Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: doping

50 Ethical Aspects of the Anti-Doping System Management in Poland and in Global Framework

Authors: Malgorzata Kurleto

Abstract:

This study is trying to analyse the organization of the anti-doping system globally (particularly in Poland). The analysis is going to show the concept of doping, indicating the types of doping, and list of banned substances and methods. The paper discusses ethical aspects of the global anti-doping system. The analysis is focusing on organization of global Anti-Doping Agency. The paper will try to describe the basic assumptions of regulations adopted by WADA, called "standards” as well organization and functioning of the Polish Anti-Doping Agency (including the legal basis: POLADA). The base for this discuss will be the Polish 2018 annual report, which shows the most important assumptions, implementation and the number of anti-doping proceedings conducted in Poland. The aim of this paper is to show ethical arguments on anti-doping management strategies.

Keywords: Anti-doping, ethical dilemmas, sports doping, WADA, POLADA.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 416
49 How the Iranian Free-Style Wrestlers Know and Think about Doping? – A Knowledge and Attitude Study

Authors: F. Halabchi, A. Esteghamati, A. Razzaghi, A. Noori

Abstract:

Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Wrestling is the nationally popular sport in Iran. Also the prevalence of doping may be high, due to its power demanding characteristics. So, we aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the club wrestlers. In a cross sectional study, 426 wrestlers were studied. For this reason, a researcher made questionnaire was used. In this study, researchers selected the clubs by randomized clustered sampling and distributed the questionnaire among wrestlers. Knowledge of wrestlers in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects was poor or moderate in 70.8%, 95.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Wrestlers have poor knowledge in doping. Furthermore, they believe some myths which are unfavorable. It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches.

Keywords: Attitude, Doping, Knowledge, Wrestling

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1410
48 Effect of Cr and Fe Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Prakash Chand, Anurag Gaur, Ashavani Kumar

Abstract:

In the present study, we have synthesized Cr and Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (Zn1-δCraFebO; where δ = a + b = 20%, a = 5, 6, 8 & 10% and b = 15, 14, 12 & 10%) via sol-gel method at different doping concentrations. The synthesized samples were characterized for structural properties by X-ray diffractrometer and field emission scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were carried out through photoluminescence and UVvisible spectroscopy. The particle size calculated through field emission scanning electron microscope varies from 41 to 96 nm for the samples synthesized at different doping concentrations. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 3.27 to 3.02 eV as the doping concentration of Cr increases and Fe decreases.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Optical Properties, Sol-gel method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4405
47 Suppressing Ambipolar Conduction Using Dual Material Gate in Tunnel-FETs Having Heavily Doped Drain

Authors: Dawit Burusie Abdi, Mamidala Jagadesh Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, using 2D TCAD simulations, the application of a dual material gate (DMG) for suppressing ambipolar conduction in a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) is demonstrated. Using the proposed DMG concept, the ambipolar conduction can be effectively suppressed even if the drain doping is as high as that of the source doping. Achieving this symmetrical doping, without the ambipolar conduction in TFETs, gives the advantage of realizing both n-type and p-type devices with the same doping sequences. Furthermore, the output characteristics of the DMG TFET exhibit a good saturation when compared to that of the gate-drain underlap approach. This improved behavior of the DMG TFET makes it a good candidate for inverter based logic circuits.

Keywords: Dual material gate, suppressing ambipolar current, symmetrically doped TFET, tunnel FETs, PNPN TFET.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1559
46 Influence of Boron Doping and Thermal Treatment on Internal Friction of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) Alloys

Authors: I. Kurashvili, G. Darsavelidze, G. Bokuchava, A. Sichinava, I. Tabatadze

Abstract:

The impact of boron doping on the internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature spectra of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) monocrsytals has been investigated by reverse torsional pendulum oscillations characteristics testing. At room temperatures, microhardness and indentation modulus of the same specimens have been measured by dynamic ultra microhardness tester. It is shown that boron doping causes two kinds effect: At low boron concentration (~1015 cm-3) significant strengthening is revealed, while at the high boron concentration (~1019 cm-3) strengthening effect and activation characteristics of relaxation origin IF processes are reduced.

Keywords: Dislocation, internal friction, microhardness, relaxation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 788
45 Effects of Double Delta Doping on Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Response of Two-Dimensional Hot Electrons in GaAs Nanostructures

Authors: N. Basanta Singh, Sanjoy Deb, G. P Mishra, Subir Kumar Sarkar

Abstract:

Carrier mobility has become the most important characteristic of high speed low dimensional devices. Due to development of very fast switching semiconductor devices, speed of computer and communication equipment has been increasing day by day and will continue to do so in future. As the response of any device depends on the carrier motion within the devices, extensive studies of carrier mobility in the devices has been established essential for the growth in the field of low dimensional devices. Small-signal ac transport of degenerate two-dimensional hot electrons in GaAs quantum wells is studied here incorporating deformation potential acoustic, polar optic and ionized impurity scattering in the framework of heated drifted Fermi-Dirac carrier distribution. Delta doping is considered in the calculations to investigate the effects of double delta doping on millimeter and submillimeter wave response of two dimensional hot electrons in GaAs nanostructures. The inclusion of delta doping is found to enhance considerably the two dimensional electron density which in turn improves the carrier mobility (both ac and dc) values in the GaAs quantum wells thereby providing scope of getting higher speed devices in future.

Keywords: Carrier mobility, Delta doping, Hot carriers, Quantum wells.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1430
44 Alignment of MG-63 Osteoblasts on Fibronectin-Coated Phosphorous Doping Lattices in Silicon

Authors: Andreas Körtge, Susanne Stählke, Regina Lange, Mario Birkholz, Mirko Fraschke, Katrin Schulz, Barbara Nebe, Patrick Elter

Abstract:

A major challenge in biomaterials research is the regulation of protein adsorption which is a key factor for controlling the subsequent cell adhesion at implant surfaces. The aim of the present study was to control the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) and the attachment of MG-63 osteoblasts with an electronic nanostructure. Shallow doping line lattices with a period of 260 nm were produced for this purpose by implantation of phosphorous in silicon wafers. Protein coverage was determined after incubating the substrate with FN by means of an immunostaining procedure and the measurement of the fluorescence intensity with a TECAN analyzer. We observed an increased amount of adsorbed FN on the nanostructure compared to control substrates. MG-63 osteoblasts were cultivated for 24h on FN-incubated substrates and their morphology was assessed by SEM. Preferred orientation and elongation of the cells in direction of the doping lattice lines was observed on FN-coated nanostructures.

Keywords: Cell adhesion, electronic nanostructures, doping lattice, fibronectin, MG-63 osteoblasts, protein adsorption.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1733
43 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi

Abstract:

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1612
42 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau

Abstract:

Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: Graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3558
41 Influence of Sr(BO2)2 Doping on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 Phase

Authors: N. G. Margiani, I. G. Kvartskhava, G. A. Mumladze, Z. A. Adamia

Abstract:

Chemical doping with different elements and compounds at various amounts represents the most suitable approach to improve the superconducting properties of bismuth-based superconductors for technological applications. In this paper, the influence of partial substitution of Sr(BO2)2 for SrO on the phase formation kinetics and transport properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS has been studied for the first time. Samples with nominal composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2-xCa2Cu3Oy[Sr(BO2)2]x, x=0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.25, were prepared by the standard solid state processing. The appropriate mixtures were calcined at 845 oC for 40 h. The resulting materials were pressed into pellets and annealed at 837 oC for 30 h in air. Superconducting properties of undoped (reference) and Sr(BO2)2-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 compounds were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity (ρ) and transport critical current density (Jc) measurements. The surface morphology changes in the prepared samples were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and Jc studies have shown that the low level Sr(BO2)2 doping (x=0.0375-0.075) to the Sr-site promotes the formation of high-Tc phase and leads to the enhancement of current carrying capacity in (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS. The doped sample with x=0.0375 has the best performance compared to other prepared samples. The estimated volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase increases from ~25 % for reference specimen to ~70 % for x=0.0375. Moreover, strong increase in the self-field Jc value was observed for this dopant amount (Jc=340 A/cm2), compared to an undoped sample (Jc=110 A/cm2). Pronounced enhancement of superconducting properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor can be attributed to the acceleration of high-Tc phase formation as well as the improvement of inter-grain connectivity by small amounts of Sr(BO2)2 dopant.

Keywords: Bismuth-based superconductor, critical current density, phase formation, Sr(BO2)2 doping.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 466
40 Surface Charge Based Rapid Method for Detection of Microbial Contamination in Drinking Water and Food Products

Authors: Kandpal M. , Gundampati R. K , Debnath M.

Abstract:

Microbial contamination, most of which are fecal born in drinking water and food industry is a serious threat to humans. Escherichia coli is one of the most common and prevalent among them. We have developed a sensor for rapid and an early detection of contaminants, taking E.coli as a threat indicator organism. The sensor is based on co-polymerizations of aniline and formaldehyde in form of thin film over glass surface using the vacuum deposition technique. The particular doping combination of thin film with Fe-Al and Fe-Cu in different concentrations changes its non conducting properties to p- type semi conductor. This property is exploited to detect the different contaminants, believed to have the different surface charge. It was found through experiments that different microbes at same OD (0.600 at 600 nm) have different conductivity in solution. Also the doping concentration is found to be specific for attracting microbes on the basis of surface charge. This is a simple, cost effective and quick detection method which not only decreases the measurement time but also gives early warnings for highly contaminated samples.

Keywords: Sensor, Vacuum deposition technique, thin film, E.coli detection, doping concentration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1353
39 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir

Abstract:

This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: Heterojunction, modeling, simulation, thin film, Tcad Silvaco.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 966
38 Preparation of Fe, Cr Codoped TiO2 Nanostructure for Phenol Removal from Wastewaters

Authors: N. Nowzari-Dalini, S. Sabbaghi

Abstract:

Phenol is a hazardous material found in many industrial wastewaters. Photocatalytic degradation and furthermore catalyst doping are promising techniques in purpose of effective phenol removal, which have been studied comprehensively in this decade. In this study, Fe, Cr codoped TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method, and its photocatalytic activity was investigated through degradation of phenol under visible light. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, BET, and EDX. The results showed that nanoparticles possess anatase phase, and the average size of nanoparticles was about 21 nm. Also, photocatalyst has significant surface area. Effect of experimental parameters such as pH, irradiation time, pollutant concentration, and catalyst concentration were investigated by using Design-Expert® software. 98% of phenol degradation was achieved after 6h of irradiation.

Keywords: Wastewater, doping, metals, sol-gel, titanium dioxide.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 699
37 Fabrication of Carbon Doped TiO2 Nanotubes via In-situ Anodization of Ti-foil in Acidic Medium

Authors: Asma M. Milad, Mohammad B. Kassim, Wan R. Daud

Abstract:

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated onto a pre-treated titanium foil by anodic oxidation with a voltage of 20V in phosphoric acid/sodium fluoride electrolyte. A pretreatment of titanium foil involved washing with acetone, isopropanol, ethanol and deionized water. Carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes (C-TNT) was fabricated 'in-situ' with the same method in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol and urea as carbon sources. The affects of polyvinyl alcohol concentration and oxidation time on the composition, morphology and structure of the C-TN were studied by FE-SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. FESEM images of the nanotubes showed uniform arrays of C-TNTs. The density and microstructures of the nanotubes were greatly affected by the content of PVA. The introduction of the polyvinyl alcohol into the electrolyte increases the amount of C content inside TiO2 nanotube arrays uniformly. The influence of carbon content on the photo-current of C-TNT was investigated and the I-V profiles of the nanotubes were established. The preliminary results indicated that the 'in-situ' doping technique produced a superior quality nanotubes compared to post doping techniques.

Keywords: Anodization, photoelectrochemical cell, 'in-situ', post doping, thin film, and titania nanotube arrays.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2378
36 C4H6 Adsorption on the Surface of a BN Nanotube: DFT Studies

Authors: Maziar Noei

Abstract:

Adsorption of a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was examined toward ethylacetylene (C4H6) molecule by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level, and it was found that the adsorption energy (Ead) of ethylacetylene the pristine nanotubes is about -1.60kcal/mol. But when nanotube has been doped with Si and Al atoms, the adsorption energy of ethylacetylene molecule was increased. Calculation showed that when the nanotube is doping by Al, the adsorption energy is about - 24.19kcal/mol and also the amount of HOMO/LUMO energy gap (Eg) will reduce significantly. Boron nitride nanotube is a suitable adsorbent for ethylacetylene and can be used in separation processes ethylacetylene. It is seem that nanotube (BNNT) is a suitable semiconductor after doping, and the doped BNNT in the presence of ethylacetylene an electrical signal is generating directly and therefore can potentially be used for ethylacetylene sensors.

Keywords: Sensor, Nanotube, DFT, Ethylacetylene.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2221
35 The Influence of Doping of Fullerene Derivative (PCBM) on the Optical Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc)

Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, Kh. S. Karimov, M. Hassan Sayyad

Abstract:

This paper presents a spectroscopic study on doping of Vanadyl pathalocyanine (VOPc) by [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The films are characterized by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. A drastic increase in the absorption coefficient has been observed with increasing dopant concentration. Optical properties of VOPc:PCBM films deposited by spin coating technique were studied in detail. Optical band gap decreased with the PCBM incorporation in the VOPc film. Optical band gap calculated from the absorption spectra decreased from 3.32 eV to 3.26 eV with a variation of 0–75 % of PCBM concentration in the VOPC films.

Keywords: Optical properties, spin-coating, optical properties, optical energy gap

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1936
34 Vertically Grown p–Type ZnO Nanorod on Ag Thin Film

Authors: Jihyun Park, Tae Il Lee, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

A Silver (Ag) thin film is introduced as a template and doping source for vertically aligned p–type ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were grown using an ammonium hydroxide based hydrothermal process. During the hydrothermal process, the Ag thin film was dissolved to generate Ag ions in the solution. The Ag ions can contribute to doping in the wurzite structure of ZnO and the (111) grain of Ag thin film can be the epitaxial temporal template for the (0001) plane of ZnO. Hence, Ag–doped p–type ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on the substrate, which can be an electrode or semiconductor for the device application. To demonstrate the potentials of this idea, p–n diode was fabricated and its electrical characteristics were demonstrated.

Keywords: Ag–doped ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal process, p–n homo–junction diode, p–type ZnO.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2134
33 Doping Profile Measurement and Characterization by Scanning Capacitance Microscope for PocketImplanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Farseem Mannan Mohammedy, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru

Abstract:

This paper presents the doping profile measurement and characterization technique for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. Scanning capacitance microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to image the extent of lateral dopant diffusion in MOS structures. The data are capacitance vs. voltage measurements made on a nano scale device. The technique is nondestructive when imaging uncleaved samples. Experimental data from the published literature are presented here on actual, cleaved device structures which clearly indicate the two-dimensional dopant profile in terms of a spatially varying modulated capacitance signal. Firstorder deconvolution indicates the technique has much promise for the quantitative characterization of lateral dopant profiles. The pocket profile is modeled assuming the linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. From the model, the effective doping concentration is found to use in modeling and simulation results of the various parameters of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The potential of the technique to characterize important device related phenomena on a local scale is also discussed.

Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Scanning Capacitance Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1773
32 First-Principles Density Functional Study of Nitrogen-Doped P-Type ZnO

Authors: Abdusalam Gsiea, Ramadan Al-habashi, Mohamed Atumi, Khaled Atmimi

Abstract:

We present a theoretical investigation on the structural, electronic properties and vibrational mode of nitrogen impurities in ZnO. The atomic structures, formation and transition energies and vibrational modes of (NO3)i interstitial or NO4 substituting on an oxygen site ZnO were computed using ab initio total energy methods. Based on Local density functional theory, our calculations are in agreement with one interpretation of bound-excition photoluminescence for N-doped ZnO. First-principles calculations show that (NO3)i defects interstitial or NO4 substituting on an Oxygen site in ZnO are important suitable impurity for p-type doping in ZnO. However, many experimental efforts have not resulted in reproducible p-type material with N2 and N2O doping. by means of first-principle pseudo-potential calculation we find that the use of NO or NO2 with O gas might help the experimental research to resolve the challenge of achieving p-type ZnO.

Keywords: Density functional theory, nitrogen, p-type, ZnO.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 629
31 Saturated Gain of Doped Multilayer Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: Omar Qasaimeh

Abstract:

The effect of the number of quantum dot (QD) layers on the saturated gain of doped QD semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) has been studied using multi-population coupled rate equations. The developed model takes into account the effect of carrier coupling between adjacent layers. It has been found that increasing the number of QD layers (K) increases the unsaturated optical gain for K<8 and approximately has no effect on the unsaturated gain for K ≥ 8. Our analysis shows that the optimum ptype concentration that maximizes the unsaturated optical gain of the ground state is NA Ôëê 0.75 ×1018cm-3 . On the other hand, it has been found that the saturated optical gain for both the ground state and the excited state are strong function of both the doping concentration and K where we find that it is required to dope the dots with n-type concentration for very large K at high photon energy.

Keywords: doping, multilayer, quantum dot optical amplifier, saturated gain.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1671
30 C-V Characterization and Analysis of Temperature and Channel Thickness Effects on Threshold Voltage of Ultra-thin SOI MOSFET by Self-Consistent Model

Authors: Shuvro Chowdhury, Esmat Farzana, Rizvi Ahmed, A. T. M. Golam Sarwar, M. Ziaur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

The threshold voltage and capacitance voltage characteristics of ultra-thin Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFET are greatly influenced by the thickness and doping concentration of the silicon film. In this work, the capacitance voltage characteristics and threshold voltage of the device have been analyzed with quantum mechanical effects using the Self-Consistent model. Reduction of channel thickness and adding doping impurities cause an increase in the threshold voltage. Moreover, the temperature effects cause a significant amount of threshold voltage shift. The temperature dependence of threshold voltage has also been observed with Self- Consistent approach which are well supported from experimental performance of practical devices.

Keywords: C-V characteristics, Self-Consistent Analysis, Siliconon-Insulator, Ultra-thin film.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2385
29 Influences of Si and C- Doping on the Al-27 and N-14 Quardrupole Coupling Constants in AlN Nanotubes: A DFT Study

Authors: A.Seif, H.Aghaie, K.Majlesi

Abstract:

A computational study at the level density functional theory (DFT) was carried out to investigate the influences of Si and C-doping on the 14N and 27Al quadrupole coupling constant in the (10, 0) zigzag single ? walled Aluminum-Nitride nanotube (AlNNT). To this aim, a 1.16nm, length of AlNNT consisting of 40 Al atoms and 40 N atoms were selected where the end atoms are capped by hydrogen atom. To follow the purpose, three Si atoms and three C atoms were doped instead of three Al atoms and three N atoms as a central ring in the surface of the Si and C-doped AlNNT. At first both of systems optimized at the level of BLYP method and 6-31G (d) basis set and after that, the NQR parameters were calculated at the level BLYP method and 6-311+G** basis set in two optimized forms. The calculate CQ values for both optimized AlNNT systems, raw and Si and C-doped, reveal different electronic environments in the mentioned systems. It was also demonstrated that the end nuclei have the largest CQ values in both considered AlNNT systems. All the calculations were carried out using Gaussian 98 package of program.

Keywords: DFT, Quadrupole Coupling Constant, Si and CDoping, Single-Walled AlN nanotubes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1353
28 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik

Abstract:

The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1006
27 Specification of Irradiation Conditions in the DONA 5 Rotational Channel of the LVR-15 Reactor

Authors: Zdena Lahodová, Michal Koleška, Ladislav Viererbl

Abstract:

This article summarizes ways to verify neutron fluence for neutron transmutation doping of silicon with phosphorus on the LVR-15 reactor. Neutron fluence is determined using activation detectors placed along the crystal in a strip or encapsulated in a rod holder. Holders are placed at the centre of a water-filled capsule or in an aluminum or silicon ingot that simulates a real single crystal. If the diameter of the crystal is significantly less than the capsule diameter and water from the primary circuit enters the free space in the capsule, neutron interaction in the water changes neutron fluence, affecting axial irradiation homogeneity. The effect of moving the capsule vertically in the channel relative to maximum neutron fluence in the reactor core was also measured. Even a small shift of the capsule-s centre causes great irradiation inhomogeneity. This effect was measured using activation detectors, and was also confirmed by MCNP calculation.

Keywords: Irradiation homogeneity, neutron fluence, neutron transmutation doping, rotational channel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1436
26 Optical Reflectance of Pure and Doped Tin Oxide: From Thin Films to Poly-Crystalline Silicon/Thin Film Device

Authors: Smaali Assia, Outemzabet Ratiba, Media El Mahdi, Kadi Mohamed

Abstract:

Films of pure tin oxide SnO2 and in presence of antimony atoms (SnO2-Sb) deposited onto glass substrates have shown a sufficiently high energy gap to be transparent in the visible region, a high electrical mobility and a carrier concentration which displays a good electrical conductivity [1]. In this work, the effects of polycrystalline silicon substrate on the optical properties of pure and Sb doped tin oxide is investigated. We used the APCVD (atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition) technique, which is a low-cost and simple technique, under nitrogen ambient, for growing this material. A series of SnO2 and SnO2-Sb have been deposited onto polycrystalline silicon substrates with different contents of antimony atoms at the same conditions of deposition (substrate temperature, flow oxygen, duration and nitrogen atmosphere of the reactor). The effect of the substrate in terms of morphology and nonlinear optical properties, mainly the reflectance, was studied. The reflectance intensity of the device, compared to the reflectance of tin oxide films deposited directly on glass substrate, is clearly reduced on the overall wavelength range. It is obvious that the roughness of the poly-c silicon plays an important role by improving the reflectance and hence the optical parameters. A clear shift in the minimum of the reflectance upon doping level is observed. This minimum corresponds to strong free carrier absorption, resulting in different plasma frequency. This effect is followed by an increase in the reflectance depending of the antimony doping. Applying the extended Drude theory to the combining optical and electrical obtained results these effects are discussed.

Keywords: Doping, oxide, reflectance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2668
25 Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi D. M. Khosru

Abstract:

Carriers scattering in the inversion channel of n- MOSFET dominates the drain current. This paper presents an effective electron mobility model for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by using two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. The channel is divided into three regions at source, drain and central part of the channel region. The total number of inversion layer charges is found for these three regions by numerical integration from source to drain ends and the number of depletion layer charges is found by using the effective doping concentration including pocket doping effects. These two charges are then used to find the effective normal electric field, which is used to find the effective mobility model incorporating the three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as the ballistic phenomena for the pocket implanted nano-scale n-MOSFET. The simulation results show that the derived mobility model produces the same results as found in the literatures.

Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Effective Electric Field and Effective Mobility Model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
24 Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Sulphonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline When Exposed to Oxygen Gas

Authors: S.F.S. Draman, R. Daik, A. Musa

Abstract:

Three sulphonic acid-doped polyanilines were synthesized through chemical oxidation at low temperature (0-5 oC) and potential of these polymers as sensing agent for O2 gas detection in terms of fluorescence quenching was studied. Sulphuric acid, dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) and camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were used as doping agents. All polymers obtained were dark green powder. Polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and gel permeation chromatography. Characterizations carried out showed that polymers were successfully synthesized with mass recovery for sulphuric aciddoped polyaniline (SPAN), DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI) and CSA-doped polyaniline (CSA-doped PANI) of 71.40%, 75.00% and 39.96%, respectively. Doping level of SPAN, DBSAdoped PANI and CSA-doped PANI were 32.86%, 33.13% and 53.96%, respectively as determined based on elemental analysis. Sensing test was carried out on polymer sample in the form of solution and film by using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Samples of polymer solution and polymer film showed positive response towards O2 exposure. All polymer solutions and films were fully regenerated by using N2 gas within 1 hour period. Photostability study showed that all samples of polymer solutions and films were stable towards light when continuously exposed to xenon lamp for 9 hours. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for SPAN solution, DBSA-doped PANI solution and CSA-doped PANI solution for repeatability were 0.23%, 0.64% and 0.76%, respectively. Meanwhile RSD values for reproducibility were 2.36%, 6.98% and 1.27%, respectively. Results for SPAN film, DBSAdoped PANI film and CSA-doped PANI film showed the same pattern with RSD values for repeatability of 0.52%, 4.05% and 0.90%, respectively. Meanwhile RSD values for reproducibility were 2.91%, 10.05% and 7.42%, respectively. The study on effect of the flow rate on response time was carried out using 3 different rates which were 0.25 mL/s, 1.00 mL/s and 2.00 mL/s. Results obtained showed that the higher the flow rate, the shorter the response time.

Keywords: conjugated polymer, doping, fluorescence quenching, oxygen gas.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2159
23 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury

Abstract:

The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Keywords: Generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 361
22 Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic

Authors: Chongtham Jiten, Radhapiyari Laishram, K. Chandramani Singh

Abstract:

Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.

Keywords: Ceramics, dielectric properties, ferroelectric properties, lead-free, sintering, thermal stability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 716
21 Oxygen-Interstitials and Group-V Element Doping for p-Type ZnO

Authors: A. M. Gsiea, J. P. Goss, P. R. Briddon, K. M. Etmimi

Abstract:

In realizing devices using ZnO, a key challenge is the production of p-type material. Substitution of oxygen by a group-V impurity is thought to result in deep acceptor levels, but a candidate made up from a complex of a group-V impurity (P, As, Sb) on a Zn site coupled with two vacant Zn sites is widely viewed as a candidate. We show using density-functional simulations that in contrast to such a view, complexes involving oxygen interstitials are energetically more favorable, resulting in group-V impurities coordinated with four, five or six oxygen atoms.

Keywords: DFT, Oxygen, p-Type, ZnO.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2204