Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 167

Search results for: thermoelectric generator

167 Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions

Authors: Jinkyu Park, Yungjin Kim, Byungdeok In, Sangki Park, Kihyung Lee

Abstract:

Internal combustion engines rejects 30-40% of the energy supplied by fuel to the environment through exhaust gas. thus, there is a possibility for further significant improvement of efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas energy and its conversion to mechanical energy or electrical energy. The Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) will be located in the exhaust system and will make use of an energy flow between the warmer exhaust gas and the external environment. Predict to th optimum position of temperature distribution and the performance of TEG through numerical analysis. The experimental results obtained show that the power output significantly increases with the temperature difference between cold and hot sides of a thermoelectric generator.

Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, Numerical analysis, Seebeck coefficient, Figure of merit

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166 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Built-In Thermoelectric Generator Modules with an Elliptical Pin-Fin Heat Sink

Authors: J. Y. Jang, C. Y. Tseng

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical model of thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules attached to a large chimney plate is proposed and solved numerically using a control volume based finite difference formulation. The TEG module consists of a thermoelectric generator, an elliptical pin-fin heat sink, and a cold plate for water cooling. In the chimney, the temperature of flue gases is 450-650K. Although the TEG hot-side temperature and thus the electric power output can be increased by inserting an elliptical pin-fin heat sink into the chimney tunnel to increase the heat transfer area, the pin fin heat sink would cause extra pumping power at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of geometrical parameters on the electric power output and chimney pressure drop characteristics. The effects of different operating conditions, including various inlet velocities (Vin= 1, 3, 5 m/s), inlet temperatures (Tgas = 450, 550, 650K) and different fin height (0 to 150 mm) are discussed in detail. The predicted numerical data for the power vs. current (P-I) curve are in good agreement (within 11%) with the experimental data.

Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, Waste heat recovery, Elliptical pin-fin heat sink.

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165 A New Design of Mobile Thermoelectric Power Generation System

Authors: Hsin-Hung Chang, Jin-Lung Guan, Ming-Ta Yang

Abstract:

This paper presents a compact thermoelectric power generator system based on temperature difference across the element. The system can transfer the burning heat energy to electric energy directly. The proposed system has a thermoelectric generator and a power control box. In the generator, there are 4 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), each of which uses 2 thermoelectric chips (TEs) and 2 cold sinks, 1 thermal absorber, and 1 thermal conduction flat board. In the power control box, there are 1 storing energy device, 1 converter, and 1 inverter. The total net generating power is about 11W. This system uses commercial portable gas stoves or burns timber or the coal as the heat source, which is easily obtained. It adopts solid-state thermoelectric chips as heat inverter parts. The system has the advantages of being light-weight, quite, and mobile, requiring no maintenance, and havng easily-supplied heat source. The system can be used a as long as burning is allowed. This system works well for highly-mobilized outdoors situations by providing a power for illumination, entertainment equipment or the wireless equipment at refuge. Under heavy storms such as typhoon, when the solar panels become ineffective and the wind-powered machines malfunction, the thermoelectric power generator can continue providing the vital power.

Keywords: Thermoelectric chip, seekback effect, thermo electric power generator.

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164 Thermoelectric Generators as Alternative Source for Electric Power

Authors: L. C. Ding, Bradley. G. Orr, K. Rahaoui, S. Truza, A. Date, A. Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

The research on thermoelectric has been a blooming field of research for the latest decade, owing to large amount of heat source available to be harvested, being eco-friendly and static in operation. This paper provides the performance of thermoelectric generator (TEG) with bulk material of bismuth telluride, Bi2Te3. Later, the performance of the TEGs is evaluated by considering attaching the TEGs on a plastic (polyethylene sheet) in contrast to the common method of attaching the TEGs on the metal surface.

Keywords: Electric power, heat transfer, renewable energy, thermoelectric generator.

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163 Electrical Energy Harvesting Using Thermo Electric Generator for Rural Communities in India

Authors: N. Nandan A. M. Nagaraj, L. Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In the rapidly growing population, the requirement of electrical power is increasing day by day. In order to meet the needs, we need to generate the power using alternate method. In this paper, a presentable approach is developed by analysis and can be implemented by utilizing heat energy, which is generated in numerous ways in some of the rural areas in India. The thermoelectric generator unit will be developed by combing with control circuits and converts, which is used to light the LED lamps. The temperature difference which is available in the kitchens, especially the exhaust pipes/chimneys of wooden fire stoves, where more heat is dissipated into the atmosphere, can be utilized for electrical power generation. Hence, the temperature rise of surroundings atmosphere can be reduced.

Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, LED, converts, temperature.

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162 Experimental Analyses of Thermoelectric Generator Behavior Using Two Types of Thermoelectric Modules for Marine Application

Authors: A. Nour Eddine, D. Chalet, L. Aixala, P. Chessé, X. Faure, N. Hatat

Abstract:

Thermal power technology such as the TEG (Thermo-Electric Generator) arouses significant attention worldwide for waste heat recovery. Despite the potential benefits of marine application due to the permanent heat sink from sea water, no significant studies on this application were to be found. In this study, a test rig has been designed and built to test the performance of the TEG on engine operating points. The TEG device is built from commercially available materials for the sake of possible economical application. Two types of commercial TEM (thermo electric module) have been studied separately on the test rig. The engine data were extracted from a commercial Diesel engine since it shares the same principle in terms of engine efficiency and exhaust with the marine Diesel engine. An open circuit water cooling system is used to replicate the sea water cold source. The characterization tests showed that the silicium-germanium alloys TEM proved a remarkable reliability on all engine operating points, with no significant deterioration of performance even under sever variation in the hot source conditions. The performance of the bismuth-telluride alloys was 100% better than the first type of TEM but it showed a deterioration in power generation when the air temperature exceeds 300 °C. The temperature distribution on the heat exchange surfaces revealed no useful combination of these two types of TEM with this tube length, since the surface temperature difference between both ends is no more than 10 °C. This study exposed the perspective of use of TEG technology for marine engine exhaust heat recovery. Although the results suggested non-sufficient power generation from the low cost commercial TEM used, it provides valuable information about TEG device optimization, including the design of heat exchanger and the types of thermo-electric materials.

Keywords: Internal combustion engine application, Seebeck, thermo-electricity, waste heat recovery.

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161 An Experimental Investigation of Thermoelectric Air-Cooling Module

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Chiao-Hung Cheng, Wen-Fang Wu, Sih-Li Chen

Abstract:

This article experimentally investigates the thermal performance of thermoelectric air-cooling module which comprises a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and an air-cooling heat sink. The influences of input current and heat load are determined. And performances under each situation are quantified by thermal resistance analysis. Since TEC generates Joule heat, this nature makes construction of thermal resistance network difficult. To simplify the analysis, this article emphasizes on the resistance heat load might meet when passing through the device. Therefore, the thermal resistances in this paper are to divide temperature differences by heat load. According to the result, there exists an optimum input current under every heating power. In this case, the optimum input current is around 6A or 7A. The performance of the heat sink would be improved with TEC under certain heating power and input current, especially at a low heat load. According to the result, the device can even make the heat source cooler than the ambient. However, TEC is not always effective at every heat load and input current. In some situation, the device works worse than the heat sink without TEC. To determine the availability of TEC, this study figures out the effective operating region in which the TEC air-cooling module works better than the heat sink without TEC. The result shows that TEC is more effective at a lower heat load. If heat load is too high, heat sink with TEC will perform worse than without TEC. The limit of this device is 57W. Besides, TEC is not helpful if input current is too high or too low. There is an effective range of input current, and the range becomes narrower when the heat load grows.

Keywords: Thermoelectric cooler, TEC, electronic cooling, heat sink.

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160 Cogeneration Unit for Small Stove

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Marian Brazdil, Otakar Stelcl, Jiri Pospisil

Abstract:

This paper shows an experimental testing of a small unit for combustion of solid fuels, such as charcoal and wood logs, that can provide electricity. One of the concepts is that the unit does not require qualified personnel for its operation. The unit itself is composed of two main parts. The design requires a heat producing stove and electricity producing thermoelectric generator. After the construction the unit was tested and the results show that the emission release is within the legislative requirements for emission production and environmental protection. That qualifies such unit for indoor application.

Keywords: Micro-cogeneration, thermoelectric generator, biomass combustion, wood stove.

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159 Electrophysical and Thermoelectric Properties of Nano-scaled In2O3:Sn, Zn, Ga-Based Thin Films: Achievements and Limitations for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, B. K. Cho

Abstract:

The thermoelectric properties of nano-scaled In2O3:Sn films deposited by spray pyrolysis are considered in the present report. It is shown that multicomponent In2O3:Sn-based films are promising material for the application in thermoelectric devices. It is established that the increase in the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion at CSn~5% occurred due to nano-scaled structure of the films studied and the effect of the grain boundary filtering of the low energy electrons. There are also analyzed the limitations that may appear during such material using in devices developed for the market of thermoelectric generators and refrigerators. Studies showed that the stability of nano-scaled film’s parameters is the main problem which can limit the application of these materials in high temperature thermoelectric converters.

Keywords: Energy conversion technologies, thermoelectricity, In2O3-based films, power factor, nanocomposites, stability.

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158 Electrophoretic Deposition of p-Type Bi2Te3 for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: Tahereh Talebi, Reza Ghomashchi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya

Abstract:

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of p-type Bi2Te3 material has been accomplished, and a high quality crack-free thick film has been achieved for thermoelectric (TE) applications. TE generators (TEG) can convert waste heat into electricity, which can potentially solve global warming problems. However, TEG is expensive due to the high cost of materials, as well as the complex and expensive manufacturing process. EPD is a simple and cost-effective method which has been used recently for advanced applications. In EPD, when a DC electric field is applied to the charged powder particles suspended in a suspension, they are attracted and deposited on the substrate with the opposite charge. In this study, it has been shown that it is possible to prepare a TE film using the EPD method and potentially achieve high TE properties at low cost. The relationship between the deposition weight and the EPD-related process parameters, such as applied voltage and time, has been investigated and a linear dependence has been observed, which is in good agreement with the theoretical principles of EPD. A stable EPD suspension of p-type Bi2Te3 was prepared in a mixture of acetone-ethanol with triethanolamine as a stabilizer. To achieve a high quality homogenous film on a copper substrate, the optimum voltage and time of the EPD process was investigated. The morphology and microstructures of the green deposited films have been investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The green Bi2Te3 films have shown good adhesion to the substrate. In summary, this study has shown that not only EPD of p-type Bi2Te3 material is possible, but its thick film is of high quality for TE applications.

Keywords: Electrical conductivity, electrophoretic deposition, p-type Bi2Te3, thermoelectric materials, thick films.

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157 Silicon Nanowire for Thermoelectric Applications: Effects of Contact Resistance

Authors: Y. Li, K. Buddharaju, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, S. J. Lee

Abstract:

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) based thermoelectric device (TED) has potential applications in areas such as chip level cooling/ energy harvesting. It is a great challenge however, to assemble an efficient device with these SiNW. The presence of parasitic in the form of interfacial electrical resistance will have a significant impact on the performance of the TED. In this work, we explore the effect of the electrical contact resistance on the performance of a TED. Numerical simulations are performed on SiNW to investigate such effects on its cooling performance. Intrinsically, SiNW individually without the unwanted parasitic effect has excellent cooling power density. However, the cooling effect is undermined with the contribution of the electrical contact resistance.

Keywords: Thermoelectric, silicon, nanowire, electrical contact resistance, parasitics.

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156 Analysis of Thermoelectric Coolers as Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Applications

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Sam De Winne, Niek Blondeel, Ann Peeters, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi

Abstract:

The growing popularity of solid state thermoelectric devices in cooling applications has sparked an increasing diversity of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) on the market, commonly known as “Peltier modules”. They can also be used as generators, converting a temperature difference into electric power, and opportunities are plentiful to make use of these devices as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply energy to low power, autonomous embedded electronic applications. Their adoption as energy harvesters in this new domain of usage is obstructed by the complex thermoelectric models commonly associated with TEGs. Low cost TECs for the consumer market lack the required parameters to use the models because they are not intended for this mode of operation, thereby urging an alternative method to obtain electric power estimations in specific operating conditions. The design of the test setup implemented in this paper is specifically targeted at benchmarking commercial, off-the-shelf TECs for use as energy harvesters in domestic environments: applications with limited temperature differences and space available. The usefulness is demonstrated by testing and comparing single and multi stage TECs with different sizes. The effect of a boost converter stage on the thermoelectric end-to-end efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: Thermoelectric cooler, TEC, complementary balanced energy harvesting, step-up converter, DC/DC converter, embedded systems, energy harvesting, thermal harvesting.

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155 Integration of Fixed and Variable Speed Wind Generator Dynamics with Multimachine AC Systems

Authors: A.H.M.A.Rahim

Abstract:

The impact of fixed speed squirrel cage type as well as variable speed doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) on dynamic performance of a multimachine power system has been investigated. Detailed models of the various components have been presented and the integration of asynchronous and synchronous generators has been carried out through a rotor angle based transform. Simulation studies carried out considering the conventional dynamic model of squirrel cage asynchronous generators show that integration, as such, could degrade to the AC system performance transiently. This article proposes a frequency or power controller which can effectively control the transients and restore normal operation of fixed speed induction generator quickly. Comparison of simulation results between classical cage and doubly-fed induction generators indicate that the doubly fed induction machine is more adaptable to multimachine AC system. Frequency controller installed in the DFIG system can also improve its transient profile.

Keywords: Doubly-fed generator, Induction generator, Multimachine system modeling, Wind energy systems

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154 Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.

Keywords: Equivalent generator, geometric circuits theory, circuits regimes, load characteristics, variable elements.

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153 Influence of Vortex Generator on Flow Behavior of Air Stream

Authors: Chakkapong Supasri, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

 

This research studied the influence of delta wing and delta winglet vortex generators on air flow characteristic. Normally, the vortex generator has been used for enhancing the heat transfer performance by promote the helical flow of air stream. The vortex generator was setup in the wind tunnel and the flow pattern of air stream passing the vortex generator was observed by using smoke generator. The Reynolds number of air stream was between 30,000 and 80,000. It is found that the delta winglet having 20mm fin height and 30 degree of air stream contact angle generates the maximum helical flow of air stream.

Keywords: Vortex generator, Flow behavior, Visual study, Delta wing, Delta winglet, Smoke generator.

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152 Comparison of an Interior Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Synchronous Reluctance Generator for a Wind Application

Authors: Poopak Roshanfekr, Torbjörn Thiringer, Sonja Lundmark, Mikael Alatalo

Abstract:

This article presents a performance comparison of an interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) with a synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) with the same size for a wind application. It is found that using the same geometrical dimensions, a SynRG can convert 74 % of the power that an IPMSG can convert, while it has 80% of the IPMSG weight. Moreover it is found that the efficieny for the IMPSG is 99% at rated power compared to 98.7% for the SynRG.

Keywords: Interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG), synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG), wind energy, annual energy efficiency.

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151 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: Coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator.

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150 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Authors: Zhou Yingkun, Xu Guorui, Wei Siming, Huang Yongzhang

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG.

Keywords: High renewable energy penetration, inertia of power system, virtual synchronous generator, motor-generator pair system, techno-economic analysis.

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149 Investigation on a Wave-Powered Electrical Generator Consisted of a Geared Motor-Generator Housed by a Double-Cone Rolling on Concentric Circular Rails

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

An electrical generator able to harness energy from the water waves and designed as a double-cone geared motor-generator (DCGMG), is proposed and theoretically investigated. Similar to a differential gear mechanism, used in the transmission system of the auto vehicle wheels, an angular speed differential is created between the cones rolling on two concentric circular rails. Water wave acting on the floating DCGMG produces and a gear-box amplifies the speed differential to gain sufficient torque for power generation. A model that allows computation of the speed differential, torque, and power of the DCGMG is suggested. Influence of various parameters, regarding the construction of the DCGMG, as well as the contact between the double-cone and rails, on the electro-mechanical output, is emphasized. Results obtained indicate that the generated electrical power can be increased by augmenting the mass of the double-cone, the span of the rails, the apex angle of the cones, the friction between cones and rails, the amplification factor of the gear-box, and the efficiency of the motor-generator. Such findings are useful to formulate a design methodology for the proposed wave-powered generator.

Keywords: Wave-powered electrical generator, double-cone, circular concentric rails, amplification of angular speed differential.

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148 Stimulus-Dependent Polyrhythms of Central Pattern Generator Hardware

Authors: Le Zhao, Alain Nogaret

Abstract:

We have built universal central pattern generator (CPG) hardware by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with reciprocally inhibitory synapses. We investigate the dynamics of neuron oscillations as a function of the time delay between current steps applied to individual neurons. We demonstrate stimulus dependent switching between spiking polyrhythms and map the phase portraits of the neuron oscillations to reveal the basins of attraction of the system. We experimentally study the dependence of the attraction basins on the network parameters: The neuron response time and the strength of inhibitory connections.

Keywords: Central pattern generator, winnerless competition principle.

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147 A New Design of Permanent Magnets Reluctance Generator

Authors: Andi Pawawoi, Syafii

Abstract:

Instantaneous electromagnetic torque of simple reflectance generator can be positive at a time and negative at other time. It is utilized to design a permanent magnet reluctance generator specifically. Generator is designed by combining two simple reluctance generators, consists of two rotors mounted on the same shaft, two output-windings and a field source of the permanent magnet. By this design, the electromagnetic torque on both rotor will be eliminated each other, so the input torque generator can be smaller. Rotor is expected only to regulate the flux flow to both output windings alternately, until the magnetic energy is converted into electrical energy, such as occurs in the transformer energy conversion. ​​The prototype trials have been made to test this design. The test result show that the new design of permanent magnets reluctance generator able to convert energy from permanent magnets into electrical energy, this is proven by the existence 167% power output compared to the shaft input power.

Keywords: Energy, Magnet permanent, Reluctance generator.

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146 Cascaded ANN for Evaluation of Frequency and Air-gap Voltage of Self-Excited Induction Generator

Authors: Raja Singh Khela, R. K. Bansal, K. S. Sandhu, A. K. Goel

Abstract:

Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) builds up voltage while it enters in its magnetic saturation region. Due to non-linear magnetic characteristics, the performance analysis of SEIG involves cumbersome mathematical computations. The dependence of air-gap voltage on saturated magnetizing reactance can only be established at rated frequency by conducting a laboratory test commonly known as synchronous run test. But, there is no laboratory method to determine saturated magnetizing reactance and air-gap voltage of SEIG at varying speed, terminal capacitance and other loading conditions. For overall analysis of SEIG, prior information of magnetizing reactance, generated frequency and air-gap voltage is essentially required. Thus, analytical methods are the only alternative to determine these variables. Non-existence of direct mathematical relationship of these variables for different terminal conditions has forced the researchers to evolve new computational techniques. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are very useful for solution of such complex problems, as they do not require any a priori information about the system. In this paper, an attempt is made to use cascaded neural networks to first determine the generated frequency and magnetizing reactance with varying terminal conditions and then air-gap voltage of SEIG. The results obtained from the ANN model are used to evaluate the overall performance of SEIG and are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Hence, it is concluded that analysis of SEIG can be carried out effectively using ANNs.

Keywords: Self-Excited Induction Generator, Artificial NeuralNetworks, Exciting Capacitance and Saturated magnetizingreactance.

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145 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

Abstract:

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, Harmonics, Ripple factor, HVDC generator.

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144 Generator Damage Recognition Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Chang-Hung Hsu, Chun-Yao Lee, Guan-Lin Liao, Yung-Tsan Jou, Jin-Maun Ho, Yu-Hua Hsieh, Yi-Xing Shen

Abstract:

This article simulates the wind generator set which has two fault bearing collar rail destruction and the gear box oil leak fault. The electric current signal which produced by the generator, We use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as well as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) obtains the frequency range-s signal figure and characteristic value. The last step is use a kind of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifies which determination fault signal's type and reason. The ANN purpose of the automatic identification wind generator set fault..

Keywords: Wind-driven generator, Fast Fourier Transform, Neural network

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143 An Analysis of the Optimization Condition of Plasma Generator for Air Conditioner System

Authors: Arunrungrusmi S, Chaokamnerd W , Tanitteerapan T , Mungkung N., Yuji T.

Abstract:

This research aimed to develop plasma system used in air conditioners. This developed plasma system could be installed in the air conditioners - all split type. The quality of air could be improved to be equal to present plasma system. Development processes were as follows: 1) to study the plasma system used in the air conditioners, 2) to design a plasma generator, 3) to develop the plasma generator, and 4) to test its performance in many types of the air conditioners. This plasma system was developed by AC high voltage – 14 kv with a frequency of 50 kHz. Carbon was a conductor to generate arc in air purifier system. The research was tested by installing the plasma generator in the air conditioners - wall type. Whereas, there were 3 types of installations: air flow out, air flow in, and room center. The result of the plasma generator installed in the air conditioners, split type, revealed that the air flow out installation provided the highest average of o-zone at 223 mg/h. This type of installation provided the highest efficiency of air quality improvement. Moreover, the air flow in installation and the room center installation provided the average of the o-zone at 163 mg/h and 64 mg/h, respectively.

Keywords: Air Conditioner, Plasma generator, High voltage, Optimization, Installation position.

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142 Distributed Generator Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System

Authors: J. B. V. Subrahmanyam, C. Radhakrishna

Abstract:

To minimize power losses, it is important to determine the location and size of local generators to be placed in unbalanced power distribution systems. On account of some inherent features of unbalanced distribution systems, such as radial structure, large number of nodes, a wide range of X/R ratios, the conventional techniques developed for the transmission systems generally fail on the determination of optimum size and location of distributed generators (DGs). This paper presents a simple method for investigating the problem of contemporaneously choosing best location and size of DG in three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system (URDS) for power loss minimization and to improve the voltage profile of the system. Best location of the DG is determined by using voltage index analysis and size of DG is computed by variational technique algorithm according to available standard size of DGs. This paper presents the results of simulations for 25-bus and IEEE 37- bus Unbalanced Radial Distribution system.

Keywords: Distributed generator, unbalanced radial distributionsystem, voltage index analysis, variational algorithm.

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141 Development and Validation of Cylindrical Linear Oscillating Generator

Authors: Sungin Jeong

Abstract:

This paper presents a linear oscillating generator of cylindrical type for hybrid electric vehicle application. The focus of the study is the suggestion of the optimal model and the design rule of the cylindrical linear oscillating generator with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator. The cylindrical topology is achieved using equivalent magnetic circuit considering leakage elements as initial modeling. This topology with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator is described by number of phases and displacement of stroke. For more accurate analysis of an oscillating machine, it will be compared by moving just one-pole pitch forward and backward the thrust of single-phase system and three-phase system. Through the analysis and comparison, a single-phase system of cylindrical topology as the optimal topology is selected. Finally, the detailed design of the optimal topology takes the magnetic saturation effects into account by finite element analysis. Besides, the losses are examined to obtain more accurate results; copper loss in the conductors of machine windings, eddy-current loss of permanent magnet, and iron-loss of specific material of electrical steel. The considerations of thermal performances and mechanical robustness are essential, because they have an effect on the entire efficiency and the insulations of the machine due to the losses of the high temperature generated in each region of the generator. Besides electric machine with linear oscillating movement requires a support system that can resist dynamic forces and mechanical masses. As a result, the fatigue analysis of shaft is achieved by the kinetic equations. Also, the thermal characteristics are analyzed by the operating frequency in each region. The results of this study will give a very important design rule in the design of linear oscillating machines. It enables us to more accurate machine design and more accurate prediction of machine performances.

Keywords: Equivalent magnetic circuit, finite element analysis, hybrid electric vehicle, free piston engine, cylindrical linear oscillating generator

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140 Design and Construction of Microcontroller-Based Telephone Exchange System

Authors: Aye Sandar Win

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates design and construction of microcontroller-based telephone exchange system and the aims of this paper is to study telecommunication, connection with PIC16F877A and DTMF MT8870D. In microcontroller system, PIC 16F877 microcontroller is used to control the call processing. Dial tone, busy tone and ring tone are provided during call progress. Instead of using ready made tone generator IC, oscillator based tone generator is used. The results of this telephone exchange system are perfect for homes and small businesses needing the extensions. It requires the phone operation control system, the analog interface circuit and the switching circuit. This exchange design will contain eight channels. It is the best low cost, good quality telephone exchange for today-s telecommunication needs. It offers the features available in much more expensive PBX units without using high-priced phones. It is for long distance telephone services.

Keywords: Control software, DTMF receiver and decoder, hooksensing, microcontroller system, power supply, ring generator andoscillator based tone generator.

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139 Performance of a Power Generator System Using Crude Plant Oil Blend with Diesel Fuel

Authors: Tsair-Wang Chung, Kuan-Ting Liu, Mai-Tzu Chen

Abstract:

Under the variation of crude oil price and the impact of greenhouse effect, it is urgent to find a potential alternative fuel. Among these alternative fuels, non edible plant oils are the most potential ones, because they don-t have the problem of food and cropland competitions. Among the non-edible plant oils, Jatropha oil is the most potential one. Jatropha oil is non-eatable oil and has good oil quality and low temperature performance. It has potential to become one of the most competitive biomass crude oils. The crude plant oil will be blended with diesel fuel to be tested in a power generator. The international collaboration between Taiwan and Indonesia on the production of Jatropha in Indonesia will also be presented in this study.

Keywords: Jatropha, plant oil, oil blend, diesel, power generator.

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138 Performance Analysis of Self Excited Induction Generator Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: A. K. Sharma, N. P. Patidar, G. Agnihotri, D. K. Palwalia

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance state analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization technique. The total admittance of the induction machine is minimized to calculate the frequency and magnetizing reactance corresponding to any rotor speed, load impedance and excitation capacitance. The performance of SEIG is calculated using the optimized parameter found. The results obtained by ABC algorithm are compared with results from numerical method. The results obtained coincide with the numerical method results. This technique proves to be efficient in solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems and analyzing the performance of SEIG.

Keywords: Artificial bee colony, Steady state analysis, Selfexcited induction generator, Nonlinear constrained optimization.

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