Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8432

Search results for: Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS)

8432 Image Transmission via Iterative Cellular-Turbo System

Authors: Ersin Gose, Kenan Buyukatak, Onur Osman, Osman N. Ucan

Abstract:

To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.

Keywords: Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA), Turbo Coding, Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS), Image Compression.

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8431 Analysis of Message Authentication in Turbo Coded Halftoned Images using Exit Charts

Authors: Andhe Dharani, P. S. Satyanarayana, Andhe Pallavi

Abstract:

Considering payload, reliability, security and operational lifetime as major constraints in transmission of images we put forward in this paper a steganographic technique implemented at the physical layer. We suggest transmission of Halftoned images (payload constraint) in wireless sensor networks to reduce the amount of transmitted data. For low power and interference limited applications Turbo codes provide suitable reliability. Ensuring security is one of the highest priorities in many sensor networks. The Turbo Code structure apart from providing forward error correction can be utilized to provide for encryption. We first consider the Halftoned image and then the method of embedding a block of data (called secret) in this Halftoned image during the turbo encoding process is presented. The small modifications required at the turbo decoder end to extract the embedded data are presented next. The implementation complexity and the degradation of the BER (bit error rate) in the Turbo based stego system are analyzed. Using some of the entropy based crypt analytic techniques we show that the strength of our Turbo based stego system approaches that found in the OTPs (one time pad).

Keywords: Halftoning, Turbo codes, security, operationallifetime, Turbo based stego system.

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8430 System Performance Comparison of Turbo and Trellis Coded Optical CDMA Systems

Authors: M. Kulkarni, R. K. Sinha, D. R. Bhaskar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, optical code division multipleaccess, optical multiple access interference, Trellis codedmodulation, Turbo code

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8429 Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems

Authors: K. Ramasamy, B. Balamuralithara, Mohammad Umar Siddiqi

Abstract:

We proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both “water fall" and “error floor" regions in [7]. In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB.

Keywords: Asymmetric turbo code, Generator polynomial, Interleaver, UPA, WCDMA, cdma2000.

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8428 Discrete Polyphase Matched Filtering-based Soft Timing Estimation for Mobile Wireless Systems

Authors: Thomas O. Olwal, Michael A. van Wyk, Barend J. van Wyk

Abstract:

In this paper we present a soft timing phase estimation (STPE) method for wireless mobile receivers operating in low signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Discrete Polyphase Matched (DPM) filters, a Log-maximum a posterior probability (MAP) and/or a Soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) are combined to derive a new timing recovery (TR) scheme. We apply this scheme to wireless cellular communication system model that comprises of a raised cosine filter (RCF), a bit-interleaved turbo-coded multi-level modulation (BITMM) scheme and the channel is assumed to be memory-less. Furthermore, no clock signals are transmitted to the receiver contrary to the classical data aided (DA) models. This new model ensures that both the bandwidth and power of the communication system is conserved. However, the computational complexity of ideal turbo synchronization is increased by 50%. Several simulation tests on bit error rate (BER) and block error rate (BLER) versus low SNR reveal that the proposed iterative soft timing recovery (ISTR) scheme outperforms the conventional schemes.

Keywords: discrete polyphase matched filters, maximum likelihood estimators, soft timing phase estimation, wireless mobile systems.

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8427 Comparison between Turbo Code and Convolutional Product Code (CPC) for Mobile WiMAX

Authors: Ahmed Ebian, Mona Shokair, Kamal Awadalla

Abstract:

Mobile WiMAX is a broadband wireless solution that enables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide area broadband radio access technology and flexible network architecture. It adopts Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for improved multi-path performance in Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) environments. Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) is introduced in the IEEE 802e[1]. WIMAX system uses one of different types of channel coding but The mandatory channel coding scheme is based on binary nonrecursive Convolutional Coding (CC). There are other several optional channel coding schemes such as block turbo codes, convolutional turbo codes, and low density parity check (LDPC). In this paper a comparison between the performance of WIMAX using turbo code and using convolutional product code (CPC) [2] is made. Also a combination between them had been done. The CPC gives good results at different SNR values compared to both the turbo system, and the combination between them. For example, at BER equal to 10-2 for 128 subcarriers, the amount of improvement in SNR equals approximately 3 dB higher than turbo code and equals approximately 2dB higher than the combination respectively. Several results are obtained at different modulating schemes (16QAM and 64QAM) and different numbers of sub-carriers (128 and 512).

Keywords: Turbo Code, Convolutional Product Code (CPC), Convolutional Product Code (CPC).

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8426 Variable Rate Superorthogonal Turbo Code with the OVSF Code Tree

Authors: Insah Bhurtah, P. Clarel Catherine, K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah

Abstract:

When using modern Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) in mobile communications, the user must be able to vary the transmission rate of users to allocate bandwidth efficiently. In this work, Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes are used with the same principles applied in a low-rate superorthogonal turbo code due to their variable-length properties. The introduced system is the Variable Rate Superorthogonal Turbo Code (VRSTC) where puncturing is not performed on the encoder’s final output but rather before selecting the output to achieve higher rates. Due to bandwidth expansion, the codes outperform an ordinary turbo code in the AWGN channel. Simulations results show decreased performance compared to those obtained with the employment of Walsh-Hadamard codes. However, with OVSF codes, the VRSTC system keeps the orthogonality of codewords whilst producing variable rate codes contrary to Walsh-Hadamard codes where puncturing is usually performed on the final output.

Keywords: CDMA, MAP Decoding, OVSF, Superorthogonal Turbo Code.

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8425 Efficient Iterative Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Hwan-Jun Choi, Sung-Bok Choi, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMO-OFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative V-BLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6% less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, V-BLAST, QR-decomposition, QRD-M, DFE, Iterative scheme, Channel condition.

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8424 Iterative Learning Control of Two Coupled Nonlinear Spherical Tanks

Authors: A. R. Tavakolpour-Saleh, A. R. Setoodeh, E. Ansari

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and control of a highly nonlinear system including, non-interacting two spherical tanks using iterative learning control (ILC). Consequently, the objective of the paper is to control the liquid levels in the nonlinear tanks. First, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is applied to the plant model as a suitable benchmark for comparison. Then, dynamic responses of the control system corresponding to different step inputs are investigated. It is found that the conventional PID control is not able to fulfill the design criteria such as desired time constant. Consequently, an iterative learning controller is proposed to accurately control the coupled nonlinear tanks system. The simulation results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the presented ILC approach over the conventional PID controller to cope with the nonlinearities presented in the dynamic system.

Keywords: Iterative learning control, spherical tanks, nonlinear system.

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8423 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence.

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8422 A Novel Receiver Algorithm for Coherent Underwater Acoustic Communications

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jianhua Ge

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel receiver algorithm for coherent underwater acoustic communications. The proposed receiver is composed of three parts: (1) Doppler tracking and correction, (2) Time reversal channel estimation and combining, and (3) Joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED). To reduce computational complexity and optimize the equalization algorithm, Time reversal (TR) channel estimation and combining is adopted to simplify multi-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (ADFE) into single channel ADFE without reducing the system performance. Simultaneously, the turbo theory is adopted to form joint iterative ADFE and convolutional decoder (JIED). In JIED scheme, the ADFE and decoder exchange soft information in an iterative manner, which can enhance the equalizer performance using decoding gain. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce computational complexity and improve the performance of equalizer. Therefore, the performance of coherent underwater acoustic communications can be improved greatly.

Keywords: Underwater acoustic communication, Time reversal (TR) combining, joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED)

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8421 Hybrid Model Based on Artificial Immune System and Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh, Zahra Afsahi, MohammadReza Meybodi

Abstract:

The hybridization of artificial immune system with cellular automata (CA-AIS) is a novel method. In this hybrid model, the cellular automaton within each cell deploys the artificial immune system algorithm under optimization context in order to increase its fitness by using its neighbor-s efforts. The hybrid model CA-AIS is introduced to fix the standard artificial immune system-s weaknesses. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations and it shows that the proposed approach achieves better results compared to standard artificial immune system.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System, Cellular Automat, neighborhood

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8420 Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices

Authors: Li Jiang, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate our results.

Keywords: Z-matrix, mixed-type splitting iterative method, precondition, comparison theorem, linear system.

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8419 Code-Aided Turbo Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems with NB-LDPC Codes

Authors: Ł. Januszkiewicz, G. Bacci, H. Gierszal, M. Luise

Abstract:

In this paper channel estimation techniques are considered as the support methods for OFDM transmission systems based on Non Binary LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes. Standard frequency domain pilot aided LS (Least Squares) and LMMSE (Linear Minimum Mean Square Error) estimators are investigated. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is proposed as a solution exploiting the NB-LDPC channel decoder to improve the performance of the LMMSE estimator. Simulation results of signals transmitted through fading mobile channels are presented to compare the performance of the proposed channel estimators.

Keywords: LDPC codes, LMMSE, OFDM, turbo channelestimation.

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8418 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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8417 Security Management System of Cellular Communication: Case Study

Authors: Othman O. Khalifa, Abdulrazzag Aburas, A. Al Bagul, Meftah Hrairi, Muhammad Shahril bin Shahbuddin, Harman bin Mat Kasa

Abstract:

Cellular communication is being widely used by all over the world. The users of handsets are increasing due to the request from marketing sector. The important aspect that has to be touch in this paper is about the security system of cellular communication. It is important to provide users with a secure channel for communication. A brief description of the new GSM cellular network architecture will be provided. Limitations of cellular networks, their security issues and the different types of attacks will be discussed. The paper will go over some new security mechanisms that have been proposed by researchers. Overall, this paper clarifies the security system or services of cellular communication using GSM. Three Malaysian Communication Companies were taken as Case study in this paper.

Keywords: GSM, Security systems, SIM CARD, IMSI, Authentication.

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8416 A Performance Evaluation of Cellular Network Suitability for VANET

Authors: Ho-Yeon Kim, Dong-Min Kang, Jun-Ho Lee, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Recently, a vehicular ad-hoc networks(VANETs) for Intelligent Transport System(ITS) have become able safety and convenience services surpassing the simple services such as an electronic toll collection system. To provide the proper services, VANET needs infrastructure over the country infrastructure. Thus, we have to spend a huge sum of human resources. In this reason, several studies have been made on the usage of cellular networks instead of new protocols this study is to assess a performance evaluation of the cellular network for VANET. In this paper, the result of a for the suitability of cellular networks for VANET experiment, The LTE(Long Term Evolution) of cellular networks found to be most suitable among the others cellular networks

Keywords: Vehicle communication, VANET, Cellular network

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8415 The Relationship of Eigenvalues between Backward MPSD and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zhuan-de Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward MPSD (Modified Preconditioned Simultaneous Displacement) iterative matrix is firstly proposed. The relationship of eigenvalues between the backward MPSD iterative matrix and backward Jacobi iterative matrix for block p-cyclic case is obtained, which improves and refines the results in the corresponding references.

Keywords: Backward MPSD iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, eigenvalue, p-cyclic matrix.

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8414 Instability Problem of Turbo-Machines with Radial Distortion Problems

Authors: Yasuo Obikane, Sofiane Khelladi

Abstract:

In the upstream we place a piece of ring and rotate it with 83Hz, 166Hz, 333Hz,and 666H to find the effect of the periodic distortion.In the experiment this type of the perturbation will not allow since the mechanical failure of any parts of the equipment in the upstream will destroy the blade system. This type of study will be only possible by CFD. We use two pumps NS32 (ENSAM) and three blades pump (Tamagawa Univ). The benchmark computations were performed without perturbation parts, and confirm the computational results well agreement in head-flow rate. We obtained the pressure fluctuation growth rate that is representing the global instability of the turbo-system. The fluctuating torque components were 0.01Nm(5000rpm), 0.1Nm(10000rmp), 0.04Nm(20000rmp), 0.15Nm( 40000rmp) respectively. Only for 10000rpm(166Hz) the output toque was random, and it implies that it creates unsteady flow by separations on the blades, and will reduce the pressure loss significantly

Keywords: inlet distorsion, perturbation, turbo-machine

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8413 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative  scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error  rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the  coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage  is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed  cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive  signals from both broadcasting station and cellular station. The  proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to  achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The  performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: Cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system.

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8412 Solving a System of Nonlinear Functional Equations Using Revised New Iterative Method

Authors: Sachin Bhalekar, Varsha Daftardar-Gejji

Abstract:

In the present paper, we present a modification of the New Iterative Method (NIM) proposed by Daftardar-Gejji and Jafari [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2006;316:753–763] and use it for solving systems of nonlinear functional equations. This modification yields a series with faster convergence. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the method.

Keywords: Caputo fractional derivative, System of nonlinear functional equations, Revised new iterative method.

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8411 Turbo-Coded Mobile Terrestrial Communication Systems in Urban and Suburban Areas for Wireless Multimedia Applications

Authors: F. Mehran

Abstract:

With the rapid popularization of internet services, it is apparent that the next generation terrestrial communication systems must be capable of supporting various applications like voice, video, and data. This paper presents the performance evaluation of turbo- coded mobile terrestrial communication systems, which are capable of providing high quality services for delay sensitive (voice or video) and delay tolerant (text transmission) multimedia applications in urban and suburban areas. Different types of multimedia information require different service qualities, which are generally expressed in terms of a maximum acceptable bit-error-rate (BER) and maximum tolerable latency. The breakthrough discovery of turbo codes allows us to significantly reduce the probability of bit errors with feasible latency. In a turbo-coded system, a trade-off between latency and BER results from the choice of convolutional component codes, interleaver type and size, decoding algorithm, and the number of decoding iterations. This trade-off can be exploited for multimedia applications by using optimal and suboptimal performance parameter amalgamations to achieve different service qualities. The results are therefore proposing an adaptive framework for turbo-coded wireless multimedia communications which incorporate a set of performance parameters that achieve an appropriate set of service qualities, depending on the application's requirements.

Keywords: Mobile communications, Turbo codes, wireless multimedia communication systems.

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8410 Effect of Iterative Algorithm on the Performance of MC-CDMA System with Nonlinear Models of HPA

Authors: R. Blicha

Abstract:

High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is a serious problem in multicarrier systems (MC), such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), or in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems, due to large number of subcarriers. This effect is possible reduce with some PAPR reduction techniques. Spreading sequences at the presence of Saleh and Rapp models of high power amplifier (HPA) have big influence on the behavior of system. In this paper we investigate the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA systems. Basically we can see from simulations that the MC-CDMA system with Iterative algorithm can be providing significantly better results than the MC-CDMA system. The results of our analyses are verified via simulation.

Keywords: MC-CDMA, Iterative algorithm, PAPR, BER, Saleh, Rapp, Spreading Sequences.

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8409 An Efficient Iterative Updating Method for Damped Structural Systems

Authors: Jiashang Jiang

Abstract:

Model updating is an inverse eigenvalue problem which concerns the modification of an existing but inaccurate model with measured modal data. In this paper, an efficient gradient based iterative method for updating the mass, damping and stiffness matrices simultaneously using a few of complex measured modal data is developed. Convergence analysis indicates that the iterative solutions always converge to the unique minimum Frobenius norm symmetric solution of the model updating problem by choosing a special kind of initial matrices.

Keywords: Model updating, iterative algorithm, damped structural system, optimal approximation.

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8408 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: Cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification.

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8407 MEGSOR Iterative Scheme for the Solution of 2D Elliptic PDE's

Authors: J. Sulaiman, M. Othman, M. K. Hasan

Abstract:

Recently, the findings on the MEG iterative scheme has demonstrated to accelerate the convergence rate in solving any system of linear equations generated by using approximation equations of boundary value problems. Based on the same scheme, the aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of a family of four-point block iterative methods with a weighted parameter, ω such as the 4 Point-EGSOR, 4 Point-EDGSOR, and 4 Point-MEGSOR in solving two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations by using the second-order finite difference approximation. In fact, the formulation and implementation of three four-point block iterative methods are also presented. Finally, the experimental results show that the Four Point MEGSOR iterative scheme is superior as compared with the existing four point block schemes.

Keywords: MEG iteration, second-order finite difference, weighted parameter.

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8406 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Methods for Rank Deficient Least Squares Problems

Authors: Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh, Sayyed Hasan Azizi

Abstract:

We study the semiconvergence of Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for the least squares solution of minimal norm of rank deficient linear systems of equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the semiconvergence of the Gauss-Seidel iterative method are given. We also show that if the linear system of equations is consistent, then the proposed methods with a zero vector as an initial guess converge in one iteration. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

Keywords: rank deficient least squares problems, AOR iterativemethod, Gauss-Seidel iterative method, semiconvergence.

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8405 On the Solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear Systems

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu

Abstract:

A linear system is called a fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) if quantities in this system are all fuzzy numbers. For the FFLS, we investigate its solution and develop a new approximate method for solving the FFLS. Observing the numerical results, we find that our method is accurate than the iterative Jacobi and Gauss- Seidel methods on approximating the solution of FFLS.

Keywords: Fully fuzzy linear equations, iterative method, homotopy perturbation method, approximate solutions.

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8404 Exploring Perceptions and Practices About Information and Communication Technologies in Business English Teaching in Pakistan

Authors: M. Athar Hussain, N.B. Jumani, Munazza Sultana., M. Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

Language Reforms and potential use of ICTs has been a focal area of Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Efforts are being accelerated to incorporate fast expanding ICTs to bring qualitative improvement in language instruction in higher education. This paper explores how university teachers are benefitting from ICTs to make their English class effective and what type of problems they face in practicing ICTs during their lectures. An in-depth qualitative study was employed to understand why language teachers tend to use ICTs in their instruction and how they are practicing it. A sample of twenty teachers from five universities located in Islamabad, three from public sector and two from private sector, was selected on non-random (Snowball) sampling basis. An interview with 15 semi-structured items was used as research instruments to collect data. The findings reveal that business English teaching is facilitated and improved through the use of ICTs. The language teachers need special training regarding the practices and implementation of ICTs. It is recommended that initiatives might be taken to equip university language teachers with modern methodology incorporating ICTs as focal area and efforts might be made to remove barriers regarding the training of language teachers and proper usage of ICTs.

Keywords: Information and communication technologies, internet assisted learning, teaching business English, online instructional content.

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8403 A New Preconditioned AOR Method for Z-matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Ning Zhang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a preconditioned AOR-type iterative method for solving the linear systems Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And give some comparison theorems to show that the rate of convergence of the preconditioned AOR-type iterative method is faster than the rate of convergence of the AOR-type iterative method.

Keywords: Z-matrix, AOR-type iterative method, precondition, comparison.

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