Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8192

Search results for: motor-generator pair system

8192 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Authors: Zhou Yingkun, Xu Guorui, Wei Siming, Huang Yongzhang

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG.

Keywords: High renewable energy penetration, inertia of power system, virtual synchronous generator, motor-generator pair system, techno-economic analysis.

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8191 Design and Research of a New Kind Balance Adjusting System of Centrifuge

Authors: Li Xinyao, Hong Jianzhong, Wu Wenkai

Abstract:

In order to make environmental test centrifuge balance automatically and accurately, reduce unbalance centrifugal force, balance adjusting system of centrifuge is designed. The new balance adjusting system comprises motor-reducer, timing belt, screw pair, slider-guideway and four rocker force sensors. According to information obtained by the four rocker force sensors, unbalanced value at both ends of the big arm is computed and heavy block is moved to achieve balance adjusting. In this paper, motor power and torque to move the heavy block is calculated. In full load running progress of centrifuge, the stress-strain of screw pair composed by adjusting nut and big arm are analyzed. A successful application of the balance adjusting system is also put forwarded. The results show that the balance adjusting system can satisfy balance require of environmental test centrifuge.

Keywords: balance adjusting system, centrifuge, screw pair, timing belt

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8190 Eye Location Based on Structure Feature for Driver Fatigue Monitoring

Authors: Qiong Wang

Abstract:

One of the most important problems to solve is eye location for a driver fatigue monitoring system. This paper presents an efficient method to achieve fast and accurate eye location in grey level images obtained in the real-word driving conditions. The structure of eye region is used as a robust cue to find possible eye pairs. Candidates of eye pair at different scales are selected by finding regions which roughly match with the binary eye pair template. To obtain real one, all the eye pair candidates are then verified by using support vector machines. Finally, eyes are precisely located by using binary vertical projection and eye classifier in eye pair images. The proposed method is robust to deal with illumination changes, moderate rotations, glasses wearing and different eye states. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

Keywords: eye location, structure feature, driver fatiguemonitoring

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8189 Enhancement of Stereo Video Pairs Using SDNs To Aid In 3D Reconstruction

Authors: Lewis E. Hibell, Honghai Liu, David J. Brown

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of enhancing images from a left and right stereo pair in order to increase the resolution of a 3D representation of a scene generated from that same pair. A new neural network structure known as a Self Delaying Dynamic Network (SDN) has been used to perform the enhancement. The advantage of SDNs over existing techniques such as bicubic interpolation is their ability to cope with motion and noise effects. SDNs are used to generate two high resolution images, one based on frames taken from the left view of the subject, and one based on the frames from the right. This new high resolution stereo pair is then processed by a disparity map generator. The disparity map generated is compared to two other disparity maps generated from the same scene. The first is a map generated from an original high resolution stereo pair and the second is a map generated using a stereo pair which has been enhanced using bicubic interpolation. The maps generated using the SDN enhanced pairs match more closely the target maps. The addition of extra noise into the input images is less problematic for the SDN system which is still able to out perform bicubic interpolation.

Keywords: Genetic Evolution, Image Enhancement, Neuron Networks, Stereo Vision

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8188 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Thermal Driven Refrigeration System

Authors: Linghui Zhu, Junjie Gu

Abstract:

Thermal-driven refrigeration systems have attracted increasing research and development interest in recent years. These systems do not cause ozone depletion and can reduce demand on electricity. The main objective of this work is to perform theoretical analyses of a thermal-driven refrigeration system using a new sorbent-sorptive pair as the working pair. The active component of sorbent is sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN). Ammonia (NH3) is chosen as sorptive. Based on the thermodynamic properties of the working solution, a mathematical model is introduced to analyze the system characteristics and performance. The results are used to compare with other thermal-driven refrigeration systems. It is shown that the advantages provided by this system over other absorption units include lower generator and evaporator temperatures, a higher coefficient of performance (COP). The COP is about 10 percent higher than the ones for the NH3-H2O system working at the same conditions.

Keywords: Absorption; Ammonia-Sodium thiocyanate, Exergy, coefficient of performance (COP)

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8187 Measurement Scheme Improving for State Estimation Using Stochastic Tabu Search

Authors: T. Kerdchuen

Abstract:

This paper proposes the stochastic tabu search (STS) for improving the measurement scheme for power system state estimation. If the original measured scheme is not observable, the additional measurements with minimum number of measurements are added into the system by STS so that there is no critical measurement pair. The random bit flipping and bit exchanging perturbations are used for generating the neighborhood solutions in STS. The Pδ observable concept is used to determine the network observability. Test results of 10 bus, IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems are shown that STS can improve the original measured scheme to be observable without critical measurement pair. Moreover, the results of STS are superior to deterministic tabu search (DTS) in terms of the best solution hit.

Keywords: Measurement Scheme, Power System StateEstimation, Network Observability, Stochastic Tabu Search (STS).

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8186 Photograph Based Pair-matching Recognition of Human Faces

Authors: Min Yao, Kota Aoki, Hiroshi Nagahashi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel system recognition of human faces without using face different color photographs is proposed. It mainly in face detection, normalization and recognition. Foot method of combination of Haar-like face determined segmentation and region-based histogram stretchi (RHST) is proposed to achieve more accurate perf using Haar. Apart from an effective angle norm side-face (pose) normalization, which is almost a might be important and beneficial for the prepr introduced. Then histogram-based and photom normalization methods are investigated and ada retinex (ASR) is selected for its satisfactory illumin Finally, weighted multi-block local binary pattern with 3 distance measures is applied for pair-mat Experimental results show its advantageous perfo with PCA and multi-block LBP, based on a principle.

Keywords: Face detection, pair-matching rec normalization, skin color segmentation.

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8185 Node Pair Selection Scheme in Relay-Aided Communication Based On Stable Marriage Problem

Authors: Tetsuki Taniguchi, Yoshio Karasawa

Abstract:

This paper describes a node pair selection scheme in relay-aided multiple source multiple destination communication system based on stable marriage problem. A general case is assumed in which all of source, relay and destination nodes are equipped with multiantenna and carry out multistream transmission. Based on several metrics introduced from inter-node channel condition, the preference order is determined about all source-relay and relay-destination relations, and then the node pairs are determined using Gale-Shapley algorithm. The computer simulations show that the effectiveness of node pair selection is larger in multihop communication. Some additional aspects which are different from relay-less case are also investigated.

Keywords: Relay, multiple input multiple output (MIMO), multiuser, amplify and forward, stable marriage problem, Gale-Shapley algorithm.

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8184 All Types of Base Pair Substitutions Induced by γ-Rays in Haploid and Diploid Yeast Cells

Authors: Natalia Koltovaya, Nadezhda Zhuchkina, Ksenia Lyubimova

Abstract:

We study the biological effects induced by ionizing radiation in view of therapeutic exposure and the idea of space flights beyond Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, we examine the differences between base pair substitution induction by ionizing radiation in model haploid and diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Such mutations are difficult to study in higher eukaryotic systems. In our research, we have used a collection of six isogenic trp5-strains and 14 isogenic haploid and diploid cyc1-strains that are specific markers of all possible base-pair substitutions. These strains differ from each other only in single base substitutions within codon-50 of the trp5 gene or codon-22 of the cyc1 gene. Different mutation spectra for two different haploid genetic trp5- and cyc1-assays and different mutation spectra for the same genetic cyc1-system in cells with different ploidy — haploid and diploid — have been obtained. It was linear function for dose-dependence in haploid and exponential in diploid cells. We suggest that the differences between haploid yeast strains reflect the dependence on the sequence context, while the differences between haploid and diploid strains reflect the different molecular mechanisms of mutations.

Keywords: Base pair substitutions, γ-rays, haploid and diploid cells, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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8183 Structural Modelling of the LiCl Aqueous Solution: Using the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC) Simulation

Authors: M. Habchi, S.M. Mesli, M. Kotbi

Abstract:

The Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation is applied in the study of an aqueous electrolyte LiCl6H2O. On the basis of the available experimental neutron scattering data, RMC computes pair radial distribution functions in order to explore the structural features of the system. The obtained results include some unrealistic features. To overcome this problem, we use the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC), incorporating an energy constraint in addition to the commonly used constraints derived from experimental data. Our results show a good agreement between experimental and computed partial distribution functions (PDFs) as well as a significant improvement in pair partial distribution curves. This kind of study can be considered as a useful test for a defined interaction model for conventional simulation techniques.

Keywords: RMC simulation, HRMC simulation, energy constraint, screened potential, glassy state, liquid state, partial distribution function, pair partial distribution function.

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8182 Improved Algorithms for Construction of Interface Agent Interaction Model

Authors: Huynh Quyet Thang, Le Hai Quan

Abstract:

Interaction Model plays an important role in Modelbased Intelligent Interface Agent Architecture for developing Intelligent User Interface. In this paper we are presenting some improvements in the algorithms for development interaction model of interface agent including: the action segmentation algorithm, the action pair selection algorithm, the final action pair selection algorithm, the interaction graph construction algorithm and the probability calculation algorithm. The analysis of the algorithms also presented. At the end of this paper, we introduce an experimental program called “Personal Transfer System".

Keywords: interface agent, interaction model, user model.

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8181 Effect of Magnetic Field on the Biological Clock through the Radical Pair Mechanism

Authors: Chathurika D. Abeyrathne, Malka N. Halgamuge, Peter M. Farrell

Abstract:

There is an ongoing controversy in the literature related to the biological effects of weak, low frequency electromagnetic fields. The physical arguments and interpretation of the experimental evidence are inconsistent, where some physical arguments and experimental demonstrations tend to reject the likelihood of any effect of the fields at extremely low level. The problem arises of explaining, how the low-energy influences of weak magnetic fields can compete with the thermal and electrical noise of cells at normal temperature using the theoretical studies. The magnetoreception in animals involve radical pair mechanism. The same mechanism has been shown to be involved in the circadian rhythm synchronization in mammals. These reactions can be influenced by the weak magnetic fields. Hence, it is postulated the biological clock can be affected by weak magnetic fields and these disruptions to the rhythm can cause adverse biological effects. In this paper, likelihood of altering the biological clock via the radical pair mechanism is analyzed to simplify these studies of controversy.

Keywords: Bio-effect, biological clock, magnetoreception, radical pair mechanism, weak magnetic field.

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8180 Edit Distance Algorithm to Increase Storage Efficiency of Javanese Corpora

Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy

Abstract:

Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).

Keywords: edit distance coefficient, Javanese, parallel text alignment, phrase pair combination

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8179 Motion Prediction and Motion Vector Cost Reduction during Fast Block Motion Estimation in MCTF

Authors: Karunakar A K, Manohara Pai M M

Abstract:

In 3D-wavelet video coding framework temporal filtering is done along the trajectory of motion using Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering (MCTF). Hence computationally efficient motion estimation technique is the need of MCTF. In this paper a predictive technique is proposed in order to reduce the computational complexity of the MCTF framework, by exploiting the high correlation among the frames in a Group Of Picture (GOP). The proposed technique applies coarse and fine searches of any fast block based motion estimation, only to the first pair of frames in a GOP. The generated motion vectors are supplied to the next consecutive frames, even to subsequent temporal levels and only fine search is carried out around those predicted motion vectors. Hence coarse search is skipped for all the motion estimation in a GOP except for the first pair of frames. The technique has been tested for different fast block based motion estimation algorithms over different standard test sequences using MC-EZBC, a state-of-the-art scalable video coder. The simulation result reveals substantial reduction (i.e. 20.75% to 38.24%) in the number of search points during motion estimation, without compromising the quality of the reconstructed video compared to non-predictive techniques. Since the motion vectors of all the pair of frames in a GOP except the first pair will have value ±1 around the motion vectors of the previous pair of frames, the number of bits required for motion vectors is also reduced by 50%.

Keywords: Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering, predictivemotion estimation, lifted wavelet transform, motion vector

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8178 Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

Contact stress analysis between two spur gear teeth was considered in different contact positions, representing a pair of mating gears during rotation. A programme has been developed to plot a pair of teeth in contact. This programme was run for each 3° of pinion rotation from the first location of contact to the last location of contact to produce 10 cases. Each case was represented a sequence position of contact between these two teeth. The programme gives graphic results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during rotation. Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done. The results were presented and finite element analysis results were compared with theoretical calculations, wherever available.

Keywords: Contact stress, Spur gear, Contact ratio, Finite elements

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8177 Parallel Text Processing: Alignment of Indonesian to Javanese Language

Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy

Abstract:

Parallel text alignment is proposed as a way of aligning bahasa Indonesia to words in Javanese. Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).

Keywords: Parallel text alignment, phrase pair combination, edit distance coefficient, Javanese-Indonesian language.

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8176 Screened Potential in a Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) Simulation

Authors: M. Habchi, S. M. Mesli, M. Kotbi

Abstract:

A structural study of an aqueous electrolyte whose experimental results are available. It is a solution of LiCl-6H2O type at glassy state (120K) contrasted with pure water at room temperature by means of Partial Distribution Functions (PDF) issue from neutron scattering technique. Based on these partial functions, the Reverse Monte Carlo method (RMC) computes radial and angular correlation functions which allow exploring a number of structural features of the system. The obtained curves include some artifacts. To remedy this, we propose to introduce a screened potential as an additional constraint. Obtained results show a good matching between experimental and computed functions and a significant improvement in PDFs curves with potential constraint. It suggests an efficient fit of pair distribution functions curves.

Keywords: RMC simulation; Screened potential; partial and pair distribution functions; glassy and liquid state

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8175 Thermodynamic Analysis of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor

Abstract:

The present work deals with thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system using ozone friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable and as R507A an azeotropic mixture there is no problem of temperature glide. This study thermodynamically analyzed R507A-R23 cascade refrigeration system to optimize the design and operating parameters of the system. The design and operating parameters include: Condensing, evaporating, subcooling and superheating temperatures in the high temperature circuit, temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger, Condensing, evaporating, subcooling and superheating temperatures in the low temperature circuit.

Keywords: COP, R507A, R23, cascade refrigeration system

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8174 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan

Abstract:

The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3- coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two-soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: Optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM.

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8173 Adsorption Refrigeration Working Pairs: The State-of-the-Art in the Application

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Ahmed Hamza H. Ali, Ali K. Abel-Rahman

Abstract:

Adsorption refrigeration working pair is a vital and is the main component in the adsorption refrigeration machine. Therefore the development key is laying on the adsorption pair that leads to the improvement of the adsorption refrigeration machine. In this study the state-of-the-art in the application of the adsorption refrigeration working pairs in both classical and modern adsorption pairs are presented, compared and summarized. It is found that the maximum adsorption capacity for the classical working pairs was 0.259kg/kg for activated carbon/methanol and that for the modern working pairs was 2kg/kg for maxsorb III/R-134a. The study concluded that, the performances of the adsorption working pairs of adsorption cooling systems are still need further investigations as well as developing adsorption pairs having higher sorption capacity with low or no impact on environmental, to build compact, efficient, reliable and long life performance adsorption chillier. Also, future researches need to be focused on designing the adsorption system that provide efficient heating and cooling for the adsorbent materials through distributing the adsorbent material over heat exchanger surface, to allow good heat and mass transfer between the adsorbent and the refrigerant.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorbent/Adsorbate Pairs, Refrigeration.

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8172 Dominant Correlation Effects in Atomic Spectra

Authors: Hubert Klar

Abstract:

High double excitation of two-electron atoms has been investigated using hyperpherical coordinates within a modified adiabatic expansion technique. This modification creates a novel fictitious force leading to a spontaneous exchange symmetry breaking at high double excitation. The Pauli principle must therefore be regarded as approximation valid only at low excitation energy. Threshold electron scattering from high Rydberg states shows an unexpected time reversal symmetry breaking. At threshold for double escape we discover a broad (few eV) Cooper pair.

Keywords: Correlation, resonances, threshold ionization, Cooper pair.

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8171 Weak Convergence of Mann Iteration for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings in a Banach Space

Authors: Alemayehu Geremew Negash

Abstract:

We prove the weak convergence of Mann iteration for a hybrid pair of maps to a common fixed point of a selfmap f and a multivalued f nonexpansive mapping T in Banach space E.  

Keywords: Common fixed point, Mann iteration, Multivalued mapping, weak convergence.

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8170 CMOS Solid-State Nanopore DNA System-Level Sequencing Techniques Enhancement

Authors: Syed Islam, Yiyun Huang, Sebastian Magierowski, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents system level CMOS solid-state nanopore techniques enhancement for speedup next generation molecular recording and high throughput channels. This discussion also considers optimum number of base-pair (bp) measurements through channel as an important role to enhance potential read accuracy. Effective power consumption estimation offered suitable range of multi-channel configuration. Nanopore bp extraction model in statistical method could contribute higher read accuracy with longer read-length (200 < read-length). Nanopore ionic current switching with Time Multiplexing (TM) based multichannel readout system contributed hardware savings.

Keywords: DNA, Nanopore, Amplifier, ADC, Multichannel.

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8169 Mechanical Buckling of Engesser-Timoshenko Beams with a Pair of Piezoelectric Layers

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper presents the elastic buckling of homogeneous beams with a pair of piezoelectric layers surface bonded on both sides of the beams. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on the Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Mechanical Buckling, Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory - Piezoelectric layer.

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8168 Solar-Powered Adsorption Cooling System: A Case Study on the Climatic Conditions of Al Minya

Authors: El-Sadek H. Nour El-deen, K. Harby

Abstract:

Energy saving and environment friendly applications are turning out to be one of the most important topics nowadays. In this work, a simulation analysis using TRNSYS software has been carried out to study the benefit of employing a solar adsorption cooling system under the climatic conditions of Al-Minya city, Egypt. A theoretical model was carried out on a two bed adsorption cooling system employing granular activated carbon-HFC-404A as working pair. Temporal and averaged history of solar collector, adsorbent beds, evaporator and condenser has been shown. System performance in terms of daily average cooling capacity and average coefficient of performance around the year has been investigated. The results showed that maximum yearly average coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity are about 0.26 and 8 kW respectively. The maximum value of the both average cooling capacity and COP cyclic is directly proportional to the maximum solar radiation. The system performance was found to be increased with the average ambient temperature. Finally, the proposed solar powered adsorption cooling systems can be used effectively under Al-Minya climatic conditions.

Keywords: Adsorption, solar energy, environment, cooling, Egypt.

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8167 Nonstational Dual Wavelet Frames in Sobolev Spaces

Authors: Yingchun Jiang, Yan Tang

Abstract:

In view of the good properties of nonstationary wavelet frames and the better flexibility of wavelets in Sobolev spaces, the nonstationary dual wavelet frames in a pair of dual Sobolev spaces are studied in this paper. We mainly give the oblique extension principle and the mixed extension principle for nonstationary dual wavelet frames in a pair of dual Sobolev spaces Hs(Rd) and H-s(Rd).

Keywords: Nonstationary, dual frames, dual Sobolev spaces, extension principle.

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8166 Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yu-Sheng Hsu

Abstract:

On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.

Keywords: Vehicle auto-parking, parking space detection, parking path tracking, intelligent fuzzy controller.

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8165 Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor

Abstract:

The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e. evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.

Keywords: Thermodynamic analysis, cascade refrigeration system, COP, exergetic efficiency.

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8164 Experimental Study on Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Pairs with Different Refrigerants

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Ahmed Hamza H. Ali, Ali K. Abel-Rahman

Abstract:

This study is experimentally targeting to develop effective in heat and mass transfer processes for the adsorbate to obtain applicable adsorption capacity data. This is done by using fin and tube heat exchanger core and the adsorbate is adhesive over its surface and located as the core of the adsorber. The pairs are activated carbon powder/R-134a, activated carbon powder/R-407c, activated carbon powder/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-407c and activated carbon granules/R-134a, at different adsorption temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 50°C. The following is results is obtained: at adsorption temperature of 25 °C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.8352kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.1583kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. While, at adsorption temperature of 50°C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.3207kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.0609kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. Therefore, the activated carbon powder/R-134a pair is highly recommended to be used as adsorption refrigeration working pair because of its higher maximum adsorption capacity than the other tested pairs, to produce a compact, efficient and reliable for long life performance adsorption refrigeration system.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorbent/Adsorbate Pairs, Adsorption Capacity, Refrigeration.

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8163 A Neuro-Automata Decision Support System for the Control of Late Blight in Tomato Crops

Authors: Gizelle K. Vianna, Gustavo S. Oliveira, Gabriel V. Cunha

Abstract:

The use of decision support systems in agriculture may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. In our work, we designed and implemented a decision support system for small tomatoes producers. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of digital images of tomatoes, using a pair of multilayer perceptron neural networks. The networks outputs are used to generate repainted tomato images in which the injuries on the plant are highlighted, and to calculate the damage level of each plant. Those levels are then used to construct a situation map of a farm where a cellular automata simulates the outbreak evolution over the fields. The simulator can test different pesticides actions, helping in the decision on when to start the spraying and in the analysis of losses and gains of each choice of action.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, cellular automata, decision support system, pattern recognition.

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