Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 841

Search results for: corrosion resistance.

841 The Effects of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Corrosion Behavior of Heat Treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy

Authors: A. Hossain, M. A. Gafur, F. Gulshan, A. S. W. Kurny

Abstract:

Al-Si-Mg-Ni(-Cu) alloys are widely used in the automotive industry. They have the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties – mainly at high temperatures. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in coastal area, particularly sea water, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization have been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys in simulated sea water environments. The potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that 2 wt% Cu content alloy (Alloy-2) is more prone to corrosion than the Cu free alloy (Alloy-1). But the EIS test results showed that corrosion resistance or charge transfer resistance (Rct) increases with the addition of Cu. Due to addition of Cu and thermal treatment, the magnitude of open circuit potential (OCP), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and pitting corrosion potential (Epit) of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy in NaCl solution were shifted to the more noble direction.

Keywords: Al-Si alloy, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, SEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2056
840 Investigation of VN/TiN Multilayer Coatings on AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: M. Ertas, A. C. Onel, G. Ekinci, B. Toydemir, S. Durdu, M. Usta, L. Colakerol Arslan

Abstract:

To develop AZ91D magnesium alloys with improved properties, we have applied TiN and VN/TiN multilayer coatings using DC magnetron sputter technique. Coating structure, surface morphology, chemical bonding and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. XPS analysis reveal that VN overlayer reacts with oxygen at the VN/TiN interface and forms more stable TiN layer. Morphological investigations and the corrosion results show that VN/TiN multilayer thin film coatings are quite effective to optimize the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloys, High corrosion resistance, Transition metal nitride coatings, Magnetron sputter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2454
839 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: Supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1842
838 Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Laser Surface Melted AISI 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: S. Krishnan, J. Dumbre, S. Bhatt, Esther T. Akinlabi, R. Ramalingam

Abstract:

The localized corrosion behavior of laser surface melted 304L austenitic stainless steel was studied by potentiodynamic polarization test. The extent of improvement in corrosion resistance was governed by the preferred orientation and the percentage of delta ferrite present on the surface of the laser melted sample. It was established by orientation imaging microscopy that the highest pitting potential value was obtained when grains were oriented in the most close- packed [101] direction compared to the random distribution of the base metal and other laser surface melted samples oriented in [001] direction. The sample with lower percentage of ferrite had good pitting resistance.

Keywords: Crystallographic orientation, Ferrite percentage, Laser melting, Pitting corrosion, 304L SS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2653
837 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 444
836 Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents

Authors: D. Erdenechimeg, T. Bujinlkham, N. Erdenepurev

Abstract:

The anti-corrosion performance of fatty acid coated mild steel samples is studied. Samples of structural steel coated with collector reagents deposited from surfactant in ethanol solution and overcoated with an epoxy barrier paint. A quantitative corrosion rate was determined by linear polarization resistance method using biopotentiostat/galvanostat 400. Coating morphology was determined by scanning electronic microscopy. A test for hydrophobic surface of steel by surfactant was done. From the samples, the main component or high content iron was determined by chemical method and other metal contents were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Prior to measuring the corrosion rate, mechanical and chemical treatments were performed to prepare the test specimens. Overcoating the metal samples with epoxy barrier paint after exposing them with surfactant the corrosion rate can be inhibited by 34-35 µm/year.

Keywords: Corrosion, linear polarization resistance, coating, surfactant.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 362
835 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül

Abstract:

The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited a harder and rougher structure than the substrate.

Keywords: Amorphous, electroless Ni–B, magnesium, X-ray diffraction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2079
834 Corrosion Evaluation of Zinc Coating Prepared by Two Types of Electric Currents

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Karimi Abadeh

Abstract:

In this research, zinc coatings were fabricated by electroplating process in a sulfate solution under direct and pulse current conditions. In direct and pulse current conditions, effect of maximum current was investigated on the coating properties. Also a comparison was made between the obtained coatings under direct and pulse current. Morphology of the coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test. In pulse current conditions, the effect of pulse frequency and duty cycle was also studied. The effect of these conditions and parameters were also investigated on morphology and corrosion behavior. All of DC plated coatings are showing a distinct passivation area in -1 to -0.4 V range. Pulsed current coatings possessed a higher corrosion resistance. The results showed that current density is the most important factor regarding the fabrication process. Furthermore, a rise in duty cycle deteriorated corrosion resistance of coatings. Pulsed plated coatings performed almost 10 times better than DC plated coatings.

Keywords: Corrosion, duty cycle, pulsed current, zinc.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 428
833 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: Aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, Tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 744
832 Titanium-Aluminum Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminum oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviors of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behavior of the coating material.

Keywords: Corrosion, plasma electrolytic oxidation, thermal property, titanium-aluminum oxide.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3389
831 Correlation of Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Martensitic Stainless Steel Surgical Grade AISI 420A Exposed to 980-1035oC

Authors: Taqi Zahid Butt, Tanveer Ahmad Tabish

Abstract:

Martensitic stainless steels have been extensively used for their good corrosion resistance and better mechanical properties. Heat treatment was suggested as one of the most excellent ways to this regard; hence, it affects the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of the steel. In the current research work the microstructural changes and corrosion behavior in an AISI 420A stainless steel exposed to temperatures in the 980-1035oC range were investigated. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within the said temperature range. The quenching of the samples was carried out in oil, brine and water media. The formation and stability of passive film was studied by Open Circuit Potential, Potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Scratch Tests. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy results simulated with Equivalent Electrical Circuit suggested bilayer structure of outer porous and inner barrier oxide films. The quantitative data showed thick inner barrier oxide film retarded electrochemical reactions. Micrographs of the quenched samples showed sigma and chromium carbide phases which prove the corrosion resistance of steel alloy.

Keywords: Martensitic stainless steel corrosion, microstructure, vacuum furnace.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2473
830 Influence of Different Thicknesses on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of α-C:H Films

Authors: S. Tunmee, P. Wongpanya, I. Toda, X. L. Zhou, Y. Nakaya, N. Konkhunthot, S. Arakawa, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (α-C:H) were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrates at different thicknesses by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (rf-PECVD). Raman spectra display asymmetric diamond-like carbon (DLC) peaks, representative of the α-C:H films. The decrease of intensity ID/IG ratios revealed the sp3 content arise at different thicknesses of the α-C:H films. In terms of mechanical properties, the high hardness and elastic modulus values showed the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors related to sp3 content in amorphous carbon films. Electrochemical properties showed that the α-C:H films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in air-saturated 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution for pH 2 at room temperature. Thickness increasing affected the small sp2 clusters in matrix, restricting the velocity transfer and exchange of electrons. The deposited α-C:H films exhibited excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Thickness, Mechanical properties, Electrochemical corrosion properties, α-C:H film.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4588
829 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si Steel, Corrosion, Welding, Sulfidation, H2S Gas.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1649
828 An Investigation of the Effect of the Different Mix Constituents on Concrete Electric Resistivity

Authors: H. M. Ghasemzadeh, Y. Mohammadi, Gh. Nouri, S. E. Nabavi

Abstract:

Steel corrosion in concrete is considered as a main engineering problems for many countries and lots of expenses has been paid for their repair and maintenance annually. This problem may occur in all engineering structures whether in coastal and offshore or other areas. Hence, concrete structures should be able to withstand corrosion factors existing in water or soil. Reinforcing steel corrosion enhancement can be measured by use of concrete electrical resistance; and maintaining high electric resistivity in concrete is necessary for steel corrosion prevention. Lots of studies devoted to different aspects of the subjects worldwide. In this paper, an evaluation of the effects of W/C ratio, cementitious materials, and percent increase in silica fume were investigated on electric resistivity of high strength concrete. To do that, sixteen mix design with one aggregate grading was planned. Five of them had varying amount of W/C ratio and other eleven mixes was prepared with constant W/C ratio but different amount of cementitious materials. Silica fume and super plasticizer were used with different proportions in all specimens. Specimens were tested after moist curing for 28 days. A total of 80 cube specimens (50 mm) were tested for concrete electrical resistance. Results show that concrete electric resistivity can be increased with increasing amount of cementitious materials and silica fume.

Keywords: Corrosion, Electric resistivity, Mix design, Silica fume

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1354
827 Effect of Corrosion on Hydrocarbon Pipelines

Authors: Madjid Meriem-Benziane, Hamou Zahloul

Abstract:

The demand of hydrocarbons has increased the construction of pipelines and the protection of the physical and mechanical integrity of the already existing infrastructure. Corrosion is the main reason of failures in the pipeline and it is mostly produced by acid (HCOOCH3). In this basis, a CFD code was used, in order to study the corrosion of internal wall of hydrocarbons pipeline. In this situation, the corrosion phenomenon shows a growing deposit, which causes defect damages (welding or fabrication) at diverse positions along the pipeline. The solution of the pipeline corrosion is based on the diminution of the Naphthenic acid.

Keywords: Pipeline, corrosion, Naphthenic acid (NA), CFD.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3148
826 Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines

Authors: Saima Ali, Pathamanathan Rajeev, Imteaz A. Monzur

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.

Keywords: Corrosion, pit depth, sensitivity analysis, exposure period.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1262
825 Modification of Anodized Mg Alloy Surface By Pulse Condition for Biodegradable Material

Authors: Y.K. Kim, Y.S. Jang, H.H. Park, J.H. Ji, I.S. Park, T.S. Bae, M.H. Lee

Abstract:

Magnesium is used implant material potentially for non-toxicity to the human body. Due to the excellent bio-compatibility, Mg alloys is applied to implants avoiding removal second surgery. However, it is found commercial magnesium alloys including aluminum has low corrosion resistance, resulting subcutaneous gas bubbles and consequently the approach as permanent bio-materials. Generally, Aluminum is known to pollution substance, and it raises toxicity to nervous system. Therefore especially Mg-35Zn-3Ca alloy is prepared for new biodegradable materials in this study. And the pulsed power is used in constant-current mode of DC power kinds of anodization. Based on the aforementioned study, it examines corrosion resistance and biocompatibility by effect of current and frequency variation. The surface properties and thickness were compared using scanning electronic microscopy. Corrosion resistance was assessed via potentiodynamic polarization and the effect of oxide layer on the body was assessed cell viability. Anodized Mg-35Zn-3Ca alloy has good biocompatibility in vitro by current and frequency variation.

Keywords: Biodegradable material, Mg, anodization, osteoblast cell, pulse power.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1954
824 Effect of Inhibitors on Weld Corrosion under Sweet Conditions Using Flow Channel

Authors: Khaled Alawadhi, Abdulkareem Aloraier, Suraj Joshi, Jalal Alsarraf

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to compare the effectiveness and electrochemical behavior of typical oilfield corrosion inhibitors with previous oilfield corrosion inhibitors under the same electrochemical techniques to control preferential weld corrosion of X65 pipeline steel in artificial seawater saturated with carbon dioxide at a pressure of one bar. A secondary aim is to investigate the conditions under which current reversal takes place. A flow channel apparatus was used in the laboratory to simulate the actual condition that occurs in marine pipelines. Different samples from the parent metal, the weld metal and the heat affected zone in the pipeline steel were galvanically coupled. The galvanic currents flowing between the weld regions were recorded using zero-resistance ammeters and tested under static and flowing conditions in both inhibited and uninhibited media. The results show that a current reversal took place when 30ppm of both green oilfield inhibitors were present, resulting in accelerated weld corrosion.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide, carbon steel, current reversal, inhibitor, weld corrosion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2714
823 Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao

Abstract:

Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni- Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ- Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings produced more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the coatings.

Keywords: Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings, steel, sol-enhanced electroplating, corrosion resistance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2364
822 Pressure Capacity Reduction of X52 Pipeline Steel Damaged by a Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion

Authors: S. M. Kazerouni Sangi, Y. Gholipour

Abstract:

Steel made pipelines with different diameters are used for transmitting oil and gas which in many cases are buried in soil under the sea bed or immersed in sea water. External corrosion of pipes is an important form of deterioration due to the aggressive environment of sea water. Corrosion normally results in pits. Hence, using the finite element method, namely ABAQUS software, this paper estimates the amount of pressure capacity reduction of a pipecontaining a semi-elliptical pitting corrosion and the rate of corrosion during the pipeline life of 25 years.

Keywords: Petroleum Transmission, Pipeline, PressureCapacity, Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2334
821 Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings

Authors: N. Boshkova, K. Kamburova, N. Tabakova, N. Boshkov, Ts. Radeva

Abstract:

Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.

Keywords: Corrosion, polyaniline particles, zinc, protective ability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 621
820 Effect of Retained Austenite Stability in Corrosion Mechanism of Dual Phase High Carbon Steel

Authors: W. Handoko, F. Pahlevani, V. Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Dual-phase high carbon steels (DHCS) are commonly known for their improved strength, hardness, and abrasive resistance properties due to co-presence of retained austenite and martensite at the same time. Retained austenite is a meta-stable phase at room temperature, and stability of this phase governs the response of DHCS at different conditions. This research paper studies the effect of RA stability on corrosion behaviour of high carbon steels after they have been immersed into 1.0 M NaCl solution for various times. For this purpose, two different steels with different RA stabilities have been investigated. The surface morphology of the samples before and after corrosion attack was observed by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), along with the weight loss and Vickers hardness analysis. Microstructural investigations proved the preferential attack to retained austenite phase during corrosion. Hence, increase in the stability of retained austenite in dual-phase steels led to decreasing the weight loss rate.

Keywords: High carbon steel, austenite stability, atomic force microscopy, corrosion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1143
819 Corrosion Monitoring of Weathering Steel in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Environment

Authors: Ch. Thee, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke

Abstract:

The atmospheres in many cities along the coastal lines in the world have been rapidly changed to coastal-industrial atmosphere. Hence, it is vital to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel exposed to this kind of environment. In this present study, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrography (EIS) and film thickness measurement were applied to monitor the corrosion behavior of weathering steel covered with a thin layer of the electrolyte in a wet-dry cyclic condition, simulating a coastal-industrial environment at 25oC and 60% RH. The results indicate that in all cycles, the corrosion rate increases during the drying process due to an increase in anion concentration and an acceleration of oxygen diffusion enhanced by the effect of the thinning out of the electrolyte. During the wet-dry cyclic corrosion test, the long-term corrosion behavior of this steel depends on the periods of exposure. Corrosion process is first accelerated and then decelerated. The decelerating corrosion process is contributed to the formation of the protective rust, favored by the wet-dry cycle and the acid regeneration process during the rusting process.

Keywords: Atmospheric corrosion, EIS, low alloy, rust.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1701
818 Hydrogen Generation by Accelerating Aluminum Corrosion in Water with Alumina

Authors: J. Skrovan, A. Alfantazi, T. Troczynski

Abstract:

For relatively small particles of aluminum (<60 μm), a measurable percentage of the aluminum (>5%) is observed to corrode before passivation occurs at moderate temperatures (>50oC) in de-ionized water within one hour. Physical contact with alumina powder results in a significant increase in both the rate of corrosion and the extent of corrosion before passivation. Whereas the resulting release of hydrogen gas could be of commercial interest for portable hydrogen supply systems, the fundamental aspects of Al corrosion acceleration in presence of dispersed alumina particles are equally important. This paper investigates the effects of various amounts of alumina on the corrosion rate of aluminum powders in water and the effect of multiple additions of aluminum into a single reactor.

Keywords: Alumina, Aluminum, Corrosion, Hydrogen

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2775
817 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems (Chemical Tests)

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas

Abstract:

The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: Acid Sulfuric, concrete, corrosion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374
816 Effect of Tempering Temperature and Time on the Corrosion Behaviour of 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels in Oxalic Acid

Authors: Ayo S. Afolabi, Johannes H. Potgieter, Ambali S. Abdulkareem, Nonhlanhla Fungura

Abstract:

The effect of different tempering temperatures and heat treatment times on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels in oxalic acid was studied in this work using conventional weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Typical 304 and 316 stainless steel samples were tempered at 150oC, 250oC and 350oC after being austenized at 1050oC for 10 minutes. These samples were then immersed in 1.0M oxalic acid and their weight losses were measured at every five days for 30 days. The results show that corrosion of both types of ASS samples increased with an increase in tempering temperature and time and this was due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals. Electrochemical results also confirm that the 304 ASS is more susceptible to corrosion than 316 ASS in this medium. This is attributed to the molybdenum in the composition of the latter. The metallographic images of these samples showed non–uniform distribution of precipitated chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals and unevenly distributed carbides and retained austenite phases which cause galvanic effects in the medium.

Keywords: ASS, corrosion, oxalic acid, tempering, temperature, time.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3139
815 NaCl Erosion-Corrosion of Mild Steel under Submerged Impingement Jet

Authors: M. Sadique, S. Ainane, Y. F. Yap, P. Rostron, E. Al Hajri

Abstract:

The presence of sand in production lines in the oil and gas industries causes material degradation due to erosion-corrosion. The material degradation caused by erosion-corrosion in pipelines can result in a high cost of monitoring and maintenance and in major accidents. The process of erosion-corrosion consists of erosion, corrosion, and their interactions. Investigating and understanding how the erosion-corrosion process affects the degradation process in certain materials will allow for a reduction in economic loss and help prevent accidents. In this study, material loss due to erosion-corrosion of mild steel under impingement of sand-laden water at 90˚ impingement angle is investigated using a submerged impingement jet (SIJ) test. In particular, effects of jet velocity and sand loading on TWL due to erosion-corrosion, weight loss due to pure erosion and erosion-corrosion interactions, at a temperature of 29-33 °C in sea water environment (3.5% NaCl), are analyzed. The results show that the velocity and sand loading have a great influence on the removal of materials, and erosion is more dominant under all conditions studied. Changes in the surface characteristics of the specimen after impingement test are also discussed.

Keywords: Erosion-corrosion, flow velocity, jet impingement, sand loading.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1092
814 Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: Automobiles, welding, corrosion, lap joints, Micro XRD.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 419
813 The Effect of Molybdate on Corrosion Behaviour of AISI 316Ti Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Viera Zatkalíková, Lenka Markovičová, Aneta Tor-Swiatek

Abstract:

The effect of molybdate addition to chloride environment on resistance of AISI 316Ti stainless steel to pitting corrosion was studied. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were performed in 1 M and 0.1 M chloride acidified solutions with various additions of sodium molybdate at room temperature. The presented results compare the effect of molybdate anions on quality of passive film (expressed by the pitting potential) in both chloride solutions. The pitting potential increases with the increase inhibitor concentration. The inhibitive effect of molybdate ions is stronger in chloride solution of lower aggressiveness (0.1M).

Keywords: AISI 316Ti steel, molybdate inhibitor, pitting corrosion, pitting potential, potentiodynamic polarization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2004
812 Evaluation of Corrosion Property of Aluminium-Zirconium Dioxide (AlZrO2) Nanocomposites

Authors: M. Ramachandra, G. Dilip Maruthi, R. Rashmi

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the corrosion property of aluminum matrix nanocomposite of an aluminum alloy (Al-6061) reinforced with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) particles. The zirconium dioxide particles are synthesized by solution combustion method. The nanocomposite materials are prepared by mechanical stir casting method, varying the percentage of n-ZrO2 (2.5%, 5% and 7.5% by weight). The corrosion behavior of base metal (Al-6061) and Al/ZrO2 nanocomposite in seawater (3.5% NaCl solution) is measured using the potential control method. The corrosion rate is evaluated by Tafel extrapolation technique. The corrosion potential increases with the increase in wt.% of n-ZrO2 in the nanocomposite which means the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that on addition of n-ZrO2 particles to the aluminum matrix, the corrosion rate has decreased compared to the base metal.

Keywords: Al6061 alloy, corrosion, solution combustion, stir casting, Potentiostat, Zirconium Dioxide.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1877