Search results for: electronic cooling
923 Effect of Baffles on the Cooling of Electronic Components
Authors: O. Bendermel, C. Seladji, M. Khaouani
In this work, we made anumerical study of the thermal and dynamic behavior of air in a horizontal channel with electronic components.The influenceto use baffles on the profiles of velocity and temperature is discussed.The finite volume method and the algorithm Simple are used for solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy.The results found show that baffles improve heat transfer between the cooling air and electronic components. The velocity will increase from 3 times per rapport of the initial velocity.
Keywords: Electronic components, baffles, cooling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1574
922 Effects of Various Substrate Openings for Electronic Cooling under Forced and Natural Convection
Authors: Shen-Kuei Du, Jen-Chieh Chang, Chia-Hong Kao, Tzu-Chen Hung, Chii-Ray Lin
This study experimentally investigates the heat transfer effects of forced convection and natural convection under different substrate openings design. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established and implemented to verify and explain the experimental results and heat transfer behavior. It is found that different opening position will destroy the growth of the boundary layer on substrates to alter the cooling ability for both forced under low Reynolds number and natural convection. Nevertheless, having too many opening may reduce heat conduction and affect the overall heat transfer performance. This study provides future researchers with a guideline on designing and electronic package manufacturing.
Keywords: electronic cooling, experiment, opening concept, CFD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1526
921 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel
Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho
Abstract:The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.
Keywords: Matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1047
920 Performance of Piezoelectric Cooling Fan with Rectangular Blade
Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Yu-Shen Chen
Abstract:Using the numerical and experimental methods, this paper discusses some primary studies on the vibration and cooling performances of the piezoelectric cooling fan with the rectangular blade. When the fan works at its natural frequency, the vibrating displacement is largest and the cooling performance is best. Due to the vibration behavior, the cooling performance is affected by the geometry, material property, and working frequency of the piezoelectric cooling fan.
Keywords: Piezoelectric cooling fan, finite element, vibration, natural frequency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
919 Climatic Range for Comfort Evaporative Cooling
Authors: Zahra Ghiabaklou
Abstract:This paper presents the climatic range calculations for comfort evaporative cooling for Tehran. In this study the minimum climatic conditions required to achieve an appropriate comfort zone will be presented. Physiologically uncomfortable conditions in arid climates are mainly caused by the extreme heat and dryness. Direct evaporative cooling adds moisture to the air stream until the air stream is close to saturation. The dry bulb temperature is reduced, while the wet bulb temperature stays the same. Evaporative cooling is economical, effective, environmentally friendly, and healthy. Comfort cooling by direct evaporative cooling (passive or fan forced) in the 35. 41 N (such as Tehran) latitude requires design wet-bulb temperature not over 25.4 C. Evaporative cooling outside this limit cannot achieve the required 26.7 ET, and is recommended for relief cooling only.
Keywords: Evaporative cooling, Comfort temperature, Climaticdesign, Comfort coolingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2142
918 Enhancing the Performance of a Photovoltaic Module Using Different Cooling Methods
Authors: Ahmed Amine Hachicha, Chaouki Ghenai, Abdul Kadir Hamid
Temperature effect on the performance of a photovoltaic module is one of the main concerns that face this renewable energy, especially in hot arid region, e.g. United Arab Emirates. Overheating of the PV modules reduces the open circuit voltage and the efficiency of the modules dramatically. In this work, water-cooling is developed to enhance the performance of PV modules. Different scenarios are tested under UAE weather conditions: front, back and double cooling. A spraying system is used for the front cooling whether a direct contact water system is used for the back cooling. The experimental results are compared to non-cooling module and the performance of the PV module is determined for different situations. The experimental results show that the front cooling is more effective than the back cooling and may decrease the temperature of the PV module significantly.
Keywords: PV cooling, solar energy, cooling methods, electrical efficiency, temperature effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3402
917 A Survey on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Authors: E. Asadzadeh, M. Alam
This study offers a comprehensive review of the research papers published in the field of cooling towers and gives an insight into the latest developments of the natural draught cooling towers. Different modeling, analysis and design techniques are summarized and the challenges are discussed. The 118 references included in this paper are mostly concentrated on the review of the published papers after 2005. The present paper represents a complete collection of the studies done for cooling towers and would give an updated material for the researchers and design engineers in the field of hyperbolic cooling towers.
Keywords: Hyperbolic cooling towers, earthquakes, wind, nonlinear behavior, buckling, collapse, interference.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3827
916 Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Jet Impingement Cooling
Authors: Arun Jacob, Leena R., Krishnakumar T.S., Jose Prakash M.
Abstract:Effective cooling of electronic equipment has emerged as a challenging and constraining problem of the new century. In the present work the feasibility and effectiveness of jet impingement cooling on electronics were investigated numerically and experimentally. Studies have been conducted to see the effect of the geometrical parameters such as jet diameter (D), jet to target spacing (Z) and ratio of jet spacing to jet diameter (Z/D) on the heat transfer characteristics. The values of Reynolds numbers considered are in the range 7000 to 42000. The results obtained from the numerical studies are validated by conducting experiments. From the studies it is found that the optimum value of Z/D ratio is 5. For a given Reynolds number, the Nusselt number increases by about 28% if the diameter of the nozzle is increased from 1mm to 2mm. Correlations are proposed for Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and these are valid for air as the cooling medium.
Keywords: CFD, heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, ratio of jet diameter to jet spacing (Z/D), Reynolds number, turbulence model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2548
915 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System
Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu
The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.
Keywords: Injection mould, cooling channel, automatic layout, interference checking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2138
914 TACS : Thermo Acoustic Cooling System
Authors: Z. Zarid, C. Gamba, A. Brusseaux, C. Laborie, K. Briens
Abstract:Cooling with sound is a physical phenomenon allowed by Thermo-Acoustics in which acoustic energy is transformed into a negative heat transfer, in other words: into cooling! Without needing any harmful gas, the transformation is environmentally friendly and can respond to many needs in terms of air conditioning, food refrigeration for domestic use, and cooling medical samples for example. To explore the possibilities of this cooling solution on a small scale, the TACS prototype has been designed, consisting of a low cost thermoacoustic refrigerant “pipe” able to lower the temperature by a few degrees. The obtained results are providing an interesting element for possible future of thermo-acoustic refrigeration.
Keywords: Domestic Scale Cooling System, Thermoacoustic, Environmental Friendly Refrigeration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2290
913 Thermodynamic Analysis of Activated Carbon- CO2 based Adsorption Cooling Cycles
Authors: Skander Jribi, Anutosh Chakraborty, Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy, Bidyut Baran Saha, Shigeru Koyama
Abstract:Heat powered solid sorption is a feasible alternative to electrical vapor compression refrigeration systems. In this paper, activated carbon (powder type Maxsorb and fiber type ACF-A10)- CO2 based adsorption cooling cycles are studied using the pressuretemperature- concentration (P-T-W) diagram. The specific cooling effect (SCE) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of these two cooling systems are simulated for the driving heat source temperatures ranging from 30 ºC to 90 ºC in terms of different cooling load temperatures with a cooling source temperature of 25 ºC. It is found from the present analysis that Maxsorb-CO2 couple shows higher cooling capacity and COP. The maximum COPs of Maxsorb-CO2 and ACF(A10)-CO2 based cooling systems are found to be 0.15 and 0.083, respectively. The main innovative feature of this cooling cycle is the ability to utilize low temperature waste heat or solar energy using CO2 as the refrigerant, which is one of the best alternative for applications where flammability and toxicity are not allowed.
Keywords: Activated carbon, Adsorption cooling system, Carbon dioxide, Performance evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3473
912 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia
Authors: A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah, H. Ibrahim
This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.
Keywords: Evaporative cooling, vapour compression, electricity consumption and CO2 emission.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2869
911 Development of Thermal Model by Performance Verification of Heat Pipe Subsystem for Electronic Cooling under Space Environment
Authors: MK Lee, JS Hong, SM Sin, HU Oh
Abstract:Heat pipes are used to control the thermal problem for electronic cooling. It is especially difficult to dissipate heat to a heat sink in an environment in space compared to earth. For solving this problem, in this study, the Poiseuille (Po) number, which is the main measure of the performance of a heat pipe, is studied by CFD; then, the heat pipe performance is verified with experimental results. A heat pipe is then fabricated for a spatial environment, and an in-house code is developed. Further, a heat pipe subsystem, which consists of a heat pipe, MLI (Multi Layer Insulator), SSM (Second Surface Mirror), and radiator, is tested and correlated with the TMM (Thermal Mathematical Model) through a commercial code. The correlation results satisfy the 3K requirement, and the generated thermal model is verified for application to a spatial environment.
Keywords: CFD, Heat pipe, Radiator, Space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1519
910 Thermal Performance of a Pair of Synthetic Jets Equipped in Microchannel
Authors: J. Mohammadpour, G. E. Lau, S. Cheng, A. Lee
Abstract:Numerical study was conducted using two synthetic jet actuators attached underneath a micro-channel. By fixing the oscillating frequency and diaphragm amplitude, the effects on the heat transfer within the micro-channel were investigated with two synthetic jets being in-phase and 180° out-of-phase at different orifice spacing. There was a significant benefit identified with two jets being 180° out-of-phase with each other at the orifice spacing of 2 mm. By having this configuration, there was a distinct pattern of vortex forming which disrupts the main channel flow as well as promoting thermal mixing at high velocity within the channel. Therefore, this configuration achieved higher cooling performance compared to the other cases studied in terms of the reduction in the maximum temperature and cooling uniformity in the silicon wafer.
Keywords: Synthetic jets, microchannel, electronic cooling, computational fluid dynamics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 618
909 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates
Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir
A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, CFD, k-ω (SST), cold room, dates, cooling rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 847
908 Optimal Water Conservation in a Mechanical Cooling Tower Operations
Authors: M. Boumaza, Y. Bakhabkhi
Water recycling represents an important challenge for many countries, in particular in countries where this natural resource is rare. On the other hand, in many operations, water is used as a cooling medium, as a high proportion of water consumed in industry is used for cooling purposes. Generally this water is rejected directly to the nature. This reject will cause serious environment damages as well as an important waste of this precious element.. On way to solve these problems is to reuse and recycle this warm water, through the use of natural cooling medium, such as air in a heat exchanger unit, known as a cooling tower. A poor performance, design or reliability of cooling towers will result in lower flow rate of cooling water an increase in the evaporation of water, an hence losses of water and energy. This paper which presents an experimental investigate of thermal and hydraulic performances of a mechanical cooling tower, enables to show that the water evaporation rate, Mev, increases with an increase in the air and water flow rates, as well as inlet water temperature and for fixed air flow rates, the pressure drop (ΔPw/Z) increases with increasing , L, due to the hydrodynamic behavior of the air/water flow.
Keywords: water, recycle, performance, cooling towerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2652
907 Cooling Turbine Blades using Exciting Boundary Layer
Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Seyed Mohammad Javadi, Behnam Rahimi
Abstract:The present study is concerned with the effect of exciting boundary layer on cooling process in a gas-turbine blades. The cooling process is numerically investigated. Observations show cooling the first row of moving or stable blades leads to increase their life-time. Results show that minimum temperature in cooling line with exciting boundary layer is lower than without exciting. Using block in cooling line of turbines' blade causes flow pattern and stability in boundary layer changed that causes increase in heat transfer coefficient. Results show at the location of block, temperature of turbines' blade is significantly decreased. The k-ε turbulence model is used.
Keywords: Cooling, Exciting Boundary Layer, Heat Transfer, Turbine Blade.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2155
906 Computational Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling: Effect of Turbulator Geometry in Helicoidal Cooling Duct
Authors: Chandrakant R Kini, Satish Shenoy B, Yagnesh Sharma N.
In a bid to improve turbine entry temperature for maximizing the thermal efficiency of the HP stage gas turbine blade, an attempt is made in this paper to compare the performance of helicoidal ducted blade cooling with turbulator of different geometric proportion. It is found from analysis that there is significant improvement in cooling characteristics for turbine blade with turbulator geometry having larger e/D ratio. Also it is found from analysis, performance is vastly improved for greater thickness of turbulator geometry.
Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, turbine blade cooling, helicoidal cooling duct, turbulator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2563
905 A Study of Various Numerical Turbulence Modeling Methods in Boundary Layer Excitation of a Square Ribbed Channel
Authors: Hojjat Saberinejad, Adel Hashiehbaf, Ehsan Afrasiabian
Abstract:Among the various cooling processes in industrial applications such as: electronic devices, heat exchangers, gas turbines, etc. Gas turbine blades cooling is the most challenging one. One of the most common practices is using ribbed wall because of the boundary layer excitation and therefore making the ultimate cooling. Vortex formation between rib and channel wall will result in a complicated behavior of flow regime. At the other hand, selecting the most efficient method for capturing the best results comparing to experimental works would be a fascinating issue. In this paper 4 common methods in turbulence modeling: standard k-e, rationalized k-e with enhanced wall boundary layer treatment, k-w and RSM (Reynolds stress model) are employed to a square ribbed channel to investigate the separation and thermal behavior of the flow in the channel. Finally all results from different methods which are used in this paper will be compared with experimental data available in literature to ensure the numerical method accuracy.
Keywords: boundary layer, turbulence, numerical method, rib coolingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1588
904 Experimental Investigation of the Transient Cooling Characteristics of an Industrial Glass Tempering Unit
Authors: Hilmi Yazici, Mehmet Akcay, Mustafa Golcu, Mehmet F. Koseoglu, Yakup Sekmen
Abstract:Energy consumption rate during the cooling process of industrial glass tempering process is considerably high. In this experimental study the effect of dimensionless jet to jet distance (S/D) and jet to plate distance (H/D) on the cooling time have been investigated. In the experiments 4 mm thick glass samples have been used. Cooling unit consists of 16 mutually placed seamless aluminum nozzles of 8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length. Nozzles were in staggered arrangement. Experiments were conducted with circular jets for H/D values between 1 and 10, and for S/D values between 2 and 10. During the experiments Reynolds number has been kept constant at 30000. Experimental results showed that the longest cooling time with 87 seconds has been observed in the experiments for S/D=10 and H/D=10 values, while the shortest cooling time with 42.5 seconds has been measured in the experiments for S/D=2 and H/D=4 values.
Keywords: Glass tempering, cooling, Reynolds number, nozzleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
903 Preliminary Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Data Center: Case Study
Authors: Xiaoshu Lu, Tao Lu, Matias Remes, Martti Viljanen
Abstract:As the data-driven economy is growing faster than ever and the demand for energy is being spurred, we are facing unprecedented challenges of improving energy efficiency in data centers. Effectively maximizing energy efficiency or minimising the cooling energy demand is becoming pervasive for data centers. This paper investigates overall energy consumption and the energy efficiency of cooling system for a data center in Finland as a case study. The power, cooling and energy consumption characteristics and operation condition of facilities are examined and analysed. Potential energy and cooling saving opportunities are identified and further suggestions for improving the performance of cooling system are put forward. Results are presented as a comprehensive evaluation of both the energy performance and good practices of energy efficient cooling operations for the data center. Utilization of an energy recovery concept for cooling system is proposed. The conclusion we can draw is that even though the analysed data center demonstrated relatively high energy efficiency, based on its power usage effectiveness value, there is still a significant potential for energy saving from its cooling systems.
Keywords: Data center, case study, cooling system, energyefficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
902 Development of Cooling Demand by Computerize
Authors: Bobby Anak John, Zamri Noranai, Md. Norrizam Mohmad Jaat, Hamidon Salleh, Mohammad Zainal Md Yusof
Abstract:Air conditioning is mainly use as human comfort cooling medium. It use more in high temperatures are country such as Malaysia. Proper estimation of cooling load will archive ideal temperature. Without proper estimation can lead to over estimation or under estimation. The ideal temperature should be comfort enough. This study is to develop a program to calculate an ideal cooling load demand, which is match with heat gain. Through this study, it is easy to calculate cooling load estimation. Objective of this study are to develop user-friendly and easy excess cooling load program. This is to insure the cooling load can be estimate by any of the individual rather than them using rule-of-thumb. Developed software is carryout by using Matlab-GUI. These developments are only valid for common building in Malaysia only. An office building was select as case study to verify the applicable and accuracy of develop software. In conclusion, the main objective has successfully where developed software is user friendly and easily to estimate cooling load demand.
Keywords: Cooling Load, Heat Gain, Building and GUI.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1918
901 Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate
Authors: Budihardjo Sarwo Sastrosudiro, Arnas Lubis, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin Jusuf
Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.
Keywords: Absorption chiller, control system, solar cooling, solar energy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1339
900 Development of New Cooling System using Nacelle Duct
Authors: Minho Ha, SeungHeo, Cheolung Cheong, Park K. Y.
Abstract:In this paper, a new cooling system using a nacelle duct is proposed for the mechanical room in the household refrigerator. The conventional mechanical room consists of a condenser, a compressor and an axial fan. The axial fan is mainly responsible for cooling the condenser and the compressor. The new cooling system is developed by replacing the axial fan with the nacelle duct including the small centrifugal fan. The parametric study is carried out to find the optimum designs of the nacelle duct in terms of performance and efficiency. Through this study, it is revealed that the new system can reduce the space, electrical power and noise compared with the conventional system
Keywords: Centrifugal Fan, Cooling Fan, Nacelle Duct, RefrigeratorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1795
899 Density Wave Instability of Supercritical Kerosene in Active Cooling Channels of Scramjets
Authors: N. Wang, Y. Pan, J. Zhou, J. Lei, X. Z. Yang
Experimental investigations were made on the instability of supercritical kerosene flowing in active cooling channels. Two approaches were used to control the pressure in the channel. One is the back-pressure valve while the other is the venturi. In both conditions, a kind of low-frequency oscillation of pressure and temperature is observed. And the oscillation periods are calculated. By comparison with the flow time, it is concluded that the instability occurred in active cooling channels is probably one kind of density wave instability. And its period has no relationship with the cooling channel geometry, nor the pressure, but only depends on the flow time of kerosene in active cooling channels. When the mass flow rate, density and pressure drop couple with each other, the density wave instability will appear.
Keywords: scramjets, active cooling, instability, density waveProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1430
898 Methods for Analyzing the Energy Efficiencyand Cost Effectiveness of Evaporative Cooling Air Conditioning
Authors: A Fouda, Z. Melikyan
Abstract:Air conditioning systems of houses consume large quantity of electricity. To reducing energy consumption for air conditioning purposes it is becoming attractive the use of evaporative cooling air conditioning which is less energy consuming compared to air chillers. But, it is obvious that higher energy efficiency of evaporative cooling is not enough to judge whether evaporative cooling economically is competitive with other types of cooling systems. To proving the higher energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of the evaporative cooling competitive analysis of various types of cooling system should be accomplished. For noted purpose optimization mathematical model for each system should be composed based on system approach analysis. In this paper different types of evaporative cooling-heating systems are discussed and methods for increasing their energy efficiency and as well as determining of their design parameters are developed. The optimization mathematical models for each of them are composed with help of which least specific costs for each of them are reviled. The comparison of specific costs proved that the most efficient and cost effective is considered the “direct evaporating" system if it is applicable for given climatic conditions. Next more universal and applicable for many climatic conditions system providing least cost of heating and cooling is considered the “direct evaporating" system.
Keywords: air, conditioning, system, evaporative cooling, mathematical model, optimization, thermoeconomic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1656
897 Comparison of Different Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling Methods
Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli
Abstract:Gas turbine air inlet cooling is a useful method for increasing output for regions where significant power demand and highest electricity prices occur during the warm months. Inlet air cooling increases the power output by taking advantage of the gas turbine-s feature of higher mass flow rate when the compressor inlet temperature decreases. Different methods are available for reducing gas turbine inlet temperature. There are two basic systems currently available for inlet cooling. The first and most cost-effective system is evaporative cooling. Evaporative coolers make use of the evaporation of water to reduce the gas turbine-s inlet air temperature. The second system employs various ways to chill the inlet air. In this method, the cooling medium flows through a heat exchanger located in the inlet duct to remove heat from the inlet air. However, the evaporative cooling is limited by wet-bulb temperature while the chilling can cool the inlet air to temperatures that are lower than the wet bulb temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic model of a gas turbine is built to calculate heat rate, power output and thermal efficiency at different inlet air temperature conditions. Computational results are compared with ISO conditions herein called "base-case". Therefore, the two cooling methods are implemented and solved for different inlet conditions (inlet temperature and relative humidity). Evaporative cooler and absorption chiller systems results show that when the ambient temperature is extremely high with low relative humidity (requiring a large temperature reduction) the chiller is the more suitable cooling solution. The net increment in the power output as a function of the temperature decrease for each cooling method is also obtained.
Keywords: Absorption chiller, evaporative cooling, gas turbine, turbine inlet cooling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7389
896 The Effect of Discontinued Water Spray Cooling on the Heat Transfer Coefficient
Authors: J. Hrabovský, M. Chabičovský, J. Horský
Water spray cooling is a technique typically used in heat treatment and other metallurgical processes where controlled temperature regimes are required. Water spray cooling is used in static (without movement) or dynamic (with movement of the steel plate) regimes. The static regime is notable for the fixed position of the hot steel plate and fixed spray nozzle. This regime is typical for quenching systems focused on heat treatment of the steel plate. The second application of spray cooling is the dynamic regime. The dynamic regime is notable for its static section cooling system and moving steel plate. This regime is used in rolling and finishing mills. The fixed position of cooling sections with nozzles and the movement of the steel plate produce nonhomogeneous water distribution on the steel plate. The length of cooling sections and placement of water nozzles in combination with the nonhomogeneity of water distribution lead to discontinued or interrupted cooling conditions. The impact of static and dynamic regimes on cooling intensity and the heat transfer coefficient during the cooling process of steel plates is an important issue. Heat treatment of steel is accompanied by oxide scale growth. The oxide scale layers can significantly modify the cooling properties and intensity during the cooling. The combination of static and dynamic (section) regimes with the variable thickness of the oxide scale layer on the steel surface impact the final cooling intensity. The study of the influence of the oxide scale layers with different cooling regimes was carried out using experimental measurements and numerical analysis. The experimental measurements compared both types of cooling regimes and the cooling of scale-free surfaces and oxidized surfaces. A numerical analysis was prepared to simulate the cooling process with different conditions of the section and samples with different oxide scale layers.
Keywords: Heat transfer coefficient, numerical analysis, oxide layer, spray cooling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2650
895 An Experimental Investigation of Thermoelectric Air-Cooling Module
Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Chiao-Hung Cheng, Wen-Fang Wu, Sih-Li Chen
Abstract:This article experimentally investigates the thermal performance of thermoelectric air-cooling module which comprises a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and an air-cooling heat sink. The influences of input current and heat load are determined. And performances under each situation are quantified by thermal resistance analysis. Since TEC generates Joule heat, this nature makes construction of thermal resistance network difficult. To simplify the analysis, this article emphasizes on the resistance heat load might meet when passing through the device. Therefore, the thermal resistances in this paper are to divide temperature differences by heat load. According to the result, there exists an optimum input current under every heating power. In this case, the optimum input current is around 6A or 7A. The performance of the heat sink would be improved with TEC under certain heating power and input current, especially at a low heat load. According to the result, the device can even make the heat source cooler than the ambient. However, TEC is not always effective at every heat load and input current. In some situation, the device works worse than the heat sink without TEC. To determine the availability of TEC, this study figures out the effective operating region in which the TEC air-cooling module works better than the heat sink without TEC. The result shows that TEC is more effective at a lower heat load. If heat load is too high, heat sink with TEC will perform worse than without TEC. The limit of this device is 57W. Besides, TEC is not helpful if input current is too high or too low. There is an effective range of input current, and the range becomes narrower when the heat load grows.
Keywords: Thermoelectric cooler, TEC, electronic cooling, heat sink.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3557
894 Numerical Simulation of Iron Ore Reactor Isobaric and Cooling zone to Investigate Total Carbon Formation in Sponge Iron
Authors: B. Alamsari, S. Torii, A. Trianto, Y. Bindar
Abstract:Isobaric and cooling zone of iron ore reactor have been simulated. In this paper, heat and mass transfer equation are formulated to perform the temperature and concentration of gas and solid phase respectively. Temperature profile for isobaric zone is simulated on the range temperature of 873-1163K while cooling zone is simulated on the range temperature of 733-1139K. The simulation results have a good agreement with the plant data. Total carbon formation in the isobaric zone is only 30% of total carbon contained in the sponge iron product. The formation of Fe3C in isobaric zone reduces metallization degree up to 0.58% whereas reduction of metallization degree in cooling zone up to 1.139%. The decreasing of sponge iron temperature in the isobaric and cooling zone is around 300 K and 600 K respectively.
Keywords: Mathematical Model, Iron Ore Reactor, Cooling Zone, Isobaric zone.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1463