Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31515
Effect of Tempering Temperature and Time on the Corrosion Behaviour of 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels in Oxalic Acid

Authors: Ayo S. Afolabi, Johannes H. Potgieter, Ambali S. Abdulkareem, Nonhlanhla Fungura


The effect of different tempering temperatures and heat treatment times on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels in oxalic acid was studied in this work using conventional weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Typical 304 and 316 stainless steel samples were tempered at 150oC, 250oC and 350oC after being austenized at 1050oC for 10 minutes. These samples were then immersed in 1.0M oxalic acid and their weight losses were measured at every five days for 30 days. The results show that corrosion of both types of ASS samples increased with an increase in tempering temperature and time and this was due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals. Electrochemical results also confirm that the 304 ASS is more susceptible to corrosion than 316 ASS in this medium. This is attributed to the molybdenum in the composition of the latter. The metallographic images of these samples showed non–uniform distribution of precipitated chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals and unevenly distributed carbides and retained austenite phases which cause galvanic effects in the medium.

Keywords: ASS, corrosion, oxalic acid, tempering, temperature, time.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3053


[1] Monypenny, J.H.G. (1951) Stainless iron and steel, Chapman and Hall Ltd. London, pp 50,162-173, 228-237.
[2] Pandey, J. L., Singh, I. and Singh, M. N. (1997) Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of heat treated AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel in inorganic acid mixture. Anti -Corrosion Methods and Materials Vol. 44, No1, pp 6 - 9.
[3] Matula, M., Hyspecka, L., Svoboda, M., Vodarek, V., Dagbert, C., Galland, J., Stonawska, Z. and Tuma, L. (2001) Intergranular corrosion of AISI 316L steel. Materials Characterization Vol. 46, pp 203 - 210.
[4] Aydogdu, G. H. and Aydinol, M. K. (2006): Determination of susceptibility to intergranular corrosion and electrochemical reactivation behaviour of AISI 316L type stainless steel. Corrosion Science Vol. 48, pp 3565 - 3583.
[5] Tsay, L.W., Yu, S.C., Chyou, S. D. and Lin, D.Y. (2007): A comparison of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of two austenitic stainless steel welds. Corrosion Science Vol. 49, pp 4028 - 4039.
[6] Matula M, Dagbert C, Hyspecka L, Galland J, Martinakova I. (2000) Detection of sensitization to intergranular corrosion in AISI 316L stainless steel: electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. Proc Int Conf Eurocorr, London, September 10-14.
[7] Betova, I., Bojinov, M., Kinnunen, P., Pohjanne, P. and Saario, T. (2002) Influence of the electrolyte composition and temperature on the transpassive dissolution of austenitic stainless steels in simulated bleaching solutions. Electrochimica Acta Vol. 47, pp 3335 - 3349.
[8] Galal, A., Atta, N. F. and Al-Hassan, M. H. S. (2005): Effect of some thiophene derivatives on the electrochemical behaviour of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel in acidic solutions containing chloride ions. I Molecular structure and inhibition efficiency relationship. Materials Chemistry and Physics Vol. 89, pp 38 - 48.
[9] Girija, S., Kamachi Mudali, U., Khatak, H.S. and Raj, B. (2007): The application of electrochemical noise resistance to evaluate the corrosion resistance of AISI type 304 SS in nitric acid. Corrosion Science Vol. 49, pp 4051- 4068.
[10] Frangini, S. and Loreti, S. (2007): The role of alkaline-earth additives on the molten carbonate corrosion of 316L stainless steel. Corrosion Science Vol. 49, pp 3969 - 3987.
[11] Kamma, C. M. (1993): Design of Microstructure in mild Steel by thermochemical treatment. Proceedings of Nigerian Metallurgical Society. Vol. 11, pp 8-18.
[12] ASTM A 262 - 90 (1992) Standard practices for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack in austenitic stainless steels. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1990: Section 3. Metals test methods and analytical procedures: Vol. 03.02. Wear and erosion. Metal corrosion. Philadelpia, PA: ASTM, 1992.
[13] Chen, X. H., Chen, C. S., Xiao, H. N., Cheng, F. Q., Zhang, G. and Yi, G. J. (2005): Corrosion behaviour of carbon nanotubes-Ni composite coating. Journal of Surface and Coating Technology Vol. 191, pp 351- 356.
[14] Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H. Ghalebsaz-Jeddi, N., Hashemzadeh, F. and Jahani, H. (2006): Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid by Some Polyethylene Glycols. Electrochimica Acta Vol. 51, pp 3848- 3854.
[15] Jabeera, B. Shibli, S. M. A. and Anirudhan, T. S. (2006): Synergistic Inhibitive Effect of Tartarate and Tunstate in Preventing Steel Corrosion in Aqueous Media. Journal of Surface Science Vol. 252, pp 3520-3524.
[16] Afolabi, A. S. (2007): Corrosion and stress corrosion behaviours of low and medium carbon steels in agro-fluid media. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and technologies. Vol. 10, pp 55 - 66.
[17] Pohjanne, P. (1997): Corrosion/97, NACE international, Houston, Paper no 376.
[18] Casales, M., Salinas-Bravo, V. M., Martinez-Villafane, A. and Gonzalex, R. (2002): Effect of heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking of alloy 690. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A Vol. 332, pp 223 - 230.
[19] Okamoto, G. (1973) Passive film of 18-8 stainless steel structure and its function. Corrosion Science Vol. 13, p 471.
[20] Igual, M. A., Garcia, A. J., Lopez, N. S., Guinon, J. L. and Perez, H. V. (2004): Corrosion studies of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in aqueous lithium bromide solution at different temperatures. Corrosion Science Vol. 46, pp 2955 - 2974.
[21] Ilevbare, G.O. and Burstein, G.T. (2001): The role of alloyed molybdenum in the inhibition of pitting corrosion in stainless steels. Corrosion Science Vol. 43, pp 485-513.
[22] Qin, B., Wang, Z. Y. and Sun, Q. S. (2007) Effect of tempering temperature on properties of 00Cr16Ni5Mo Stainless steel. Materials Characterization. Article in press.
[23] Lim, L. C., Lai, M. O. and Ma, J. (1993) Tempering of AISI 403 stainless steel. Materials Science and Engineering Vol. A171, pp 13 - 19.