Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 702

Search results for: saturated gain.

702 Saturated Gain of Doped Multilayer Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: Omar Qasaimeh

Abstract:

The effect of the number of quantum dot (QD) layers on the saturated gain of doped QD semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) has been studied using multi-population coupled rate equations. The developed model takes into account the effect of carrier coupling between adjacent layers. It has been found that increasing the number of QD layers (K) increases the unsaturated optical gain for K<8 and approximately has no effect on the unsaturated gain for K ≥ 8. Our analysis shows that the optimum ptype concentration that maximizes the unsaturated optical gain of the ground state is NA Ôëê 0.75 ×1018cm-3 . On the other hand, it has been found that the saturated optical gain for both the ground state and the excited state are strong function of both the doping concentration and K where we find that it is required to dope the dots with n-type concentration for very large K at high photon energy.

Keywords: doping, multilayer, quantum dot optical amplifier, saturated gain.

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701 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: DFE, diversity gain, hybrid, MIMO, multiplexing gain.

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700 An Approach to Flatten the Gain of Fiber Raman Amplifiers with Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: FRA, gain, pumping, WDM.

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699 High-Speed High-Gain CMOS OTA for SC Applications

Authors: M.Yousefi, A.Vatanjou, F.Nazeri

Abstract:

A fast settling multipath CMOS OTA for high speed switched capacitor applications is presented here. With the basic topology similar to folded-cascode, bandwidth and DC gain of the OTA are enhanced by adding extra paths for signal from input to output. Designed circuit is simulated with HSPICE using level 49 parameters (BSIM 3v3) in 0.35mm standard CMOS technology. DC gain achieved is 56.7dB and Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) obtained is 1.15GHz. These results confirm that adding extra paths for signal can improve DC gain and UGB of folded-cascode significantly.

Keywords: OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier), DC gain, Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGBW)

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698 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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697 Design of EDFA Gain Controller based on Disturbance Observer Technique

Authors: Seong-Ho Song, Ki-Seob Kim, Seon-Woo Lee, Seop-Hyeong Park

Abstract:

Based on a theoretical erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) model, we have proposed an application of disturbance observer(DOB) with proportional/integral/differential(PID) controller to EDFA for minimizing gain-transient time of wavelength -division-multiplexing (WDM) multi channels in optical amplifier in channel add/drop networks. We have dramatically reduced the gain-transient time to less than 30μsec by applying DOB with PID controller to the control of amplifier gain. The proposed DOB-based gain control algorithm for EDFA was implemented as a digital control system using TI's DSP(TMS320C28346) chip and experimental results of the system verify the excellent performance of the proposed gain control methodology.

Keywords: EDFA, Disturbance observer, gain control, WDM.

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696 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis

Abstract:

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: Discrete time, linear estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain.

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695 Studding of Number of Dataset on Precision of Estimated Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

Authors: M. Siosemarde, M. Byzedi

Abstract:

Saturated hydraulic conductivity of Soil is an important property in processes involving water and solute flow in soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil is difficult to measure and can be highly variable, requiring a large number of replicate samples. In this study, 60 sets of soil samples were collected at Saqhez region of Kurdistan province-IRAN. The statistics such as Correlation Coefficient (R), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Bias Error (MBE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) were used to evaluation the multiple linear regression models varied with number of dataset. In this study the multiple linear regression models were evaluated when only percentage of sand, silt, and clay content (SSC) were used as inputs, and when SSC and bulk density, Bd, (SSC+Bd) were used as inputs. The R, RMSE, MBE and MAE values of the 50 dataset for method (SSC), were calculated 0.925, 15.29, -1.03 and 12.51 and for method (SSC+Bd), were calculated 0.927, 15.28,-1.11 and 12.92, respectively, for relationship obtained from multiple linear regressions on data. Also the R, RMSE, MBE and MAE values of the 10 dataset for method (SSC), were calculated 0.725, 19.62, - 9.87 and 18.91 and for method (SSC+Bd), were calculated 0.618, 24.69, -17.37 and 22.16, respectively, which shows when number of dataset increase, precision of estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity, increases.

Keywords: dataset, precision, saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil and statistics.

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694 A Current Steering Positive Feedback Improved Recycling Folded Cascode OTA

Authors: S. Kumaravel, B. Venkataramani

Abstract:

In the literature, Improved Recycling Folded Cascode (IRFC) Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) is proposed for enhancing the DC gain and the Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) of the Recycling Folded Cascode (RFC) OTA. In this paper, an enhanced IRFC (EIRFC) OTA which uses positive feedback at the cascode node is proposed for enhancing the differential mode (DM) gain without changing the unity gain bandwidth (UGB) and lowering the Common mode (CM) gain. For the purpose of comparison, IRFC and EIRFC OTAs are implemented using UMC 90nm CMOS technology and studied through simulation. From the simulation, it is found that the DM gain and CM gain of EIRFC OTA is higher by 6dB and lower by 38dB respectively, compared to that of IRFC OTA for the same power and area. The slew rate of EIRFC OTA is also higher by a factor of 1.5.

Keywords: Cascode Amplifier, CMRR, gm/ID Methodology, Recycling, Slew Rate.

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693 Design of Folded Cascode OTA in Different Regions of Operation through gm/ID Methodology

Authors: H. Daoud Dammak, S. Bensalem, S. Zouari, M. Loulou

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimized methodology to folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) design. The design is done in different regions of operation, weak inversion, strong inversion and moderate inversion using the gm/ID methodology in order to optimize MOS transistor sizing. Using 0.35μm CMOS process, the designed folded cascode OTA achieves a DC gain of 77.5dB and a unity-gain frequency of 430MHz in strong inversion mode. In moderate inversion mode, it has a 92dB DC gain and provides a gain bandwidth product of around 69MHz. The OTA circuit has a DC gain of 75.5dB and unity-gain frequency limited to 19.14MHZ in weak inversion region.

Keywords: CMOS IC design, Folded Cascode OTA, gm/ID methodology, optimization.

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692 Characterization of InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well Lasers

Authors: K. Melouk, M. Dellakrachai

Abstract:

Analytical formula for the optical gain based on a simple parabolic-band by introducing theoretical expressions for the quantized energy is presented. The model used in this treatment take into account the effects of intraband relaxation. It is shown, as a result, that the gain for the TE mode is larger than that for TM mode and the presence of acceptor impurity increase the peak gain.

Keywords: Laser, quantum well, semiconductor, InGaAsP.

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691 Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Physical Properties using Neural Networks Model

Authors: B. Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, A.M. Liaghat, S. Sohrabi

Abstract:

Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the soil hydraulic properties which is widely used in environmental studies especially subsurface ground water. Since, its direct measurement is time consuming and therefore costly, indirect methods such as pedotransfer functions have been developed based on multiple linear regression equations and neural networks model in order to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from readily available soil properties e.g. sand, silt, and clay contents, bulk density, and organic matter. The objective of this study was to develop neural networks (NNs) model to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from available parameters such as sand and clay contents, bulk density, van Genuchten retention model parameters (i.e. r θ , α , and n) as well as effective porosity. We used two methods to calculate effective porosity: : (1) eff s FC φ =θ -θ , and (2) inf φ =θ -θ eff s , in which s θ is saturated water content, FC θ is water content retained at -33 kPa matric potential, and inf θ is water content at the inflection point. Total of 311 soil samples from the UNSODA database was divided into three groups as 187 for the training, 62 for the validation (to avoid over training), and 62 for the test of NNs model. A commercial neural network toolbox of MATLAB software with a multi-layer perceptron model and back propagation algorithm were used for the training procedure. The statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient (R2), and mean square error (MSE) were also used to evaluate the developed NNs model. The best number of neurons in the middle layer of NNs model for methods (1) and (2) were calculated 44 and 6, respectively. The R2 and MSE values of the test phase were determined for method (1), 0.94 and 0.0016, and for method (2), 0.98 and 0.00065, respectively, which shows that method (2) estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity better than method (1).

Keywords: Neural network, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Soil physical properties.

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690 3.5-bit Stage of the CMOS Pipeline ADC

Authors: Gao Wei, Xu Minglu, Xu Yan, Zhang Xiaotong, Wang Xinghua

Abstract:

A 3.5-bit stage of the CMOS pipelined ADC is proposed. In this report, the main part of 3.5-bit stage ADC is introduced. How the MDAC, comparator and encoder worked and designed are shown in details. Besides, an OTA which is used in fully differential pipelined ADC was described. Using gain-boost architecture with differential amplifier, this OTA achieve high-gain and high-speed. This design was using CMOS 0.18um process and simulation in Cadence. The result of the simulation shows that the OTA has a gain up to 80dB, the unity gain bandwidth of about 1.138GHz with 2pF load.

Keywords: pipelined ADC, MDAC, operational amplifier.

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689 Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Authors: Alpana Agarwal, Akhil Sharma

Abstract:

This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.

Keywords: CMOS amplifier, gain boosting, inverter-based amplifier, self-biased inverter.

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688 Study of the Effectiveness of Solar Heat Gain and Day Light Factors on Minimizing Electricity Use in High Rise Buildings

Authors: Mansour Nikpour, Mohd Zin kandar, Mohsen Ghasemi, Hossein Fallah

Abstract:

Over half of the total electricity consumption is used in buildings. Air-conditioning and electric lighting are the two main resources of electricity consumption in high rise buildings. One way to reduce electricity consumption would be to limit heat gain into buildings, therefore reduce the demand for air-conditioning during hot summer months especially in hot regions. On the other hand natural daylight can be used to reduce the use of electricity for artificial lighting. In this paper effective factors on minimizing heat gain and achieving required day light were reviewed .As daylight always accompanied by solar heat gain. Also interactions between heat gain and daylight were discussed through previous studies and equations which are related to heat gain and day lighting especially in high rise buildings. As a result importance of building-s form and its component on energy consumption in buildings were clarified.

Keywords: High rise buildings, energy demand, day lighting, heat gain.

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687 A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier

Authors: Maninder Kaur Gill, Alpana Agarwal

Abstract:

It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost effective, and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB, respectively. For UA741CP, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB, respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.

Keywords: Device under test, open-loop voltage gain, operational amplifier, test circuit.

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686 Performance Enhancement of DWDM Systems Using HTE Configuration HTE Configuration for 1479-1555nm Wavelength Range

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, the gain spectrum of EDFA has been broadened by implementing HTE configuration for S and C band. On using this configuration an amplification bandwidth of 76nm ranging from 1479nm to 1555nm with a peak gain of 26dB has been obtained.

Keywords: C band, DWDM system, EDFA, Gain, HTE, Hybrid Fiber Amplifier, S band.

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685 Stabilization of Nonnecessarily Inversely Stable First-Order Adaptive Systems under Saturated Input

Authors: M. De la Sen, O. Barambones

Abstract:

This paper presents an indirect adaptive stabilization scheme for first-order continuous-time systems under saturated input which is described by a sigmoidal function. The singularities are avoided through a modification scheme for the estimated plant parameter vector so that its associated Sylvester matrix is guaranteed to be non-singular and then the estimated plant model is controllable. The modification mechanism involves the use of a hysteresis switching function. An alternative hybrid scheme, whose estimated parameters are updated at sampling instants is also given to solve a similar adaptive stabilization problem. Such a scheme also uses hysteresis switching for modification of the parameter estimates so as to ensure the controllability of the estimated plant model.

Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems, discrete systems, saturated input, control, stabilization.

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684 Reinforcement Effect on Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sand

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Alibolandi

Abstract:

Dynamic behavior of soil are evaluated relative to a number of factors including: strain level, density, number of cycles, material type, fine content, geosynthetic inclusion, saturation, and effective stress .This paper investigate the dynamic behavior of saturated reinforced sand under cyclic stress condition. The cyclic triaxial tests are conducted on remolded specimens under various CSR which reinforced by different arrangement of non-woven geotextile. Aforementioned tests simulate field reinforced saturated deposits during earthquake or other cyclic loadings. This analysis revealed that the geotextile arrangement played dominant role on dynamic soil behavior and as geotextile close to top of specimen, the liquefaction resistance increased.

Keywords: Dynamic Behavior, Reinforced Sand, Triaxial Test, Non-woven Geotextile.

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683 Nonlinear Optimal Line-Of-Sight Stabilization with Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling

Authors: A. Puras Trueba, J. R. Llata García

Abstract:

A nonlinear optimal controller with a fuzzy gain scheduler has been designed and applied to a Line-Of-Sight (LOS) stabilization system. Use of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory is an optimal and simple manner of solving many control engineering problems. However, this method cannot be utilized directly for multigimbal LOS systems since they are nonlinear in nature. To adapt LQ controllers to nonlinear systems at least a linearization of the model plant is required. When the linearized model is only valid within the vicinity of an operating point a gain scheduler is required. Therefore, a Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System gain scheduler has been implemented, which keeps the asymptotic stability performance provided by the optimal feedback gain approach. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller is capable of overcoming disturbances and maintaining a satisfactory tracking performance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling, Gimbal, Line-Of-SightStabilization, LQR, Optimal Control

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682 State of Charge Estimator Based On High-Gain Observer for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: Jaeho Han, Moonjung Kim, Won-Ho Kim, Chang-Ho Hyun

Abstract:

This paper introduces a high-gain observer based state of charge(SOC) estimator for lithium-Ion batteries. The proposed SOC estimator has a high-gain observer(HGO) structure. The HGO scheme enhances the transient response speed and diminishes the effect of uncertainties. Furthermore, it guarantees that the output feedback controller recovers the performance of the state feedback controller when the observer gain is sufficiently high. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, the linear RC battery model in ADVISOR is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional linear observer(CLO) and some simulation result is given.

Keywords: SOC, high-gain, observer, uncertainties, robust

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681 The Role of Physically Adsorbing Species of Oxyhydryl Reagents in Flotation Aggregate Formation

Authors: S. A. Kondratyev, O. I. Ibragimova

Abstract:

The authors discuss the collecting abilities of desorbable species (DS) of saturated fatty acids. The DS species of the reagent are understood as species capable of moving from the surface of the mineral particle to the bubble at the moment of the rupture of the interlayer of liquid separating these objects of interaction. DS species of carboxylic acids (molecules and ionic-molecular complexes) have the ability to spread over the surface of the bubble. The rate of their spreading at pH 7 and 10 over the water surface is determined. The collectibility criterion of saturated fatty acids is proposed. The values of forces exerted by the spreading DS species of reagents on liquid in the interlayer and the liquid flow rate from the interlayer are determined.

Keywords: Criterion of action of physically adsorbed reagent, flotation, saturated fatty acids, surface pressure.

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680 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: Optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band, optical networks.

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679 Efficiency Improvement for Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna by Using EBG Technique

Authors: S. Kampeephat, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

The conventional rectangular horn has been used for microwave antenna a long time. Its gain can be increased by enlarging the construction of horn to flare exponentially. This paper presents a study of the shaped woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) to improve its gain for conventional horn without construction enlargement. The gain enhancement synthesis method for shaped woodpile EBG that has to transfer the electromagnetic fields from aperture of a horn antenna through woodpile EBG is presented by using the variety of shaped woodpile EBGs such as planar, triangular, quadratic, circular, gaussian, cosine, and squared cosine structures. The proposed technique has the advantages of low profile, low cost for fabrication and light weight. The antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns and gain are simulated by utilized A Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. With the proposed concept, an antenna prototype was fabricated and experimented. The S11 and radiation patterns obtained from measurements show a good impedance matching and a gain enhancement of the proposed antenna. The gain at dominant frequency of 10 GHz is 25.6 dB, application for X- and Ku-Band Radar, that higher than the gain of the basic rectangular horn antenna around 8 dB with adding only one appropriated EBG structures.

Keywords: Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna, Electromagnetic Band Gap, Gain Enhancement, X- and Ku-Band Radar.

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678 Design of OTA with Common Drain and Folded Cascade Used in ADC

Authors: Gu Wei, Gao Wei

Abstract:

In this report, an OTA which is used in fully differential pipelined ADC was described. Using gain-boost architecture with difference-ended amplifier, this OTA achieve high-gain and high-speed. Besides, the CMFB circuit is also used, and some methods are concerned to improve the performance. Then, by optimization the layout design, OTA-s mismatch was reduced. This design was using TSMC 0.18um CMOS process and simulation both schematic and layout in Cadence. The result of the simulation shows that the OTA has a gain up to 80dB,a unity gain bandwidth of about 1.437GHz for a 2pF load, a slew rate is about 428V/μs, a output swing is 0.2V~1.35V, with the power supply of 1.8V, the power consumption is 88mW. This amplifier was used in a 10bit 150MHz pipelined ADC.

Keywords: OTA, common drain, CMFB, pipelined ADC

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677 A Novel Digital Calibration Technique for Gain and Offset Mismatch in TIΣΔ ADCs

Authors: Ali Beydoun, Van-Tam Nguyen, Patrick Loumeau

Abstract:

Time interleaved sigma-delta (TIΣΔ) architecture is a potential candidate for high bandwidth analog to digital converters (ADC) which remains a bottleneck for software and cognitive radio receivers. However, the performance of the TIΣΔ architecture is limited by the unavoidable gain and offset mismatches resulting from the manufacturing process. This paper presents a novel digital calibration method to compensate the gain and offset mismatch effect. The proposed method takes advantage of the reconstruction digital signal processing on each channel and requires only few logic components for implementation. The run time calibration is estimated to 10 and 15 clock cycles for offset cancellation and gain mismatch calibration respectively.

Keywords: sigma-delta, calibration, gain and offset mismatches, analog-to-digital conversion, time-interleaving.

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676 Direct Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling

Authors: Sreeyuth Lal, Yohei Sato, Bojan Niceno

Abstract:

With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) framework for simulation of subcooled and saturated nucleate pool boiling is developed. One case of saturated, and three cases of subcooled boiling at different subcooling levels are simulated. Grid refinement study is also reported. Both boiling and condensation phenomena can be computed simultaneously in the proposed numerical framework. Computed bubble detachment diameters of the saturated nucleate pool boiling cases agree well with the experiment. The flow structures around the growing bubble are presented and the accompanying physics is described. The relation between heat flux evolution from the heated wall and the bubble growth is studied, along with investigations of temperature distribution and flow field evolutions.

Keywords: CFD, interface tracking method, phase change model, subcooled nucleate pool boiling.

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675 Control Configuration Selection and Controller Design for Multivariable Processes Using Normalized Gain

Authors: R. Hanuma Naik, D. V. Ashok Kumar, K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

Abstract:

Several of the practical industrial control processes are multivariable processes. Due to the relation amid the variables (interaction), delay in the loops, it is very intricate to design a controller directly for these processes. So first, the interaction of the variables is analyzed using Relative Normalized Gain Array (RNGA), which considers the time constant, static gain and delay time of the processes. Based on the effect of RNGA, relative gain array (RGA) and NI, the pair (control configuration) of variables to be controlled by decentralized control is selected. The equivalent transfer function (ETF) of the process model is estimated as first order process with delay using the corresponding elements in the Relative gain array and Relative average residence time array (RARTA) of the processes. Secondly, a decentralized Proportional- Integral (PI) controller is designed for each ETF simply using frequency response specifications. Finally, the performance and robustness of the algorithm is comparing with existing related approaches to validate the effectiveness of the projected algorithm.

Keywords: Decentralized control, interaction, Multivariable processes, relative normalized gain array, relative average residence time array, steady state gain.

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674 Result of Fatty Acid Content in Meat of Selenge Breed Younger Cattle

Authors: Myagmarsuren Soronzonjav, N. Togtokhbayar, L. Davaahuu, B. Minjigdorj, Seong Gu Hwang

Abstract:

The number of natural or organic product consumers is increased in recent years and this healthy demand pushes to increase usage of healthy meat. At the same time, consumers pay more attention on the healthy fat, especially on unsaturated fatty acids. These long chain carbohydrates reduce heart diseases, improve memory and eye sight and activate the immune system. One of the important issues to be solved for our Mongolia’s food security is to provide healthy, fresh, widely available and cheap meat for the population. Thus, an importance of the Selenge breed meat production is increasing in order to supply the quality meat food security since the Selenge breed cattle are rapidly multiplied, beneficial in term of income, the same quality as Mongolian breed, and well digested for human body. We researched the lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents of meat of Selenge breed younger cattle by their muscle types. Result of our research reveals that 11 saturated fatty acids are detected. For the content of palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids, 23.61% was in the sirloin meat, 24.01% was in the round and chuck meat, and 24.83% was in the short loin meat.

Keywords: Chromatogram, gas chromatography, organic resolving, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

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673 Design and Layout of Two Stage High Band Width Operational Amplifier

Authors: Yasir Mahmood Qureshi

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and layout of a two stage, high speed operational amplifiers using standard 0.35um CMOS technology. The design procedure involves designing the bias circuit, the differential input pair, and the gain stage using CAD tools. Both schematic and layout of the operational amplifier along with the comparison in the results of the two has been presented. The operational amplifier designed, has a gain of 93.51db at low frequencies. It has a gain bandwidth product of 55.07MHz, phase margin of 51.9º and a slew rate of 22v/us for a load of capacitor of 10pF.

Keywords: Gain bandwidth product, Operational Amplifier, phase margin, slew rate.

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