Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 290

Search results for: iterative decoder

290 Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes

Authors: Fouad Ayoub, Mohammed Lahmer, Mostafa Belkasmi, El Houssine Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme [1] and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.

Keywords: Generalized parallel concatenated block codes, OSMLD codes, threshold decoding, iterative decoding scheme, and performance.

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289 Image Transmission via Iterative Cellular-Turbo System

Authors: Ersin Gose, Kenan Buyukatak, Onur Osman, Osman N. Ucan

Abstract:

To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.

Keywords: Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA), Turbo Coding, Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS), Image Compression.

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288 A Novel Receiver Algorithm for Coherent Underwater Acoustic Communications

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jianhua Ge

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel receiver algorithm for coherent underwater acoustic communications. The proposed receiver is composed of three parts: (1) Doppler tracking and correction, (2) Time reversal channel estimation and combining, and (3) Joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED). To reduce computational complexity and optimize the equalization algorithm, Time reversal (TR) channel estimation and combining is adopted to simplify multi-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (ADFE) into single channel ADFE without reducing the system performance. Simultaneously, the turbo theory is adopted to form joint iterative ADFE and convolutional decoder (JIED). In JIED scheme, the ADFE and decoder exchange soft information in an iterative manner, which can enhance the equalizer performance using decoding gain. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce computational complexity and improve the performance of equalizer. Therefore, the performance of coherent underwater acoustic communications can be improved greatly.

Keywords: Underwater acoustic communication, Time reversal (TR) combining, joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED)

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287 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence.

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286 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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285 The Relationship of Eigenvalues between Backward MPSD and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zhuan-de Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward MPSD (Modified Preconditioned Simultaneous Displacement) iterative matrix is firstly proposed. The relationship of eigenvalues between the backward MPSD iterative matrix and backward Jacobi iterative matrix for block p-cyclic case is obtained, which improves and refines the results in the corresponding references.

Keywords: Backward MPSD iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, eigenvalue, p-cyclic matrix.

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284 Decoder Design for a New Single Error Correcting/Double Error Detecting Code

Authors: M. T. Anwar, P. K. Lala, P. Thenappan

Abstract:

This paper presents the decoder design for the single error correcting and double error detecting code proposed by the authors in an earlier paper. The speed of error detection and correction of a code is largely dependent upon the associated encoder and decoder circuits. The complexity and the speed of such circuits are determined by the number of 1?s in the parity check matrix (PCM). The number of 1?s in the parity check matrix for the code proposed by the authors are fewer than in any currently known single error correcting/double error detecting code. This results in simplified encoding and decoding circuitry for error detection and correction.

Keywords: Decoder, Hsiao code, Parity Check Matrix, Syndrome Pattern.

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283 A New Preconditioned AOR Method for Z-matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Ning Zhang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a preconditioned AOR-type iterative method for solving the linear systems Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And give some comparison theorems to show that the rate of convergence of the preconditioned AOR-type iterative method is faster than the rate of convergence of the AOR-type iterative method.

Keywords: Z-matrix, AOR-type iterative method, precondition, comparison.

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282 Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices

Authors: Li Jiang, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate our results.

Keywords: Z-matrix, mixed-type splitting iterative method, precondition, comparison theorem, linear system.

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281 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves andgeneralizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: iterativeprocess is faster, operators are more general. At the end, we indicatethat the results can also be proved with the iterative process witherror terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence.

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280 An Iterative Algorithm to Compute the Generalized Inverse A(2) T,S Under the Restricted Inner Product

Authors: Xingping Sheng

Abstract:

Let T and S be a subspace of Cn and Cm, respectively. Then for A ∈ Cm×n satisfied AT ⊕ S = Cm, the generalized inverse A(2) T,S is given by A(2) T,S = (PS⊥APT )†. In this paper, a finite formulae is presented to compute generalized inverse A(2) T,S under the concept of restricted inner product, which defined as < A,B >T,S=< PS⊥APT,B > for the A,B ∈ Cm×n. By this iterative method, when taken the initial matrix X0 = PTA∗PS⊥, the generalized inverse A(2) T,S can be obtained within at most mn iteration steps in absence of roundoff errors. Finally given numerical example is shown that the iterative formulae is quite efficient.

Keywords: Generalized inverse A(2) T, S, Restricted inner product, Iterative method, Orthogonal projection.

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279 Optimization of Quantization in Higher Order Modulations for LDPC-Coded Systems

Authors: M.Sushanth Babu, P.Krishna, U.Venu, M.Ranjith

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a 2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit (CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity hardware implementation.

Keywords: Low Density parity Check, Mapping, Demapping, Quantization, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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278 Iterative solutions to the linear matrix equation AXB + CXTD = E

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Jiashang Jiang

Abstract:

In this paper the gradient based iterative algorithm is presented to solve the linear matrix equation AXB +CXTD = E, where X is unknown matrix, A,B,C,D,E are the given constant matrices. It is proved that if the equation has a solution, then the unique minimum norm solution can be obtained by choosing a special kind of initial matrices. Two numerical examples show that the introduced iterative algorithm is quite efficient.

Keywords: matrix equation, iterative algorithm, parameter estimation, minimum norm solution.

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277 Iterative Methods for An Inverse Problem

Authors: Minghui Wang, Shanrui Hu

Abstract:

An inverse problem of doubly center matrices is discussed. By translating the constrained problem into unconstrained problem, two iterative methods are proposed. A numerical example illustrate our algorithms.

Keywords: doubly center matrix, electric network theory, iterative methods, least-square problem.

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276 Experimental Results about the Dynamics of the Generalized Belief Propagation Used on LDPC Codes

Authors: Jean-Christophe Sibel, Sylvain Reynal, David Declercq

Abstract:

In the context of channel coding, the Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP) is an iterative algorithm used to recover the transmission bits sent through a noisy channel. To ensure a reliable transmission, we apply a map on the bits, that is called a code. This code induces artificial correlations between the bits to send, and it can be modeled by a graph whose nodes are the bits and the edges are the correlations. This graph, called Tanner graph, is used for most of the decoding algorithms like Belief Propagation or Gallager-B. The GBP is based on a non unic transformation of the Tanner graph into a so called region-graph. A clear advantage of the GBP over the other algorithms is the freedom in the construction of this graph. In this article, we explain a particular construction for specific graph topologies that involves relevant performance of the GBP. Moreover, we investigate the behavior of the GBP considered as a dynamic system in order to understand the way it evolves in terms of the time and in terms of the noise power of the channel. To this end we make use of classical measures and we introduce a new measure called the hyperspheres method that enables to know the size of the attractors.

Keywords: iterative decoder, LDPC, region-graph, chaos.

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275 Efficient Iterative Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Hwan-Jun Choi, Sung-Bok Choi, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMO-OFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative V-BLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6% less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, V-BLAST, QR-decomposition, QRD-M, DFE, Iterative scheme, Channel condition.

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274 Iterative Methods for Computing the Weighted Minkowski Inverses of Matrices in Minkowski Space

Authors: Xiaoji Liu, Yonghui Qin

Abstract:

In this note, we consider a family of iterative formula for computing the weighted Minskowski inverses AM,N in Minskowski space, and give two kinds of iterations and the necessary and sufficient conditions of the convergence of iterations.

Keywords: iterative method, the Minskowski inverse, A

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273 Two Fourth-order Iterative Methods Based on Continued Fraction for Root-finding Problems

Authors: Shengfeng Li, Rujing Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we present two new one-step iterative methods based on Thiele-s continued fraction for solving nonlinear equations. By applying the truncated Thiele-s continued fraction twice, the iterative methods are obtained respectively. Analysis of convergence shows that the new methods are fourth-order convergent. Numerical tests verifying the theory are given and based on the methods, two new one-step iterations are developed.

Keywords: Iterative method, Fixed-point iteration, Thiele's continued fraction, Order of convergence.

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272 An Iterative Method for the Least-squares Symmetric Solution of AXB+CYD=F and its Application

Authors: Minghui Wang

Abstract:

Based on the classical algorithm LSQR for solving (unconstrained) LS problem, an iterative method is proposed for the least-squares like-minimum-norm symmetric solution of AXB+CYD=E. As the application of this algorithm, an iterative method for the least-squares like-minimum-norm biymmetric solution of AXB=E is also obtained. Numerical results are reported that show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Matrix equation, bisymmetric matrix, least squares problem, like-minimum norm, iterative algorithm.

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271 Existence of Iterative Cauchy Fractional Differential Equation

Authors: Rabha W. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Our main aim in this paper is to use the technique of non expansive operators to more general iterative and non iterative fractional differential equations (Cauchy type ). The non integer case is taken in sense of Riemann-Liouville fractional operators. Applications are illustrated.

Keywords: Fractional calculus, fractional differential equation, Cauchy equation, Riemann-Liouville fractional operators, Volterra integral equation, non-expansive mapping, iterative differential equation.

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270 MEGSOR Iterative Scheme for the Solution of 2D Elliptic PDE's

Authors: J. Sulaiman, M. Othman, M. K. Hasan

Abstract:

Recently, the findings on the MEG iterative scheme has demonstrated to accelerate the convergence rate in solving any system of linear equations generated by using approximation equations of boundary value problems. Based on the same scheme, the aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of a family of four-point block iterative methods with a weighted parameter, ω such as the 4 Point-EGSOR, 4 Point-EDGSOR, and 4 Point-MEGSOR in solving two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations by using the second-order finite difference approximation. In fact, the formulation and implementation of three four-point block iterative methods are also presented. Finally, the experimental results show that the Four Point MEGSOR iterative scheme is superior as compared with the existing four point block schemes.

Keywords: MEG iteration, second-order finite difference, weighted parameter.

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269 An Iterative Method for Quaternionic Linear Equations

Authors: Bin Yu, Minghui Wang, Juntao Zhang

Abstract:

By the real representation of the quaternionic matrix, an iterative method for quaternionic linear equations Ax = b is proposed. Then the convergence conditions are obtained. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of this method.

Keywords: Quaternionic linear equations, Real representation, Iterative algorithm.

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268 An Efficient Iterative Updating Method for Damped Structural Systems

Authors: Jiashang Jiang

Abstract:

Model updating is an inverse eigenvalue problem which concerns the modification of an existing but inaccurate model with measured modal data. In this paper, an efficient gradient based iterative method for updating the mass, damping and stiffness matrices simultaneously using a few of complex measured modal data is developed. Convergence analysis indicates that the iterative solutions always converge to the unique minimum Frobenius norm symmetric solution of the model updating problem by choosing a special kind of initial matrices.

Keywords: Model updating, iterative algorithm, damped structural system, optimal approximation.

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267 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.

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266 Metaheuristic Algorithms for Decoding Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Hassan Berbia, Faissal Elbouanani, Rahal Romadi, Mostafa Belkasmi

Abstract:

This paper introduces two decoders for binary linear codes based on Metaheuristics. The first one uses a genetic algorithm and the second is based on a combination genetic algorithm with a feed forward neural network. The decoder based on the genetic algorithms (DAG) applied to BCH and convolutional codes give good performances compared to Chase-2 and Viterbi algorithm respectively and reach the performances of the OSD-3 for some Residue Quadratic (RQ) codes. This algorithm is less complex for linear block codes of large block length; furthermore their performances can be improved by tuning the decoder-s parameters, in particular the number of individuals by population and the number of generations. In the second algorithm, the search space, in contrast to DAG which was limited to the code word space, now covers the whole binary vector space. It tries to elude a great number of coding operations by using a neural network. This reduces greatly the complexity of the decoder while maintaining comparable performances.

Keywords: Block code, decoding, methaheuristic, genetic algorithm, neural network

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265 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Methods for Rank Deficient Least Squares Problems

Authors: Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh, Sayyed Hasan Azizi

Abstract:

We study the semiconvergence of Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for the least squares solution of minimal norm of rank deficient linear systems of equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the semiconvergence of the Gauss-Seidel iterative method are given. We also show that if the linear system of equations is consistent, then the proposed methods with a zero vector as an initial guess converge in one iteration. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

Keywords: rank deficient least squares problems, AOR iterativemethod, Gauss-Seidel iterative method, semiconvergence.

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264 Some New Upper Bounds for the Spectral Radius of Iterative Matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Xue Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present some new upper bounds for the spectral radius of iterative matrices based on the concept of doubly α diagonally dominant matrix. And subsequently, we give two examples to show that our results are better than the earlier ones.

Keywords: doubly α diagonally dominant matrix, eigenvalue, iterative matrix, spectral radius, upper bound.

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263 Iterative Solutions to Some Linear Matrix Equations

Authors: Jiashang Jiang, Hao Liu, Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

In this paper the gradient based iterative algorithms are presented to solve the following four types linear matrix equations: (a) AXB = F; (b) AXB = F, CXD = G; (c) AXB = F s. t. X = XT ; (d) AXB+CYD = F, where X and Y are unknown matrices, A,B,C,D, F,G are the given constant matrices. It is proved that if the equation considered has a solution, then the unique minimum norm solution can be obtained by choosing a special kind of initial matrices. The numerical results show that the proposed method is reliable and attractive.

Keywords: Matrix equation, iterative algorithm, parameter estimation, minimum norm solution.

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262 Code-Aided Turbo Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems with NB-LDPC Codes

Authors: Ł. Januszkiewicz, G. Bacci, H. Gierszal, M. Luise

Abstract:

In this paper channel estimation techniques are considered as the support methods for OFDM transmission systems based on Non Binary LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes. Standard frequency domain pilot aided LS (Least Squares) and LMMSE (Linear Minimum Mean Square Error) estimators are investigated. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is proposed as a solution exploiting the NB-LDPC channel decoder to improve the performance of the LMMSE estimator. Simulation results of signals transmitted through fading mobile channels are presented to compare the performance of the proposed channel estimators.

Keywords: LDPC codes, LMMSE, OFDM, turbo channelestimation.

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261 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Singular Linear Systems

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods for linear systems with the coefficient matrices are singular H-matrices. And we present the sufficient and necessary conditions for convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods. Moreover, we apply the results to the GMAOR methods. Finally, we give one numerical example.

Keywords: Singular H-matrix, linear systems, extrapolated iterative method, GMAOR method, convergence.

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