Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32579
Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya


Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: Automobiles, welding, corrosion, lap joints, Micro XRD.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 564


[1] H. Sakihama, H. Tokisue and K. Katoh, Mechanical Properties of Friction Surfaced 5052 Aluminum Alloy, Journal of Material Transactions, 2003, Volume: 44(12), p 2688-2694.
[2] H. Oikawa, T. Saito, T. Yoshimura, T. Nagase, T. Kiriyama, Spot welding of aluminium clad steel to steel or aluminium: Joining steel to aluminium with an intermediate layer, Japan Welding Society, 1996, Vol: 14, p 69-80.
[3] M. Kikuchi, H. Takeda, S. J. Morozumi, Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel, Japan Institute of Light Metals, 1984, Vol: 34, p 165-173.
[4] SushovanBasak, Hrishikesh Das, Tapan Kumar Pal, Mahadev Shome, Characterization of intermetallics in aluminum to zinc-coated interstitial free steel joining by pulsed MIG brazing for automotive application, Journal of Material Characterization, 2016, Vol: 112, p 229–237.
[5] Hyoung Jin Park, Sehun Rhee, Mun Jin Kang and Dong Cheol Kim, Joining of Steel to Aluminium Alloy by AC Pulse MIG Welding, Journal of Material Transactions, 2009, Vol: 50(9), p 2314-2317.
[6] Yu Shi, Jie Li, Gang Zhang, Jiankang Huang, and Yufen Gu, Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Steel Weld-Brazing Joint, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 2016, Vol: 25 (5), p 1916.
[7] Taban, E.; Kaluc, E.; Comparison between microstructure characteristics and joint performance of 5086-H32 aluminium alloy welded by MIG, TIG and friction stir welding processes, Journal of KovoveMaterialy, 2007, Vol: 45(5), p 241.
[8] Zhang, H. T.; Feng, J. C.; He, P.; Interfacial phenomena of cold metal transfer (CMT) welding of zinc coated steel and wrought aluminium, Journalof Materials Science and Technology. 2008, Vol: 24, p 1346-1349.
[9] Xiong J, Li J, Qian J, W, Zhang F., (2012) High strength lap joint of aluminium and stainless steels fabricated by friction stir welding with cutting pin”, Science and Technology of Welding & Joining. Vol: 17(3), p 196-201, DOI: 10.1179/1362171811Y.0000000093
[10] Ahmed S, Abhishek, S, Akash, D., Saha, P, Shuja, A, (2014). Development and Analysis of Butt and Lap welds in Micro Friction Stir Welding (µFSW). Design and Research Conference, 5th International & 26th All India Manufacturing Technology, IIT Guwahati, Assam, India.
[11] Sravanthi S. S., Swati Ghosh Acharyya, Phani Prabhakar K. V.; Padmanabham G.; Effect of welding parameters on the corrosion behavior of dissimilar alloy welds of T6 AA6061 Al-Galvanized Mild Steel, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 2018, Vol: 27(10), p 5518-5531, DOI:
[12] Sravanthi S. S., Swati Ghosh Acharyya., Phani Prabhakar, K. V.; Padmanabham, G.; Integrity of 5052 Al-mild steel dissimilar welds fabricated using MIG-brazing and cold metal transfer in nitric acid medium, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2019, Vol: 268, p 97–106, DOI:
[13] Milani, A.; Paidar, M.; Khodabandeh, A.; Nategh, S.; Influence of filler wire and wire feed speed on metallurgical and mechanical properties of MIG welding–brazing of automotive galvanized steel/5754 aluminum alloy in a lap joint configuration, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2016, Vol: 82, p 1495–1506.
[14] Krishna P. Yagati, Ravi N. Bathe, Koteswararao V. Rajulapati, K. Bhanu Sankara Rao, G. Padmanabham, Fluxless arc weld-brazing of aluminum alloy to steel, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 2014, Vol: 214, p 2949–2959.
[15] Ali Mehrani Milani, Moslem Paidar, Alireza Khodabandeh, Saeed Nategh, Influence of filler wire and wire feed speed on metallurgical and mechanical properties of MIG welding–brazing of automotive galvanized steel/5754 aluminum alloy in a lap joint configuration, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2016, Vol: 82, p 1495–1506.
[16] Padmanabham, G., Krishna Priya, Y., Phani Prabhakar, K. V., Ravi N., Bathe, BhanuSankara Rao, K. A comparison of interface characteristics and mechanical properties of aluminium-steel joints made by P-MIG and cold metal transfer (CMT) processes. In: Trends in Welding Research: Proceedings of 9th International Conference, 2013, p 227–234.
[17] Cullity, B. D.; Elements of X-Ray diffraction, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 2001.
[18] Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution, ASTM G 48-03, American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002.
[19] Wan S., Muda H. W., Nurul S., Nasir M., Effect of welding heat input on microstructure and mechanical properties at coarse grain heat affected zone of ABS grade a steel, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,2016, Vol:10(15), ISSN 1819-6608.
[20] Y. Li, B. Legendre, Enthalpy of formation of Al–Fe–Si alloys II, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2000, Vol: 302, p 187-191.
[21] S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya, K.V. Phani Prabhakar, Joydip Joardar, “Effect of varying weld speed on the corrosion resistance and mechanical behaviour of Aluminium – Steel Welds fabricated by Cold Metal Transfer Technique”, Journal of Materials and Manufacturing Process,