Search results for: wear mechanism.
1105 Wear Mechanisms in High Speed Steel Gear Cutting Tools
Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi majd
Abstract:In this paper, the wear of high speed steel hobs during hobbing has been studied. The wear mechanisms are strongly influenced by the choice of cutting speed. At moderate and high cutting speeds three major wear mechanisms were identified: abrasion, mild adhesive and severe adhesive. The microstructure and wear behavior of two high speed steel grades (M2 and ASP30) has been compared. In contrast, a variation in chemical composition or microstructure of HSS tool material generally did not change the dominant wear mechanism. However, the tool material properties determine the resistance against the operating wear mechanism and consequently the tool life. The metallographic analysis and wear measurement at the tip of hob teeth included scanning electron microscopy and stereoscope microscopy. Roughness profilometery is used for measuring the gear surface roughness.
Keywords: abrasion, adhesion, cutting speed, hobbing, wear mechanismProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3139
1104 Tool Wear of Aluminum/Chromium/Tungsten-Based-Coated Cemented Carbide Tools in Cutting Sintered Steel
Authors: Tadahiro Wada, Hiroyuki Hanyu
Abstract:In this study, to clarify the effectiveness of an aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated tool for cutting sintered steel, tool wear was experimentally investigated. The sintered steel was turned with the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated cemented carbide tools according to the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Moreover, the tool wear of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated item was compared with that of the (Al,Cr)N coated tool. Furthermore, to clarify the tool wear mechanism of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-coating film for cutting sintered steel, Scanning Electron Microscope observation and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy mapping analysis were conducted on the abraded surface. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated tool was the slowest among that of the five coated tools. (2) Adding carbon (C) to the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coating film was effective for improving the wear-resistance. (3) The main wear mechanism of the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, the (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coating films was abrasive wear.
Keywords: Cutting, physical vapor deposition coating method, tool wear, tool wear mechanism, sintered steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1571
1103 Effect of Impact Angle on Erosive Abrasive Wear of Ductile and Brittle Materials
Authors: Ergin Kosa, Ali Göksenli
Abstract:Erosion and abrasion are wear mechanisms reducing the lifetime of machine elements like valves, pump and pipe systems. Both wear mechanisms are acting at the same time, causing a “Synergy” effect, which leads to a rapid damage of the surface. Different parameters are effective on erosive abrasive wear rate. In this study effect of particle impact angle on wear rate and wear mechanism of ductile and brittle materials was investigated. A new slurry pot was designed for experimental investigation. As abrasive particle, silica sand was used. Particle size was ranking between 200- 500 μm. All tests were carried out in a sand-water mixture of 20% concentration for four hours. Impact velocities of the particles were 4.76 m/s. As ductile material steel St 37 with Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of 245 and quenched St 37 with 510 VHN was used as brittle material. After wear tests, morphology of the eroded surfaces were investigated for better understanding of the wear mechanisms acting at different impact angles by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The results indicated that wear rate of ductile material was higher than brittle material. Maximum wear rate was observed by ductile material at a particle impact angle of 300 and decreased further by an increase in attack angle. Maximum wear rate by brittle materials was by impact angle of 450 and decreased further up to 900. Ploughing was the dominant wear mechanism by ductile material. Microcracks on the surface were detected by ductile materials, which are nucleation centers for crater formation. Number of craters decreased and depth of craters increased by ductile materials by attack angle higher than 300. Deformation wear mechanism was observed by brittle materials. Number and depth of pits decreased by brittle materials by impact angles higher than 450. At the end it is concluded that wear rate could not be directly related to impact angle of particles due to the different reaction of ductile and brittle materials.
Keywords: Erosive wear, particle impact angle, silica sand, wear rate, ductile-brittle material.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2875
1102 Wear Regimes of Al-Cu-Mg Matrix Composites
Authors: R. N. Rao, S. L. Tulasi Devi
Abstract:Tribological behavior and wear regimes of ascast and heattreted Al-Cu-Mg matrix composites containing SiC particles were studied using a pin-on-disc wear testing apparatus against an EN32 steel counterface giving emphasis on wear rate as a function of applied pressures (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 MPa) at different sliding distances (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 meters) and at a fixed sliding speed of 3.35m/s. The results showed that the composite exhibited lower wear rate than that of the matrix alloy and the wear rate of the composites is noted to be invariant to the sliding distance and is reducing by heat treatment. Wear regimes such as low, mild and severe wear were observed as per the Archard-s wear calculations. It is very interesting to note that the mild wear is almost constant in all the wear regimes.
Keywords: Aluminum, matrix, regimes, wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1979
1101 Application of HVOF Thermal Spraying inHigh Speed Gas Compressor Shafts
Authors: M.Jalali Azizpour, S.norouzi, H.mohammadi majd, H.Talebi, A.Ghamari
Abstract:In this paper, the application of thermal spray coatings in high speed shafts by a revolution up to 23000 RPM has been studied. Gas compressor shafts are worn in contact zone with journal therefore will be undersized. Wear mechanisms of compressor shaft were identified. The predominant wear mechanism is abrasion wear. The worn surface was coated by hard WC-Co cermets using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) after preparation. The shafts were in satisfactory service in 8000h period. The metallurgical and Tribological studies has been made on the worn and coated shaft using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction.
Keywords: Thermal spray, Residual stress, Wear mechanism, HVOF, Gas compressor shafts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2357
1100 Wear Measuring and Wear Modelling Based On Archard, ASTM, and Neural Network Models
Authors: A. Shebani, C. Pislaru
The wear measuring and wear modelling are fundamental issues in the industrial field, mainly correlated to the economy and safety. Therefore, there is a need to study the wear measurements and wear estimation. Pin-on-disc test is the most common test which is used to study the wear behaviour. In this paper, the pin-on-disc (AEROTECH UNIDEX 11) is used for the investigation of the effects of normal load and hardness of material on the wear under dry and sliding conditions. In the pin-on-disc rig, two specimens were used; one, a pin is made of steel with a tip, positioned perpendicular to the disc, where the disc is made of aluminium. The pin wear and disc wear were measured by using the following instruments: The Talysurf instrument, a digital microscope, and the alicona instrument. The Talysurf profilometer was used to measure the pin/disc wear scar depth, digital microscope was used to measure the diameter and width of wear scar, and the alicona was used to measure the pin wear and disc wear. After that, the Archard model, American Society for Testing and Materials model (ASTM), and neural network model were used for pin/disc wear modelling. Simulation results were implemented by using the Matlab program. This paper focuses on how the alicona can be used for wear measurements and how the neural network can be used for wear estimation.
Keywords: Wear measuring, Wear modelling, Neural Network, Alicona.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3962
1099 Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex
Authors: S. Reaz Ahmed, M. S. Kaiser
The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.
Keywords: Perspex, wear, friction, SEM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 994
1098 Influence of Initial Surface Roughness on Severe Wear Volume for SUS304 Austenitic Stainless Steels
Authors: A. Kawamura, K. Ishida, K. Okada, T. Sato
Simultaneous measurements of the curves for wear versus distance, wear rate versus distance, and coefficient of friction versus distance were performed in situ to distinguish the transition from severe running-in wear to mild wear. The effects of the initial surface roughness on the severe running-in wear volume were investigated. Disk-on-plate friction and wear tests were carried out with SUS304 austenitic stainless steel in contact with itself under repeated dry sliding conditions at room temperature. The wear volume was dependent on the initial surface roughness. The wear volume when the initial surfaces on the plate and disk had dissimilar roughness was lower than that when these surfaces had similar roughness. For the dissimilar roughness, the wear volume decreased with decreasing initial surface roughness and reached a minimum; it stayed nearly constant as the roughness was less than the mean size of the oxide particles.
Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, initial surface roughness, running-in, severe wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2060
1097 The Effect of Surface Conditions on Wear of a Railway Wheel and Rail
Authors: A. Shebani, S. Iwnicki
Abstract:Understanding the nature of wheel and rail wear in the railway field is of fundamental importance to the safe and cost effective operation of the railways. Twin disc wear testing is used extensively for studying wear of wheel and rail materials. The University of Huddersfield twin disc rig was used in this paper to examine the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear measurement under a range of wheel/rail contact conditions, with and without contaminants. This work focuses on an investigation of the effect of dry, wet, and lubricated conditions and the effect of contaminants such as sand on wheel and rail wear. The wheel and rail wear measurements were carried out by using a replica material and an optical profilometer that allows measurement of wear in difficult location with high accuracy. The results have demonstrated the rate at which both water and oil reduce wheel and rail wear. Scratches and other damage were seen on the wheel and rail surfaces after the addition of sand and consequently both wheel and rail wear damage rates increased under these conditions. This work introduced the replica material and an optical instrument as effective tools to study the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear.
Keywords: Railway wheel/rail wear, surface conditions, twin disc test rig, replica material, Alicona profilometer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 955
1096 Temperature-Dependence of Hardness and Wear Resistance of Stellite Alloys
Authors: S. Kapoor, R. Liu, X. J. Wu, M. X. Yao
Abstract:A group of Stellite alloys are studied in consideration of temperature effects on their hardness and wear resistance. The hardness test is conducted on a micro-hardness tester with a hot stage equipped that allows heating the specimen up to 650°C. The wear resistance of each alloy is evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer with a heating furnace built-in that provides the temperature capacity up to 450°C. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardness and wear resistance of Stellite alloys behave differently at room temperature and at high temperatures. The wear resistance of Stellite alloys at room temperature mainly depends on their carbon content and also influenced by the tungsten content in the alloys. However, at high temperatures the wear mechanisms of Stellite alloys become more complex, involving multiple factors. The relationships between chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are studied, with focus on temperature effect on these relations.
Keywords: Stellite alloy, temperature, hardness, wear resistanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6287
1095 Knowledge Based Wear Particle Analysis
Authors: Mohammad S. Laghari, Qurban A. Memon, Gulzar A. Khuwaja
Abstract:The paper describes a knowledge based system for analysis of microscopic wear particles. Wear particles contained in lubricating oil carry important information concerning machine condition, in particular the state of wear. Experts (Tribologists) in the field extract this information to monitor the operation of the machine and ensure safety, efficiency, quality, productivity, and economy of operation. This procedure is not always objective and it can also be expensive. The aim is to classify these particles according to their morphological attributes of size, shape, edge detail, thickness ratio, color, and texture, and by using this classification thereby predict wear failure modes in engines and other machinery. The attribute knowledge links human expertise to the devised Knowledge Based Wear Particle Analysis System (KBWPAS). The system provides an automated and systematic approach to wear particle identification which is linked directly to wear processes and modes that occur in machinery. This brings consistency in wear judgment prediction which leads to standardization and also less dependence on Tribologists.
Keywords: Computer vision, knowledge based systems, morphology, wear particles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
1094 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method
Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland
This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.
Keywords: Physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2980
1093 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling
Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa
The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The on line monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear on line. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc…. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.
Keywords: Flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2446
1092 Self Organizing Analysis Platform for Wear Particle
Authors: Qurban A. Memon, Mohammad S. Laghari
Abstract:Integration of system process information obtained through an image processing system with an evolving knowledge database to improve the accuracy and predictability of wear particle analysis is the main focus of the paper. The objective is to automate intelligently the analysis process of wear particle using classification via self organizing maps. This is achieved using relationship measurements among corresponding attributes of various measurements for wear particle. Finally, visualization technique is proposed that helps the viewer in understanding and utilizing these relationships that enable accurate diagnostics.
Keywords: Neural Network, Relationship Measurement, Selforganizing Clusters, Wear Particle Analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1988
1091 Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Epoxy-Rubber Dust Composites
Authors: Antaryami Mishra
Abstract:Composite pins of rubber dust collected from tyre retreading centres of trucks, cars and buses etc.and epoxy with weight percentages of 10. 15, and 20 % of rubber (weight fractions of 9, 13 and 17 % respectively) have been prepared in house with the help of a split wooden mould. The pins were tested in a pin-on-disc wear monitor to determine the co-efficient of friction and weight losses with varying speeds, loads and time. The wear volume and wear rates have also been found out for all these three specimens.. It is observed that all the specimens have exhibited very low coefficient of friction and low wear rates under dry sliding condition. Out of the above three samples tested, the specimen with 10 % rubber dust by weight has shown lowest wear rates. However a peculiar result i.e decreasing trend has been obtained with 20% reinforcement of rubber in epoxy while rubbed against steel at varying speeds. This might have occurred due to high surface finish of the disc and formation of a thin transfer layer from the composite
Keywords: epoxy, rubber dust, composites, weight fractions, pin-on-disc wear tests, wear volume and wear rate calculations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2030
1090 Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle
Authors: Khaled M. Khader, Mamdouh I. Elimy
Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 90°. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, appropriate selection of mechanism links lengthens, which assures optimum transmission angle leads to decreasing the driving power. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials afford link's lightweight, which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.
Keywords: Composite material, crank-rocker mechanism, transmission angle, design techniques, power saving.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 939
1089 Experimental Study on Machinability of Laser- Sintered Material in Ball End Milling
Authors: Abdullah Yassin, Takashi Ueda, Syed Tarmizi Syed Shazali
Abstract:This paper presents an experimental investigation on the machinability of laser-sintered material using small ball end mill focusing on wear mechanisms. Laser-sintered material was produced by irradiating a laser beam on a layer of loose fine SCM-Ni-Cu powder. Bulk carbon steel JIS S55C was selected as a reference steel. The effects of powder consolidation mechanisms and unsintered powder on the tool life and wear mechanisms were carried out. Results indicated that tool life in cutting laser-sintered material is lower than that in cutting JIS S55C. Adhesion of the work material and chipping were the main wear mechanisms of the ball end mill in cutting laser-sintered material. Cutting with the unsintered powder surrounding the tool and laser-sintered material had caused major fracture on the cutting edge.
Keywords: Laser-sintered material, tool life, wear mechanism.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1753
1088 Comparison of Three Turbulence Models in Wear Prediction of Multi-Size Particulate Flow through Rotating Channel
Authors: Pankaj K. Gupta, Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi
Abstract:The present work compares the performance of three turbulence modeling approach (based on the two-equation k -ε model) in predicting erosive wear in multi-size dense slurry flow through rotating channel. All three turbulence models include rotation modification to the production term in the turbulent kineticenergy equation. The two-phase flow field obtained numerically using Galerkin finite element methodology relates the local flow velocity and concentration to the wear rate via a suitable wear model. The wear models for both sliding wear and impact wear mechanisms account for the particle size dependence. Results of predicted wear rates using the three turbulence models are compared for a large number of cases spanning such operating parameters as rotation rate, solids concentration, flow rate, particle size distribution and so forth. The root-mean-square error between FE-generated data and the correlation between maximum wear rate and the operating parameters is found less than 2.5% for all the three models.
Keywords: Rotating channel, maximum wear rate, multi-sizeparticulate flow, k −ε turbulence models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1665
1087 Tribological Behaviour of Si-Cu-Mo-Ni Alloyed Austempered Ductile Iron
Authors: Rajendra M. Galagali, R. G. Tikotkar
Ductile iron samples alloyed with 2.5% Si, 0.78% Cu, 0.421% Mo and 0.151% Ni were austempered at 345 °C and 380 °C for 150 and 180 mins and then tested for wear strength. Ductile iron was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A pin-on-disc machine was employed for wear study. The investigations were carried out for a speed of 3 m/s, under the contact load of 29.43 N with varying sliding distances ranging from 1000 m to 5000 m. The experimental outcome indicates that ADI austempered at 345 °C is more wear resistant than the one austempered at 380 °C. Also for only a sliding distance of 3000 m, both exhibited almost same wear resistance. SEM analysis indicates running sliding marks more or less parallel to one another. Spalled layers and large voids which resemble delamination were observed on worn surface of ADI380. This indicated the occurrence of severe wear. Dark patches observed indicate oxidized surface.
Keywords: Austempered ductile iron, coefficient of friction, dry sliding wear, sliding distance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 798
1086 Building Relationship Network for Machine Analysis from Wear Debris Measurements
Authors: Qurban A Memon, Mohammad S. Laghari
Abstract:Integration of system process information obtained through an image processing system with an evolving knowledge database to improve the accuracy and predictability of wear debris analysis is the main focus of the paper. The objective is to automate intelligently the analysis process of wear particle using classification via self-organizing maps. This is achieved using relationship measurements among corresponding attributes of various measurements for wear debris. Finally, visualization technique is proposed that helps the viewer in understanding and utilizing these relationships that enable accurate diagnostics.
Keywords: Relationship Network, Relationship Measurement, Self-organizing Clusters, Wear Debris Analysis, Kohonen NetworkProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1790
1085 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy
Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun
Abstract:This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.
Keywords: Magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1564
1084 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance
Authors: Yashvir Singh
Abstract:Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.
Keywords: Pongamia oil, sliding velocity, load, friction, wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1381
1083 The Performance of PVD Coated Grade in Milling of ADI 800
Authors: M. Ibrahim Sadik, Toril Myrtveit
Abstract:The aim of this investigation is to study the performance of the new generation of the PVD coated grade and to map the influence of cutting conditions on the tool life in milling of ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron). The results show that chipping is the main wear mechanism which determines the tool life in dry condition and notch wear in wet condition for this application. This due to the different stress mechanisms and preexisting cracks in the coating. The wear development shows clearly that the new PVD coating (C20) has the best ability to delay the chipping growth. It was also found that a high content of Al in the new coating (C20) was especially favorable compared to a TiAlN multilayer with lower Al content (C30) or CVD coating. This is due to fine grains and low compressive stress level in the coating which increase the coating ability to withstand the mechanical and thermal impact. It was also found that the use of coolant decreases the tool life with 70-80% compare to dry milling.
Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), coating, chipping, milling, tool performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1830
1082 Investigations on the Influence of Process Parameters on the Sliding Wear Behavior of Components Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
Authors: C. D. Naiju, K. Annamalai, Siva Prasad Darla, Y. Murali Krishna
Abstract:This work presents the results of a study carried out to determine the sliding wear behavior and its effect on the process parameters of components manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). A standard procedure and specimen had been used in the present study to find the wear behavior. Using Taguchi-s experimental technique, an orthogonal array of modified L8 had been developed. Sliding wear testing using pin-on-disk machine was carried out and analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was used to investigate the effect of process parameters and to identify the main process parameter that influences the properties of wear behavior on the DMLS components. It has been found that part orientation, one of the selected process parameter had more influence on wear as compared to other selected process parameters.
Keywords: ANOVA, DMLS, Taguchi, Wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1966
1081 Dynamic Clustering Estimation of Tool Flank Wear in Turning Process using SVD Models of the Emitted Sound Signals
Authors: A. Samraj, S. Sayeed, J. E. Raja., J. Hossen, A. Rahman
Abstract:Monitoring the tool flank wear without affecting the throughput is considered as the prudent method in production technology. The examination has to be done without affecting the machining process. In this paper we proposed a novel work that is used to determine tool flank wear by observing the sound signals emitted during the turning process. The work-piece material we used here is steel and aluminum and the cutting insert was carbide material. Two different cutting speeds were used in this work. The feed rate and the cutting depth were constant whereas the flank wear was a variable. The emitted sound signal of a fresh tool (0 mm flank wear) a slightly worn tool (0.2 -0.25 mm flank wear) and a severely worn tool (0.4mm and above flank wear) during turning process were recorded separately using a high sensitive microphone. Analysis using Singular Value Decomposition was done on these sound signals to extract the feature sound components. Observation of the results showed that an increase in tool flank wear correlates with an increase in the values of SVD features produced out of the sound signals for both the materials. Hence it can be concluded that wear monitoring of tool flank during turning process using SVD features with the Fuzzy C means classification on the emitted sound signal is a potential and relatively simple method.
Keywords: Fuzzy c means, Microphone, Singular ValueDecomposition, Tool Flank Wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1712
1080 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation
Authors: M. Farnush
This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.
Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1065
1079 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites
Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci
Abstract:In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.
Keywords: Magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1502
1078 Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process
Authors: Alluru Gopala Krishna, Thella Babu Rao
Abstract:In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.
Keywords: CNT based nanocoolant, turning, tool wear, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1500
1077 Influence of Microstructural Features on Wear Resistance of Biomedical Titanium Materials
Authors: Mohsin T. Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee
Abstract:The field of biomedical materials plays an imperative requisite and a critical role in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern world. Recently, titanium (Ti) materials are being used as biomaterials because of their superior corrosion resistance and tremendous specific strength, free- allergic problems and the greatest biocompatibility compared to other competing biomaterials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials. However, regardless of these excellent performance properties, Implantable Ti materials have poor shear strength and wear resistance which limited their applications as biomaterials. Even though the wear properties of Ti alloys has revealed some improvements, the crucial effectiveness of biomedical Ti alloys as wear components requires a comprehensive deep understanding of the wear reasons, mechanisms, and techniques that can be used to improve wear behavior. This review examines current information on the effect of thermal and thermomechanical processing of implantable Ti materials on the long-term prosthetic requirement which related with wear behavior. This paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of effective microstructural features that can improve wear properties of bio grade Ti materials using thermal and thermomechanical treatments.
Keywords: Wear Resistance, Heat Treatment, Thermomechanical Processing, Biomedical Titanium Materials.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3535
1076 Using Fly Ash as a Reinforcement to Increase Wear Resistance of Pure Magnesium
Authors: E. Karakulak, R. Yamanoğlu, M. Zeren
Abstract:In the current study, fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant was used as reinforcement in pure magnesium. The composite materials with different fly ash contents were produced with powder metallurgical methods. Powder mixtures were sintered at 540oC under 30 MPa pressure for 15 minutes in a vacuum assisted hot press. Results showed that increasing ash content continuously increases hardness of the composite. On the other hand, minimum wear damage was obtained at 2 wt. % ash content. Addition of higher level of fly ash results with formation of cracks in the matrix and increases wear damage of the material.
Keywords: Mg composite, fly ash, wear, powder metallurgy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1211