Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 702

Search results for: shear fracture.

702 Identification of Micromechanical Fracture Model for Predicting Fracture Performance of Steel Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Julia M. Race, Steve J. Bull

Abstract:

The fracture performance of steel wires for civil engineering applications remains a major concern in civil engineering construction and maintenance of wire reinforced structures. The need to employ approaches that simulate micromechanical material processes which characterizes fracture in civil structures has been emphasized recently in the literature. However, choosing from the numerous micromechanics-based fracture models, and identifying their applicability and reliability remains an issue that still needs to be addressed in a greater depth. Laboratory tensile testing and finite element tensile testing simulations with the shear, ductile and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman’s micromechanics-based models conducted in this work reveal that the shear fracture model is an appropriate fracture model to predict the fracture performance of steel wires used for civil engineering applications. The need to consider the capability of the micromechanics-based fracture model to predict the “cup and cone” fracture exhibited by the wire in choosing the appropriate fracture model is demonstrated.

Keywords: Fracture performance, FE simulation, Shear fracture model, Ductile fracture model, Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman fracture model, Wires.

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701 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: Crack, FRP, shear, strengthening.

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700 Effect of Miniature Cracks on the Fracture Strength and Strain of Tensile Armour Wires

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Steve J. Bull

Abstract:

Tensile armour wires provide a flexible pipe's resistance to longitudinal stresses. Flexible pipe manufacturers need to know the effect of defects such as scratches and cracks, with dimensions less than 0.2mm which is the limit of the current nondestructive detection technology, on the fracture stress and fracture strain of the wire for quality assurance purposes. Recent research involving the determination of the fracture strength of cracked wires employed laboratory testing and classical fracture mechanics approach using non-standardised fracture mechanics specimens because standard test specimens could not be manufactured from the wires owing to their sizes. In this work, the effect of miniature cracks on the fracture properties of tensile armour wires was investigated using laboratory and finite element tensile testing simulations with the phenomenological shear fracture model. The investigation revealed that the presence of cracks shallower than 0.2mm is worse on the fracture strain of the wire.

Keywords: Cracks, Finite Element Simulations, Fracture Mechanics, Shear Fracture Model, Tensile Armour Wire

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699 A Study of Shear Stress Intensity Factor of PP and HDPE by a Modified Experimental Method together with FEM

Authors: Md. Shafiqul Islam, Abdullah Khan, Sharon Kao-Walter, Li Jian

Abstract:

Shear testing is one of the most complex testing areas where available methods and specimen geometries are different from each other. Therefore, a modified shear test specimen (MSTS) combining the simple uniaxial test with a zone of interest (ZOI) is tested which gives almost the pure shear. In this study, material parameters of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are first measured by tensile tests with a dogbone shaped specimen. These parameters are then used as an input for the finite element analysis. Secondly, a specially designed specimen (MSTS) is used to perform the shear stress tests in a tensile testing machine to get the results in terms of forces and extension, crack initiation etc. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is also performed on the shear fracture surface to find material behavior. These experiments are then simulated by finite element method and compared with the experimental results in order to confirm the simulation model. Shear stress state is inspected to find the usability of the proposed shear specimen. Finally, a geometry correction factor can be established for these two materials in this specific loading and geometry with notch using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). By these results, strain energy of shear failure and stress intensity factor (SIF) of shear of these two polymers are discussed in the special application of the screw cap opening of the medical or food packages with a temper evidence safety solution.

Keywords: Shear test specimen, Stress intensity factor, Finite Element simulation, Scanning electron microscopy, Screw cap opening.

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698 Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

Authors: Djamal Atlaoui, Youcef Bouafia

Abstract:

This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions 10 x 20 x 120 cm3. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%) of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a sand-to-gravel ratio (S/G) of concrete matrix equal to 1. The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.

Keywords: Characterization, chips fibers, cracking mode, ductility, undulation, shear.

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697 Mode III Interlaminar Fracture in Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates

Authors: Farhad Asgari Mehrabadi, Mohammad Reza Khoshravan

Abstract:

In the present study, fracture behavior of woven fabric-reinforced glass/epoxy composite laminates under mode III crack growth was experimentally investigated and numerically modeled. Two methods were used for the calculation of the strain energy release rate: the experimental compliance calibration (CC) method and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). To achieve this aim ECT (Edge Crack Torsion) was used to evaluate fracture toughness in mode III loading (out of plane-shear) at different crack lengths. Load–displacement and associated energy release rates were obtained for various case of interest. To calculate fracture toughness JIII, two criteria were considered including non-linearity and maximum points in load-displacement curve and it is observed that JIII increases with the crack length increase. Both the experimental compliance method and the virtual crack closure technique proved applicable for the interpretation of the fracture mechanics data of woven glass/epoxy laminates in mode III.

Keywords: Mode III, Fracture, Composite, Crack growth Finite Element.

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696 Mechanical Properties of 3D Noninterlaced Cf/SiC Composites Prepared through Hybrid Process (CVI+PIP)

Authors: A. Udayakumar, M. Rizvan Basha, M. Stalin, V.V Bhanu Prasad

Abstract:

Three dimensional non-Interlaced carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide (3-D-Cf/SiC) composites with pyrocarbon interphase were fabricated using isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI) combined with polymer impregnation pyrolysis (PIP) process. Polysilazane (PSZ) is used as a preceramic polymer to obtain silicon carbide matrix. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Infrared spectroscopic analysis (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out on PSZ pyrolysed at different temperatures to understand the pyrolysis and obtaining the optimum pyrolysing condition to yield β-SiC phase. The density of the composites was 1.94 g cm-3 after the 3-D carbon preform was SiC infiltrated for 280 h with one intermediate polysilazane pre-ceramic PIP process. Mechanical properties of the composite materials were investigated under tensile, flexural, shear and impact loading. The values of tensile strength were 200 MPa at room temperature (RT) and 195 MPa at 500°C in air. The average RT flexural strength was 243 MPa. The lower flexural strength of these composites is because of the porosity. The fracture toughness obtained from single edge notched beam (SENB) technique was 39 MPa.m1/2. The work of fracture obtained from the load-displacement curve of SENB test was 22.8 kJ.m-2. The composites exhibited excellent impact resistance and the dynamic fracture toughness of 44.8 kJ.m-2 is achieved as determined from instrumented Charpy impact test. The shear strength of the composite was 93 MPa, which is significantly higher compared 2-D Cf/SiC composites. Microstructure evaluation of fracture surfaces revealed the signatures of fracture processes and showed good support for the higher toughness obtained.

Keywords: 3-D-Cf/SiC, charpy impact test, composites, dynamic fracture toughness, polysilazane, pyrocarbon, Interphase.

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695 Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Fumiya Ikedo

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.

Keywords: Gypsum board, anchor, shear test, cyclic loading, load-unload curve.

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694 2D Fracture Analysis of the First Compression Piston Ring

Authors: I. Razmi, N. Choupani

Abstract:

The incidence of mechanical fracture of an automobile piston rings prompted development of fracture analysis method on this case. The three rings (two compression rings and one oil ring) were smashed into several parts during the power-test (after manufacturing the engine) causing piston and liner to be damaged. The radial and oblique cracking happened on the failed piston rings. The aim of the fracture mechanics simulations presented in this paper was the calculation of particular effective fracture mechanics parameters, such as J-integrals and stress intensity factors. Crack propagation angles were calculated as well. Two-dimensional fracture analysis of the first compression ring has been developed in this paper using ABAQUS CAE6.5-1 software. Moreover, SEM fractography was developed on fracture surfaces and is discussed in this paper. Results of numerical calculations constitute the basis for further research on real object.

Keywords: Compression piston ring, Crack, Fracture mechanics, SEM fractography.

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693 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha

Abstract:

The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200 and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength increases as particle size increases.

Keywords: Particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test.

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692 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee

Abstract:

Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: Shear strength parameters, direct shear test, silty sand, shear stress, shear deformation.

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691 Impact Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Cobalt-Based Haynes 188 Superalloy

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Hao-Chien Kao

Abstract:

The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

Keywords: Haynes 188 alloy, impact, strain rate and temperature effect, adiabatic shearing.

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690 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: Diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior.

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689 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi

Abstract:

Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: Brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture.

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688 Development of a Sliding-tearing Mode Fracture Mechanical Tool for Laminated Composite Materials

Authors: Andras Szekrenyes

Abstract:

This work presents the mixed-mode II/III prestressed split-cantilever beam specimen for the fracture testing of composite materials. In accordance with the concept of prestressed composite beams one of the two fracture modes is provided by the prestressed state of the specimen, and the other one is increased up to fracture initiation by using a testing machine. The novel beam-like specimen is able to provide any combination of the mode-II and mode-III energy release rates. A simple closed-form solution is developed using beam theory as a data reduction scheme and for the calculation of the energy release rates in the new configuration. The applicability and the limitations of the novel fracture mechanical test are demonstrated using unidirectional glass/polyester composite specimens. If only crack propagation onset is involved then the mixed-mode beam specimen can be used to obtain the fracture criterion of transparent composite materials in the GII - GIII plane in a relatively simple way.

Keywords: Composite, fracture mechanics, toughness testing, mixed-mode II/III fracture.

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687 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: PSC members, shear failure mode, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, shear behavior.

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686 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Amended Loess through Using Common Admixtures in Gorgan, Iran

Authors: Seyed Erfan Hosseini, Mohammad K. Alizadeh, Amir Mesbah

Abstract:

Non-saturated soils that while saturation greatly decrease their volume, have sudden settlement due to increasing humidity, fracture and structural crack are called loess soils. Whereas importance of civil projects including: dams, canals and constructions bearing this type of soil and thereof problems, it is required for carrying out more research and study in relation to loess soils. This research studies shear strength parameters by using grading test, Atterberg limit, compression, direct shear and consolidation and then effect of using cement and lime additives on stability of loess soils is studied. In related tests, lime and cement are separately added to mixed ratios under different percentages of soil and for different times the stabilized samples are processed and effect of aforesaid additives on shear strength parameters of soil is studied. Results show that upon passing time the effect of additives and collapsible potential is greatly decreased and upon increasing percentage of cement and lime the maximum dry density is decreased; however, optimum humidity is increased. In addition, liquid limit and plastic index is decreased; however, plastic index limit is increased. It is to be noted that results of direct shear test reveal increasing shear strength of soil due to increasing cohesion parameter and soil friction angle.

Keywords: Loess Soils, Shear Strength, Cement, Lime.

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685 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: Laser cleavage, glass, fracture, stress analysis.

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684 Bone Ash Impact on Soil Shear Strength

Authors: G. M. Ayininuola, A. O. Sogunro

Abstract:

Most failures of soil have been attributed to poor shear strength. Consequently, the present paper investigated the suitability of cattle bone ash as a possible additive to improve the shear strength of soils. Four soil samples were collected and stabilized with prepared bone ash in proportions of 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15% and 20% by dry weight. Chemical analyses of the bone ash; followed by classification, compaction, and triaxial shear tests of the treated soil samples were conducted. Results obtained showed that bone ash contained high proportion of calcium oxide and phosphate. Addition of bone ash to soil samples led to increase in soil shear strengths within the range of 22.40% to 105.18% over the strengths of the respective control tests. Conversely, all samples attained maximum shear strengths at 7% bone ash stabilization. The use of bone ash as an additive will therefore improve the shear strength of soils; however, using bone ash quantities in excess of 7% may not yield ample results.

Keywords: Bone ash, Shear strength, Stabilization, Soil.

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683 Study on Connecting Method of Box Pontoons

Authors: Young-Jun You, Youn-Ju Jeong, Min-Su Park, Du-Ho Lee

Abstract:

Due to a lot of limited conditions, a large box type floating structure is inevitably constructed by connecting many pontoons. When a floating structure is made with concrete, concrete shear key with saw-teeth shape is often used to carry shear force. Match casting for the shear key and precise construction on a sea are very important for making separated two pontoons as one body but those are not easy work and may increase construction time and cost. To solve this problem, one-way shear key is studied in this paper for a connected part where there is some difference between upward and downward shear force. It has only one inclined plane and can resist shear force in one direction. Big shear force is resisted by concrete which forms an inclined plane and small shear force is resisted by steel bar. This system can reduce manufacturing cost of individual pontoon and construction time and cost for constructing a floating structure on a sea. In this paper, the feasibility study about one-way shear key system is performed by comparing with design example.

Keywords: Connection, floating container terminal, pontoon, pre-stressing, shear key.

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682 Application of a Fracture-Mechanics Approach to Gas Pipelines

Authors: Ľubomír Gajdoš, Martin Šperl

Abstract:

This study offers a new simple method for assessing an axial part-through crack in a pipe wall. The method utilizes simple approximate expressions for determining the fracture parameters K, J, and employs these parameters to determine critical dimensions of a crack on the basis of equality between the J-integral and the J-based fracture toughness of the pipe steel. The crack tip constraint is taken into account by the so-called plastic constraint factor C, by which the uniaxial yield stress in the J-integral equation is multiplied. The results of the prediction of the fracture condition are verified by burst tests on test pipes.

Keywords: Axial crack, Fracture-mechanics, J integral, Pipeline wall.

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681 Mathematical Approach for Large Deformation Analysis of the Stiffened Coupled Shear Walls

Authors: M. J. Fadaee, H. Saffari, H. Khosravi

Abstract:

Shear walls are used in most of the tall buildings for carrying the lateral load. When openings for doors or windows are necessary to be existed in the shear walls, a special type of the shear walls is used called "coupled shear walls" which in some cases is stiffened by specific beams and so, called "stiffened coupled shear walls". In this paper, a mathematical method for geometrically nonlinear analysis of the stiffened coupled shear walls has been presented. Then, a suitable formulation for determining the critical load of the stiffened coupled shear walls under gravity force has been proposed. The governing differential equations for equilibrium and deformation of the stiffened coupled shear walls have been obtained by setting up the equilibrium equations and the moment-curvature relationships for each wall. Because of the complexity of the differential equation, the energy method has been adopted for approximate solution of the equations.

Keywords: Buckling load, differential equation, energy method, geometrically nonlinear analysis, mathematical method, Stiffened coupled shear walls.

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680 Experimental Investigation and Sensitivity Analysis for the Effects of Fracture Parameters to the Conductance Properties of Laterite

Authors: Bai Wei, Kong Ling-Wei, Guo Ai-Guo

Abstract:

This experiment discusses the effects of fracture parameters such as depth, length, width, angle and the number of the fracture to the conductance properties of laterite using the DUK-2B digital electrical measurement system combined with the method of simulating the fractures. The results of experiment show that the changes of fracture parameters produce effects to the conductance properties of laterite. There is a clear degressive period of the conductivity of laterite during increasing the depth, length, width, or the angle and the quantity of fracture gradually. When the depth of fracture exceeds the half thickness of the soil body, the conductivity of laterite shows evidently non-linear diminishing pattern and the amplitude of decrease tends to increase. The length of fracture has fewer effects than the depth to the conductivity. When the width of fracture reaches some fixed values, the change of the conductivity is less sensitive to the change of the width, and at this time, the conductivity of laterite maintains at a stable level. When the angle of fracture is less than 45°, the decrease of the conductivity is more clearly as the angle increases. But when angle is more than 45°, change of the conductivity is relatively gentle as the angle increases. The increasing quantity of the fracture causes the other fracture parameters having great impact on the change of conductivity. When moisture content and temperature were unchanged, depth and angle of fractures are the major factors affecting the conductivity of laterite soil; quantity, length, and width are minor influencing factors. The sensitivity of fracture parameters affect conductivity of laterite soil is: depth >angles >quantity >length >width.

Keywords: laterite, fracture parameters, conductance properties, conductivity, uniform design, sensitivity analysis

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679 Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang

Abstract:

The shear modulus of a timber beam can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. The shear field test method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test. The current code of practice advises using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. The size and the position of the constructing square might influence the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the size and the position effect of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system has been employed to determine the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. Six glue laminated beams were produced and tested. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of the size effect and the position effect of the square. The results have shown that the size of the square has a noticeable influence on the value of shear modulus, while, the position of the square within the area with the constant shear force does not affect the measured mean shear modulus.

Keywords: Shear field test method, structural-sized test, shear modulus of Glulam beam, photogrammetry approach.

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678 Image Processing on Geosynthetic Reinforced Layers to Evaluate Shear Strength and Variations of the Strain Profiles

Authors: S. K. Khosrowshahi, E. Güler

Abstract:

This study investigates the reinforcement function of geosynthetics on the shear strength and strain profile of sand. Conducting a series of simple shear tests, the shearing behavior of the samples under static and cyclic loads was evaluated. Three different types of geosynthetics including geotextile and geonets were used as the reinforcement materials. An image processing analysis based on the optical flow method was performed to measure the lateral displacements and estimate the shear strains. It is shown that besides improving the shear strength, the geosynthetic reinforcement leads a remarkable reduction on the shear strains. The improved layer reduces the required thickness of the soil layer to resist against shear stresses. Consequently, the geosynthetic reinforcement can be considered as a proper approach for the sustainable designs, especially in the projects with huge amount of geotechnical applications like subgrade of the pavements, roadways, and railways.

Keywords: Image processing, soil reinforcement, geosynthetics, simple shear test, shear strain profile.

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677 Fracture Location Characterizations of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports the tensile fracture location characterizations of dissimilar friction stir welds between 5754 aluminium alloy and C11000 copper. The welds were produced using three shoulder diameter tools; namely, 15, 18 and 25 mm by varying the process parameters. The rotational speeds considered were 600, 950 and 1200 rpm while the feed rates employed were 50, 150 and 300 mm/min to represent the low, medium and high settings respectively. The tensile fracture locations were evaluated using the optical microscope to identify the fracture locations and were characterized. It was observed that 70% of the tensile samples failed in the Thermo Mechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ) of copper at the weld joints. Further evaluation of the fracture surfaces of the pulled tensile samples revealed that welds with low Ultimate Tensile Strength either have defects or intermetallics present at their joint interfaces.

Keywords: fracture location, friction stir welding, intermetallics, metallography,

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676 Failure Criterion for Mixed Mode Fracture of Cracked Wood Specimens

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Investigation of fracture of wood components can prevent from catastrophic failures. Created fracture process zone (FPZ) in crack tip vicinity has important effect on failure of cracked composite materials. In this paper, a failure criterion for fracture investigation of cracked wood specimens under mixed mode I/II loading is presented. This criterion is based on maximum strain energy release rate and material nonlinearity in the vicinity of crack tip due to presence of microcracks. Verification of results with available experimental data proves the coincidence of the proposed criterion with the nature of fracture of wood. To simplify the estimation of nonlinear properties of FPZ, a damage factor is also introduced for engineering and application purposes.

Keywords: Fracture criterion, mixed mode loading, damage zone, microcracks.

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675 Investigating the Fatigue Crack Initiation Location in Interference Fitted and/or bolt Clamped Al 2024-T3 Double Shear Lap Joints

Authors: Babak Abazadeh, Hadi Rezghi Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper the fatigue crack initiation location of double shear lap joints, treated by interference fit and bolt clamping, have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. To do so, using the fracture section of available fatigue tested specimens of interference fitted and torque tightened Aluminum 2024-T3 plates, the crack initiation location was determined. The stress distribution attained from the finite element analysis was used to help explain the results observed in the experimental tests. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation location changes from top and mid plane at the hole edge to somewhere far from the hole edge (stress concentration region) in different combination of clamping force, interference fit size and applied cyclic load ranges. It is worth mentioning that the fatigue crack initiation location affects the fatigue life of the specimens too.

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, interference fit, bolt clamping, double shear lap joint.

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674 Flexure of Cantilever Thick Beams Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Yuwaraj M. Ghugal, Ajay G. Dahake

Abstract:

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick cantilever isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the. Results obtained are discussed critically with those of other theories.

Keywords: Trigonometric shear deformation, thick beam, flexure, principle of virtual work, equilibrium equations, stress.

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673 Flexure of Simply Supported Thick Beams Using Refined Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Yuwaraj M. Ghugal, Ajay G. Dahake

Abstract:

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick simply supported isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the results obtained is discussed critically with those of other theories.

Keywords: Trigonometric shear deformation, thick beam, flexure, principle of virtual work, equilibrium equations, stress.

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