10 weeks in the refrigerator, while, the control set yogurt had a 3 weeks shelf life. The acidity of high fat and low fat modified yogurts increased from 76 to 84 and 72 to 80 Dornic degrees during 10 weeks of storage, respectively, whereas for control high fat and low fat yogurts they increased from 82 to 122 and 77 to 112 Dornic degrees, respectively. This behavior could be due to the elimination of microorganism’s source of energy in modified yogurt. Furthermore, the calories of high fat and low fat lactose free yogurts were 25% and 40% lower than their control samples, respectively. Generally, results showed that the lactose free yogurt with modified protein, despite of 1% lower protein content than the control one, showed better functional properties, nutritional properties, network parameters, and shelf stability, which could be promising in the set yogurt industry.

Keywords: Lactose free, low calorie, network properties, protein modification.

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3 Attention-Based Spatio-Temporal Approach for Fire and Smoke Detection

Authors: A. Mirrashid, M. Khoshbin, A. Atghaei, H. Shahbazi

Abstract:

In various industries, smoke and fire are two of the most important threats in the workplace. One of the common methods for detecting smoke and fire is the use of infrared thermal and smoke sensors, which cannot be used in outdoor applications. Therefore, the use of vision-based methods seems necessary. The problem of smoke and fire detection is spatiotemporal and requires spatiotemporal solutions. This paper presents a method that uses spatial features along with temporal-based features to detect smoke and fire in the scene. It consists of three main parts; the task of each part is to reduce the error of the previous part so that the final model has a robust performance. This method also uses transformer modules to increase the accuracy of the model. The results of our model show the proper performance of the proposed approach in solving the problem of smoke and fire detection and can be used to increase workplace safety.

Keywords: Attention, fire detection, smoke detection, spatiotemporal.

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2 Data Security in a DApp Twitter Alike on Web 3.0 With Blockchain Based Technology

Authors: Vishal Awasthi, Tanya Soni, Vigya Awasthi, Swati Singh, Shivali Verma

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for a network that grants a high level of data security and confidentiality. For this reason, the semantic web was introduced, which allows data to be shared and reused across applications while safeguarding users privacy and user’s will grab back control of their data. The earlier Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 versions were built on client-server architecture, in  which there was the risk of data theft and unconsented sale of user data. A decentralized version, Known as Web 3.0, that is mostly built on blockchain technology was interjected to resolve these issues. The recent research focuses on blockchain technology, deals with privacy, security, transparency, and innovation of decentralized applications (DApps), e.g. a Twitter Clone, Whatsapp clone. In this paper the Twitter Alike built on the Ethereum blockchain will replace traditional techniques with improved latency, throughput, and data ownership. The central principle of this DApp is smart contract implemented using Solidity which is an object- oriented and highlevel language. Consequently, this will provide a better Quality Services, high data security, and integrity for both present and future internet technologies.

Keywords: Blockchain, DApps, Ethereum, Semantic Web, Smart Contract, Solidity.

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1 Comparative Productivity Analysis of Median Scale Battery Cage and Deep Litter Housing Chicken Egg Production in Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: D. I. Ekine, C. C. Akpanibah

Abstract:

This paper analyses the productivity of median scale battery cage and deep litter chicken egg producers in Rivers State, Nigeria. 90 battery cage and 90 deep litter farmers giving a total of 180 farmers were sampled through a multistage sampling procedure. Mean productivity was higher for the battery cage than the deep litter farmers at 2.65 and 2.33 respectively. Productivity of battery cage farmers were positively influenced by age, extension contacts, experience and feed quantity while the productivity of deep litter farmers was positively influenced by age, extension contacts, household size, experience and labour. The major constraints identified by both categories are high cost of feed, high price of day-old chick, inadequate finance, lack of credit and high cost of drug/vaccination. Furthermore, the work recommends that government should assist chicken egg farmers through subsidies of input resources and put policies to make financial institutions give out loans at low interest rate to the farmers. The farmers should abide by the recommended number of birds per unit area while stocking.

Keywords: Productivity, battery cage, deep litter, median scale, egg production.

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