Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 711

Search results for: laser radiation

711 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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710 Source Optimisation of Laser-Plasma Bremmstrahlung for Applications in Engineering Imaging

Authors: R.J. Clarke, D. Neely, S. Blake, D.C. Carroll, J.S. Green, R. Heathcote, M. Notley

Abstract:

High Power Lasers produce an intense burst of Bremmstrahlung radiation which has potential applications in broadband x-ray radiography. Since the radiation produced is through the interaction of accelerated electrons with the remaining laser target, these bursts are extremely short – in the region of a few ps. As a result, the laser-produced x-rays are capable of imaging complex dynamic objects with zero motion blur.

Keywords: Bremmstrahlung, Imaging, Laser, Plasma, Radiography, x-ray.

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709 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev

Abstract:

This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: Active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence.

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708 Laser Excited Nuclear γ -Source of High Spectral Brightness

Authors: A. Аndreev, Yu. Rozhdestvenskii, К. Platonov, R. Salomaa

Abstract:

This paper considers various channels of gammaquantum generation via an ultra-short high-power laser pulse interaction with different targets.We analyse the possibilities to create a pulsed gamma-radiation source using laser triggering of some nuclear reactions and isomer targets. It is shown that sub-MeV monochromatic short pulse of gamma-radiation can be obtained with pulse energy of sub-mJ level from isomer target irradiated by intense laser pulse. For nuclear reaction channel in light- atom materials, it is shown that sub-PW laser pulse gives rise to formation about million gamma-photons of multi-MeV energy.

Keywords: High power laser, short pulse, fast particles, isomertarget.

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707 Surface Modification by EUV laser Beam based on Capillary Discharge

Authors: O. Frolov, K. Kolacek, J. Schmidt, J. Straus, V. Prukner, A. Shukurov

Abstract:

Many applications require surface modification and micro-structuring of polymers. For these purposes is mainly used ultraviolet (UV) radiation from excimer lamps or excimer lasers. However, these sources have a decided disadvantage - degrading the polymer deep inside due to relatively big radiation penetration depth which may exceed 100 μm. In contrast, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is absorbed in a layer approximately 100 nm thick only. In this work, the radiation from a discharge-plasma EUV source (with wavelength 46.9 nm) based on a capillary discharge driver is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer mirror for surface modification of PMMA sample or thin gold layer (thickness about 40 nm). It was found that the focused EUV laser beam is capable by one shot to ablate PMMA or layer of gold, even if the focus is significantly influenced by astigmatism.

Keywords: ablation, capillary discharge, EUV laser, surface modification

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706 Underwater Interaction of 1064 nm Laser Radiation with Metal Target

Authors: G. Toker, V. Bulatov, T. Kovalchuk, I. Schechter

Abstract:

Dynamics of laser radiation – metal target interaction in water at 1064 nm by applying Mach-Zehnder interference technique was studied. The mechanism of generating the well developed regime of evaporation of a metal surface and a spherical shock wave in water is proposed. Critical intensities of the NIR for the well developed evaporation of silver and gold targets were determined. Dynamics of shock waves was investigated for earlier (dozens) and later (hundreds) nanoseconds of time. Transparent expanding plasma-vapor-compressed water object was visualized and measured. The thickness of compressed layer of water and pressures behind the front of a shock wave for later time delays were obtained from the optical treatment of interferograms.

Keywords: laser, shock wave, metal target, underwater

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705 Simulation of Laser Structuring by Three Dimensional Heat Transfer Model

Authors: Bassim Bachy, Joerg Franke

Abstract:

In this study, a three dimensional numerical heat transfer model has been used to simulate the laser structuring of polymer substrate material in the Three-Dimensional Molded Interconnect Device (3D MID) which is used in the advanced multifunctional applications. A finite element method (FEM) transient thermal analysis is performed using APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) provided by ANSYS. In this model, the effect of surface heat source was modeled with Gaussian distribution, also the effect of the mixed boundary conditions which consist of convection and radiation heat transfers have been considered in this analysis. The model provides a full description of the temperature distribution, as well as calculates the depth and the width of the groove upon material removal at different set of laser parameters such as laser power and laser speed. This study also includes the experimental procedure to study the effect of laser parameters on the depth and width of the removal groove metal as verification to the modeled results. Good agreement between the experimental and the model results is achieved for a wide range of laser powers. It is found that the quality of the laser structure process is affected by the laser scan speed and laser power. For a high laser structured quality, it is suggested to use laser with high speed and moderate to high laser power.

Keywords: Laser Structuring, Simulation, Finite element analysis, Thermal modeling.

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704 Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles Prepared by γ-Radiation Technique

Authors: Azmi Zakaria, Reza Zamiri, Parisa Vaziri, Elias Saion, M. Shahril Husin

Abstract:

In this study we applied thermal lens (TL) technique to study the effect of size on thermal diffusivity of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanofluid prepared by using γ-radiation method containing particles with different sizes. In TL experimental set up a diode laser of wavelength 514 nm and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the excitation source and the probe beam respectively, respectively. The experimental results showed that the thermal diffusivity value of CdS nanofluid increases when the of particle size increased.

Keywords: Thermal diffusivity, nanofluids, thermal lens

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703 Three-Dimensional Simulation of Free Electron Laser with Prebunching and Efficiency Enhancement

Authors: M. Chitsazi, B. Maraghechi, M. H. Rouhani

Abstract:

Three-dimensional simulation of harmonic up generation in free electron laser amplifier operating simultaneously with a cold and relativistic electron beam is presented in steady-state regime where the slippage of the electromagnetic wave with respect to the electron beam is ignored. By using slowly varying envelope approximation and applying the source-dependent expansion to wave equations, electromagnetic fields are represented in terms of the Hermit Gaussian modes which are well suited for the planar wiggler configuration. The electron dynamics is described by the fully threedimensional Lorentz force equation in presence of the realistic planar magnetostatic wiggler and electromagnetic fields. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations is derived and solved numerically. The fundamental and third harmonic radiation of the beam is considered. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. For this effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point of tapering and the slope of radiation in the amplitude of wiggler are found by successive run of the code.

Keywords: Free electron laser, Prebunching, Undulator, Wiggler.

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702 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: A. Emre Ozturk, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

Autonomous robotic systems need an equipment like a human eye for their movement. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been designed and implemented for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper.

Keywords: 3D Laser Scanner, embedded systems.

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701 Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector

Authors: Mohamed Fathy Heweage, Xiao Wen, Ayman Mokhtar, Ahmed Eldamarawy

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.

Keywords: 4-quadrant detector, pulse code detection, laser guided weapons, pulse repetition frequency, ATmega 32 microcontrollers.

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700 Laser Forming of Titanium and Its Alloys – An Overview

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Laser beam forming is a novel technique developed for the joining of metallic components. In this study, an overview of the laser beam forming process, areas of application, the basic mechanisms of the laser beam forming process, some recent research studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the laser-material interaction of laser beam forming of titanium and its alloys are presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Deformation, Laser forming, Mechanisms, Titanium, Titanium alloy.

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699 Compact Er3+-Doped ZBLAN Green Upconversion Fibre Laser

Authors: Syed Sohail Abbas, Sergei Popov

Abstract:

In this paper, a fibre laser at 546 nm has been studied for a signal power of -30 dB. Er3+-doped ZBLAN fibre has been used by upconversion pumping of a 980 nm laser diode. Gain saturation effect has been investigated in detail. Laser performance has also been discussed. An efficiency of 35% has been calculated with a length of 5 mm fibre laser. Results show that Er3+-doped ZBLAN is a promising candidate for optical amplification at 546 nm.

Keywords: Compact visible lasers, Erbium doped, Gainsaturation, Green laser, Optical fibre lasers

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698 Red Diode Laser in the Treatment of Epidermal Diseases in PDT

Authors: Farhad H. Mustafa, Mohamad S. Jaafar , Asaad H. Ismail, Ahamad F. Omar, Zahra A. Timimi, Hend A. A. Houssein

Abstract:

The process of laser absorption in the skin during laser irradiation was a critical point in medical application treatments. Delivery the correct amount of laser light is a critical element in photodynamic therapy (PDT). More amounts of laser light able to affect tissues in the skin and small amount not able to enhance PDT procedure in skin. The knowledge of the skin tone laser dependent distribution of 635 nm radiation and its penetration depth in skin is a very important precondition for the investigation of advantage laser induced effect in (PDT) in epidermis diseases (psoriasis). The aim of this work was to estimate an optimum effect of diode laser (635 nm) on the treatment of epidermis diseases in different color skin. Furthermore, it is to improve safety of laser in PDT in epidermis diseases treatment. Advanced system analytical program (ASAP) which is a new approach in investigating the PDT, dependent on optical properties of different skin color was used in present work. A two layered Realistic Skin Model (RSM); stratum corneum and epidermal with red laser (635 nm, 10 mW) were used for irradiative transfer to study fluence and absorbance in different penetration for various human skin colors. Several skin tones very fair, fair, light, medium and dark are used to irradiative transfer. This investigation involved the principles of laser tissue interaction when the skin optically injected by a red laser diode. The results demonstrated that the power characteristic of a laser diode (635 nm) can affect the treatment of epidermal disease in various color skins. Power absorption of the various human skins were recorded and analyzed in order to find the influence of the melanin in PDT treatment in epidermal disease. A two layered RSM show that the change in penetration depth in epidermal layer of the color skin has a larger effect on the distribution of absorbed laser in the skin; this is due to the variation of the melanin concentration for each color.

Keywords: Photodynamic therapy, Realistic skin model, Laser, Light penetration, simulation, Optical properties of skin, Melanin.

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697 High Energy Dual-Wavelength Mid-Infrared Extracavity KTA Optical Parametric Oscillator

Authors: Hongjun Liu, Qibing Sun, Nan Huang, Shaolan Zhu, Wei Zhao

Abstract:

A high energy dual-wavelength extracavity KTA optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with excellent stability and beam quality, which is pumped by a Q-switched single-longitudinal-mode Nd:YAG laser, has been demonstrated based on a type II noncritical phase matching (NCPM) KTA crystal. The maximum pulse energy of 10.2 mJ with the output stability of better than 4.1% rms at 3.467 μm is obtained at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 2 ns, and the 11.9 mJ of 1.535 μm radiation is obtained simultaneously. This extracavity NCPM KTA OPO is very useful when high energy, high beam quality and smooth time domain are needed.

Keywords: mid-infrared laser, OPO, dual-wavelength laser

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696 In vitro Study of Laser Diode Radiation Effect on the Photo-Damage of MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cell Clusters

Authors: A. Dashti, M. Eskandari, L. Farahmand, P. Parvin, A. Jafargholi

Abstract:

Breast Cancer is one of the most considerable diseases in the United States and other countries and is the second leading cause of death in women. Common breast cancer treatments would lead to adverse side effects such as loss of hair, nausea, and weakness. These complications arise because these cancer treatments damage some healthy cells while eliminating the cancer cells. In an effort to address these complications, laser radiation was utilized and tested as a targeted cancer treatment for breast cancer. In this regard, tissue engineering approaches are being employed by using an electrospun scaffold in order to facilitate the growth of breast cancer cells. Polycaprolacton (PCL) was used as a material for scaffold fabricating because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and supporting cell growth. The specific breast cancer cells have the ability to create a three-dimensional cell cluster due to the spontaneous accumulation of cells in the porosity of the scaffold under some specific conditions. Therefore, we are looking for a higher density of porosity and larger pore size. Fibers showed uniform diameter distribution and final scaffold had optimum characteristics with approximately 40% porosity. The images were taken by SEM and the density and the size of the porosity were determined with the Image. After scaffold preparation, it has cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Then, it has been washed with glycine and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), in order to neutralize the residual glutaraldehyde. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MTT) results have represented approximately 91.13% viability of the scaffolds for cancer cells. In order to create a cluster, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7, breast cancer cell line) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A (MCF-10A, human mammary epithelial cell line) cells were cultured on the scaffold in 24 well plate for five days. Then, we have exposed the cluster to the laser diode 808 nm radiation to investigate the effect of laser on the tumor with different power and time. Under the same conditions, cancer cells lost their viability more than the healthy ones. In conclusion, laser therapy is a viable method to destroy the target cells and has a minimum effect on the healthy tissues and cells and it can improve the other method of cancer treatments limitations.

Keywords: Breast cancer, electrospun scaffold, polycaprolacton, laser diode, cancer treatment.

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695 CART Method for Modeling the Output Power of Copper Bromide Laser

Authors: Iliycho P. Iliev, Desislava S. Voynikova, Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva

Abstract:

This paper examines the available experiment data for a copper bromide vapor laser (CuBr laser), emitting at two wavelengths - 510.6 and 578.2nm. Laser output power is estimated based on 10 independent input physical parameters. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is obtained which describes 97% of data. The resulting binary CART tree specifies which input parameters influence considerably each of the classification groups. This allows for a technical assessment that indicates which of these are the most significant for the manufacture and operation of the type of laser under consideration. The predicted values of the laser output power are also obtained depending on classification. This aids the design and development processes considerably.

Keywords: Classification and regression trees (CART), Copper Bromide laser (CuBr laser), laser generation, nonparametric statistical model.

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694 Development of a Water-Jet Assisted Underwater Laser Cutting Process

Authors: Suvradip Mullick, Yuvraj K. Madhukar, Subhranshu Roy, Ashish K. Nath

Abstract:

We present the development of a new underwater laser cutting process in which a water-jet has been used along with the laser beam to remove the molten material through kerf. The conventional underwater laser cutting usually utilizes a high pressure gas jet along with laser beam to create a dry condition in the cutting zone and also to eject out the molten material. This causes a lot of gas bubbles and turbulence in water, and produces aerosols and waste gas. This may cause contamination in the surrounding atmosphere while cutting radioactive components like burnt nuclear fuel. The water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting process produces much less turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere. Some amount of water vapor bubbles is formed at the laser-metal-water interface; however, they tend to condense as they rise up through the surrounding water. We present the design and development of a water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting head and the parametric study of the cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel sheets with a 2 kW CW fiber laser. The cutting performance is similar to that of the gas assist laser cutting; however, the process efficiency is reduced due to heat convection by water-jet and laser beam scattering by vapor. This process may be attractive for underwater cutting of nuclear reactor components.

Keywords: Laser, underwater cutting, water-jet.

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693 Studies on Ti/Al Sheet Joint Using Laser Beam Welding – A Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N. M. Nagarajan, N. Mathiyazagan

Abstract:

Laser beam welding has wide acceptability due to least welding distortion, low labour costs and convenient operation. However, laser welding for dissimilar titanium and aluminium alloys is a new area which is having wider applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. The present study is concerned with welding parameters namely laser power, welding speed, focusing distance and type of shielding gas and thereby evaluate welding performance of titanium and aluminium alloy thin sheets. This paper reviews the basic concepts associated with different parameters of Ti/Al sheet joint using Laser beam welding.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Dissimilar joining Titanium and Aluminum sheets.

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692 Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System

Authors: M. Hassani, Y. Hassani, N. Ajudanioskooei, N. N. Benvid

Abstract:

Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, bending angle, fuzzy logic, laser forming.

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691 Industrial Applications of Laser Engraving: Influence of the Process Parameters on Machined Surface Quality

Authors: F.Agalianos, S.Patelis , P. Kyratsis, E. Maravelakis, E.Vasarmidis, A.Antoniadis

Abstract:

Laser engraving is a manufacturing method for those applications where previously Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) was the only choice. Laser engraving technology removes material layer-by-layer and the thickness of layers is usually in the range of few microns. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of the process parameters on the surface quality when machined by laser engraving. The examined parameters were: the pulse frequency, the beam speed and the layer thickness. The surface quality was determined by the surface roughness for every set of parameters. Experimental results on Al7075 material showed that the surface roughness strictly depends on the process parameters used.

Keywords: Laser engraving, Al7075, Yb: YAG laser, laser process parameters, material roughness.

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690 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: Laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load.

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689 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices.

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688 Development of an Infrared Thermography Method with CO2 Laser Excitation, Applied to Defect Detection in CFRP

Authors: Sam-Ang Keo, Franck Brachelet, Florin Breaban, Didier Defer

Abstract:

This paper presents a NDT by infrared thermography with excitation CO2 Laser, wavelength of 10.6 μm. This excitation is the controllable heating beam, confirmed by a preliminary test on a wooden plate 1.2 m x 0.9 m x 1 cm. As the first practice, this method is applied to detecting the defect in CFRP heated by the Laser 300 W during 40 s. Two samples 40 cm x 40 cm x 4.5 cm are prepared, one with defect, another one without defect. The laser beam passes through the lens of a deviation device, and heats the samples placed at a determinate position and area. As a result, the absence of adhesive can be detected. This method displays prominently its application as NDT with the composite materials. This work gives a good perspective to characterize the laser beam, which is very useful for the next detection campaigns.

Keywords: CO2 LASER, Infrared Thermography, NDT, CFRP, Defect Detection.

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687 Submicron Laser-Induced Dot, Ripple and Wrinkle Structures and Their Applications

Authors: P. Slepicka, N. Slepickova Kasalkova, I. Michaljanicova, O. Nedela, Z. Kolska, V. Svorcik

Abstract:

Polymers exposed to laser or plasma treatment or modified with different wet methods which enable the introduction of nanoparticles or biologically active species, such as amino-acids, may find many applications both as biocompatible or anti-bacterial materials or on the contrary, can be applied for a decrease in the number of cells on the treated surface which opens application in single cell units. For the experiments, two types of materials were chosen, a representative of non-biodegradable polymers, polyethersulphone (PES) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as biodegradable material. Exposure of solid substrate to laser well below the ablation threshold can lead to formation of various surface structures. The ripples have a period roughly comparable to the wavelength of the incident laser radiation, and their dimensions depend on many factors, such as chemical composition of the polymer substrate, laser wavelength and the angle of incidence. On the contrary, biopolymers may significantly change their surface roughness and thus influence cell compatibility. The focus was on the surface treatment of PES and PHB by pulse excimer KrF laser with wavelength of 248 nm. The changes of physicochemical properties, surface morphology, surface chemistry and ablation of exposed polymers were studied both for PES and PHB. Several analytical methods involving atomic force microscopy, gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and others were used for the analysis of the treated surface. It was found that the combination of certain input parameters leads not only to the formation of optimal narrow pattern, but to the combination of a ripple and a wrinkle-like structure, which could be an optimal candidate for cell attachment. The interaction of different types of cells and their interactions with the laser exposed surface were studied. It was found that laser treatment contributes as a major factor for wettability/contact angle change. The combination of optimal laser energy and pulse number was used for the construction of a surface with an anti-cellular response. Due to the simple laser treatment, we were able to prepare a biopolymer surface with higher roughness and thus significantly influence the area of growth of different types of cells (U-2 OS cells).

Keywords: Polymer treatment, laser, periodic pattern, cell response.

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686 Potential of Solar Energy in Zarqa Region

Authors: Ali M. Jawarneh, Ahmad S. AL-Shyyab

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present the potential of solar energy in Zarqa region. The solar radiation along year 2009 was obtained from Pyranometer which measures the global radiation over horizontal surfaces. Solar data in several different forms, over period of 5 minutes, hour-by-hour, daily and monthly data radiation have been presented. Briefly, the yearly global solar radiation in Zarqa is 7297.5 MJ/m2 (2027 kWh/m²) and the average annual solar radiation per day is 20 MJ/m2 (5.5 Kwh/m2). More specifically, the average annual solar radiation per day is 12.9 MJ/m2 (3.57 Kwh/m2) in winter and 25 MJ/m2 (7 Kwh/m2) in summer.

Keywords: Solar Energy, Pyranometer, Zarqa Region

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685 Solar Radiation Studies for Dubai and Sharjah, UAE

Authors: Muhammed A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh

Abstract:

Global Solar Radiation (H) for Dubai and Sharjah, Latitude 25.25oN, Longitude 55oE and 25.29oN, Longitude 55oE respectively have been studied using sunshine hour data (n) of the areas using various methods. These calculated global solar radiation values are then compared to the measured values presented by NASA. Furthermore, the extraterrestrial (H0), diffuse (Hd) and beam radiation (Hb) are also calculated. The diffuse radiation is calculated using methods proposed by Page and Liu and Jordan (L-J). Diffuse Radiation from the Page method is higher than the L-J method. Moreover, the clearness index (KT) signifies a clear sky almost all year round. Rainy days are hardly a few in a year and limited in the months December to March. The temperature remains between 25oC in winter to 44oC in summer and is desirable for thermal applications of solar energy. From the estimated results, it appears that solar radiation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year for photovoltaic and thermal applications.

Keywords: Dubai, Sharjah, Global Solar Radiation, Diffuse Radiation

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684 Experimental Study on Machinability of Laser- Sintered Material in Ball End Milling

Authors: Abdullah Yassin, Takashi Ueda, Syed Tarmizi Syed Shazali

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the machinability of laser-sintered material using small ball end mill focusing on wear mechanisms. Laser-sintered material was produced by irradiating a laser beam on a layer of loose fine SCM-Ni-Cu powder. Bulk carbon steel JIS S55C was selected as a reference steel. The effects of powder consolidation mechanisms and unsintered powder on the tool life and wear mechanisms were carried out. Results indicated that tool life in cutting laser-sintered material is lower than that in cutting JIS S55C. Adhesion of the work material and chipping were the main wear mechanisms of the ball end mill in cutting laser-sintered material. Cutting with the unsintered powder surrounding the tool and laser-sintered material had caused major fracture on the cutting edge.

Keywords: Laser-sintered material, tool life, wear mechanism.

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683 Metallographic Analysis of Laser and Mechanically Formed HSLA Steel

Authors: L.C. Kgomari, R.K.K.Mbaya

Abstract:

This research was conducted to develop a correlation between microstructure of HSLA steel and the mechanical properties that occur as a result of both laser and mechanical forming processes of the metal. The technique of forming flat metals by applying laser beams is a relatively new concept in the manufacturing industry. However, the effects of laser energy on the stability of metal alloy phases have not yet been elucidated in terms of phase transformations and microhardness. In this work, CO2 laser source was used to irradiate the surface of a flat metal then the microstructure and microhardness of the metal were studied on the formed specimen. The extent to which the microstructure changed depended on the heat inputs of up to 1000 J/cm2 with cooling rates of about 4.8E+02 K/s. Experimental results revealed that the irradiated surface of a HSLA steel had transformed to austenitic structure during the heating process.

Keywords: Laser, Forming, Microstructure

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682 HPL-TE Method for Determination of Coatings Relative Total Emissivity Sensitivity Analysis of the Influences of Method Parameters

Authors: Z. Veselý, M. Honner

Abstract:

High power laser – total emissivity method (HPL-TE method) for determination of coatings relative total emissivity dependent on the temperature is introduced. Method principle, experimental and evaluation parts of the method are described. Computer model of HPL-TE method is employed to perform the sensitivity analysis of the effect of method parameters on the sample surface temperature in the positions where the surface temperature and radiation heat flux are measured.

Keywords: High temperature laser testing, measurement ofthermal properties, emissivity, coatings.

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