Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31743
Fabrication of Carbon Doped TiO2 Nanotubes via In-situ Anodization of Ti-foil in Acidic Medium

Authors: Asma M. Milad, Mohammad B. Kassim, Wan R. Daud


Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated onto a pre-treated titanium foil by anodic oxidation with a voltage of 20V in phosphoric acid/sodium fluoride electrolyte. A pretreatment of titanium foil involved washing with acetone, isopropanol, ethanol and deionized water. Carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes (C-TNT) was fabricated 'in-situ' with the same method in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol and urea as carbon sources. The affects of polyvinyl alcohol concentration and oxidation time on the composition, morphology and structure of the C-TN were studied by FE-SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. FESEM images of the nanotubes showed uniform arrays of C-TNTs. The density and microstructures of the nanotubes were greatly affected by the content of PVA. The introduction of the polyvinyl alcohol into the electrolyte increases the amount of C content inside TiO2 nanotube arrays uniformly. The influence of carbon content on the photo-current of C-TNT was investigated and the I-V profiles of the nanotubes were established. The preliminary results indicated that the 'in-situ' doping technique produced a superior quality nanotubes compared to post doping techniques.

Keywords: Anodization, photoelectrochemical cell, 'in-situ', post doping, thin film, and titania nanotube arrays.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2411


[1] J. R. Bolton, "Solar photoproduction of hydrogen: a review," Solar Energy, vol. 57, pp. 37-50, 1996
[2] V. M. Aroutiounian, V. M. Arakelyan, and G. E. Shahnazaryan, "Metal oxide photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation using solar radiationdriven water splitting," Solar Energy, vol. 78, pp. 581-592, 2005
[3] M. Gratzel, "Dye-sensitized solar cells," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochemical Review, vol. 4, pp. 145-153, 2003
[4] M. Ashokkumar, "An overview on semiconductor particulate systems for photoproduction of hydrogen," International Journal Hydrogen Energy, vol. 23, pp. 427-438, 1998
[5] M. Gratzel, "Photoelectrochemical cells," Nature, vol. 414, pp. 338- 344, 2001
[6] R. Asahi, T. Morikawa, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, and Y. Taga, "Visiblelight photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides," Science, vol. 293, pp. 269-271, 2001
[7] H. Irie, Y. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, "Nitrogen-concentration dependence on photocatalytic activity of TiO2-xNx powders," J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 107, pp. 5483-5486, 2003
[8] O. Diwald, T. L. Thompson, E. G. Goralski, S. D. Walck, and J. T. Yates, "The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the photoactivity of TiO2 rutile single crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 108, pp. 52-57, 2004
[9] J. L. Gole, J. D. Stout, C. Burda, Y. B. Lou, and X. B. Chen, "Highly efficient formation of visible light tunable TiO2-xNx photocatalysts and their transformation at the nanoscale," J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 108, pp. 1230-1240, 2004
[10] C. Yu J., J. G. Yu, W. K. HO, Z. T. JIANG, and L. Z. ZHANG, "Effects of Fdoping on the photocatalytic activity and microstructures of nanocrystalline TiO2 powders," Chem. Mater, vol. 14, pp. 3808- 3816, 2002
[11] A. Hattori, M. Yamamoto, H. Tada, and I. Seishiro, "A promoting effect of NH4F addition on the photocatalytic activity of sol-gel TiO2 films," Chem. Letter, vol. 27, pp. 707-708, 1998
[12] T. Umebayashi, T. Yamaki, H. Itoh, and K. Asai, "Band gap narrowing of titanium dioxide by sulfur doping," Appl. Phys. Lett, vol. 81, pp. 454-456, 2002
[13] T. Umebayashi, T. Yamaki, S. Yamamoto, and A. Et, "Sulfur-doping of rutile-titanium dioxide by ion implantation: photocurrent spectroscopy and first-principles band calculation studies," J. Appl. Phys, vol. 93, pp. 5156-5160, 2003
[14] H. Irie, Y. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, "Carbon-doped anatase TiO2 powders as a visible-light sensitive photocatalyst," Chem. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 772-773, 2003
[15] S. U. M. Khan, M. Al-shahry, and W. B. Ingler, "Efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2," Science, vol. 297, pp. 2243-2245, 2002
[16] S. Sakthivel and H. Kisch, "Daylight photocatalysis by carbon modified titanium dioxide," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, vol. 42, pp. 4908-4911, 2003
[17] Y. Choi, T. Umebayashi, and M. Yoshikawa, "Fabrication and characterization of C-doped anatase TiO2 photocatalysts," J. Mater. Sci., vol. 39, pp. 1837-1839, 2004
[18] C. Xu, R. Killmeyer, M. L. Gray, and S. U. M. Khan, "Photocatalytic effect of carbon-modified n-TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light illumination," Applied Catalyst B: Environ, vol. 64, pp. 312-317, 2006
[19] I.-D. Kim, A. Rothschild, B.-H. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Jo, and H. L. Tuller, "Ultrasensitive chemiresistors based on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers," Nano Letter., vol. 6, pp. 2009-2013, 2006
[20] A. Ghicov, J. M. Macak, H. Tsuchiya, and A. Et, "Ion implantation and annealing for an efficient N-doping of TiO2 nanotubes," Nano Letter., vol. 6, pp. 1080-1082, 2006
[21] R. Hahn, A. Ghicov, J. Salonen, V. P. Lehto, and P. Schmuki, "Carbon doping of self-organized TiO2 nanotube layers by thermal acetylene treatment," Nanotechnology, vol. 18, p. /, 2007
[22] V. K. Mahajan, S. K. Mohapatra, and M. Misra, "Stability of TiO2 nanotube arrays in photoelectrochemical studies," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 33, pp. 5369-5374, 2008
[23] N. A. Kelly and T. L. Gibson, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 31, pp. 1658 - 1673, 2006
[24] L. Taveira, J. M. Macak, H. Tsuchiya, L. F. P. Dick, and P. Schmuki, "Initiation and Growth of Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotubes Anodically Formed in NH4F(NH4)2SO4 electrolyte," J. Electrochem. Soc, vol. 152, pp. B405-B410, 2005
[25] J. W. Schultze, M. M. Lohrengel, and D. Ross, Electrochim. Acta, vol. 28, p. 973, 1983