Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31824
Comparison of Different Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degrading 4-Chlorophenol

Authors: M.D. Murcia, M. Gomez, E. Gomez, J.L. Gomez, N. Christofi


The removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol with different advanced oxidation processes have been studied. Oxidation experiments were carried out using two 4-chlorophenol concentrations: 100 mg L-1 and 250 mg L-1 and UV generated from a KrCl excilamp with (molar ratio H2O2: 4-chlorophenol = 25:1) and without H2O2, and, with Fenton process (molar ratio H2O2:4- chlorophenol of 25:1 and Fe2+ concentration of 5 mg L-1). The results show that there is no significant difference in the 4- chlorophenol conversion when using one of the three assayed methods. However, significant concentrations of the photoproductos still remained in the media when the chosen treatment involves UV without hydrogen peroxide. Fenton process removed all the intermediate photoproducts except for the hydroquinone and the 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. In the case of UV and hydrogen peroxide all the intermediate photoproducts are removed. Microbial bioassays were carried out utilising the naturally luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and a genetically modified Pseudomonas putida isolated from a waste treatment plant receiving phenolic waste. The results using V. fischeri show that with samples after degradation, only the UV treatment showed toxicity (IC50 =38) whereas with H2O2 and Fenton reactions the samples exhibited no toxicity after treatment in the range of concentrations studied. Using the Pseudomonas putida biosensor no toxicity could be detected for all the samples following treatment due to the higher tolerance of the organism to phenol concentrations encountered.

Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, Fenton, photodegradation, UV, excilamp.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1776


[1] I. Gellman, "Environmental effects of paper industry wastewater - an overview," Wat. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 59-65, 1988.
[2] S. Garden and T. Tseng, "Baseline levels of absorbable organic halogen in treated wastewaters from bleached kraft pulp mill in Ontario," Chemosphere, vol. 20, no. 10-12, pp. 1695-1700, 1990.
[3] M. Vuorinen and P.J. Vuorinen, "Effects if bleached kraft mill effluent on early life stages of brown trout," Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 14, pp. 117-128, 1987.
[4] O. Milstein, "Removal of chlorophenols and chlorolignins from bleaching effluent by combined chemical and biological treatment," Wat. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 161-170, 1988.
[5] J.A. Klein and D.D. Lee, "Biological treatment of aqueous waste from coal conversion processes," Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp., vol. 8, pp. 379- 390, 1978.
[6] W. Bryant, "The removal of chlorinated organic from conventional pulp and paper wastewater treatment systems," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 417-425, 1992.
[7] A. Bhunia, S. Durani, P.P. Wangikar, "Horseradish peroxidase catalyzed degradation of industrially important dyes," Biotechnol. Bioeng., vol. 72, pp. 562-567, 2001.
[8] M. Wagner and J.A. Nicell, "Treatment of a foul condensate from Kraft pulping with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide," Water Res., vol. 35, pp. 485-495, 2001.
[9] R. C. Wang, C.C. Kuo and C.C. Shyu, "Adsorption of phenols onto granular activated carbon in a liquid-solid fluidized bed," J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 187-194, 1997.
[10] M. Pera-Titus, V. Garc├¡a-Molina, M.A. Ba├▒os, J. Giménez and S. Esplugas, "Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: A general review," Appl. Catal., B, vol. 47, pp. 219-256, 2004.
[11] M.Y. Ghaly, G. Härtel, R. Mayer, R. Haseneder and S. Esplugas, "Photochemical oxidation of p-chlorophenol by UV/H2O2 and photo- Fenton process. A comparative study," Waste Manage., B, vol. 21, pp. 41-47, 2001.
[12] S. Ledakowicz, M. Solecka and R. Zylla, "Biodegradation, decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewater enhanced by advanced oxidation processes," J. Biotechnol., vol. 89, pp. 175-184, 2001.
[13] E. Silva, M.M Pereira, H.D. Burrows, M.E. Azenha, M. Sarakhab and M. Bolte, "Photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol sensitised by iron mesotetrakis( 2,6-dichloro-3-sulfophenyl)porphyrin in aqueous solution," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 200-204, 2004.
[14] B. Sun, E.P. Reddy and P.G. Smimiotis, "TiO2-loaded Cr-modified molecular sieves for 4-chlorophenol photodegradation under visible light," J. Catal., vol. 237, pp. 314-321, 2006.
[15] M. Czaplicka, "Photo-degradation of chlorophenols in the aqueous solution," J. Hazard. Mater. B., vol. 134, pp. 45-59, 2006.
[16] E. Tamer, Z. Hamid, A.M. Aly, El T. Ossama, M. Bo and G. Benoit, "Sequential UV-biological degradation of chlorophenols," Chemosphere, vol. 63, pp. 227-284, 2006.
[17] J. Theurich, M. Lindner and D.W. Bahnemann, "Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aerated aqueous titanium dioxide suspensions: A kinetic and mechanistic study," Langmuir, vol. 12, pp. 6368-6376, 1996.
[18] Y. Meng, X. Huang, Y. Wu, X. Wang and Y. Qian, "Kinetic study and modelling on photocatalytic degradation of para-chlorobenzoate at different light intensities," Environ. Pollut., vol. 117, pp. 307-313, 2002.
[19] M.A. Barakat, G. Schaeffer, G. Hayes and S. Ismath-Shah, "Photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol by Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Catal., B., vol. 57, pp. 23-30, 2004.
[20] G. Baum and T. Oppenländer, "VUV-oxidation of chloroorganic compounds in an excimer flow through photoreactor," Chemosphere, vol. 30, pp. 1781-1790, 1995.
[21] G. Matafonova, N. Christofi, V. Batoev and E. Sosnin, "Degradation of chlorophenols in aqueous media using UV XeBr excilamp in a flowthrough reactor," Chemosphere, vol. 70, pp. 1124-1127, 2008.
[22] E.A. Sosnin, T. Oppenländer and F.V. Tarasenko, "Applications of capacitive and barrier discharge excilamps in photoscience," J. Photochem. Photobiol., C., vol. 7, pp. 145-163, 2006.
[23] F.J. Benitez, J. Beltran-Heredia, J.L. Acero and F.J. Rubio, "Contribution of free radicals to chlorophenols decomposition by several advanced oxidation processes," Chemosphere, vol. 41, no., 8, pp. 1271- 1277, 2000.
[24] E. Chamarro, A. Marco and S. Espuglas, "Use of fenton reagent to improve organic chemical biodegradability," Water Res., vol. 35, pp. 1047-1051, 2001.
[25] E. Graf and J.T. Penniston, "Method for determination of hydrogenperoxide, with its application illustrated by glucose assay," Clin. Chem., vol. 25, no 5, pp. 658-660, 1980.
[26] J.C. Philp, S. Balmand, E. Hajto, M.J. Bailey, S. Wiles, A.S. Whiteley, A.K. Lilley, J. Hajto, S.A. Dunbar, "Whole cell immobilized biosensors for toxicity assessment of a wastewater plant treating phenolicscontaining waste," Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 487, pp. 61-74, 2003.
[27] S. Wiles, A.S. Whiteley, J.C. Philp and M.J. Bailey, "Development of bespoke bioluminescent reporters with the potential for in situ deployment within a phenolic-remediating wastewater treatment system," J. Microbial. Methods, vol. 55, pp. 667-677, 2003.
[28] M. Gomez, J.L. Gomez, E. Gomez, M.D. Murcia and N. Christofi, "Comparison of 4-chlorophenol phototreatment with KrCl, XeBr and Cl2 excilamps," submitted at the 8th world congress of chemical engineering, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 23-27, 2009.
[29] M. Gomez, M.D. Murcia, E. Gomez, J.L. Gomez and N. Christofi, "Enhanced degradation of 4-chlorophenol using combined KrCl excimer UV lamp and hydrogen peroxide," submitted at 2nd European conference on "Environmental applications of advanced oxidation processes- EAAOP2", Cyprus, September 9-11, 2009.