Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: superoxide dismutase (SOD).

36 Changes to Oxidative Stress Levels Following Exposure to Formaldehyde in Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee

Abstract:

Formaldehyde is the illegal chemical substance used for food preservation in fish and vegetable. It can promote carcinogenesis. Superoxide dismutases are the important antioxidative enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The resultant level of oxidative stress in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes was investigated. The formaldehyde concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120μmol/L were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, the superoxide dismutase activity change was measured in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the formaldehyde concentrations of 60, 80 and 120μmol/L significantly decreased superoxide dismutase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of superoxide dismutase activity in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes may be the biomarker for detect cellular injury, such as damage to DNA, due to formaldehyde exposure.

Keywords: Formaldehyde, lymphocytes, superoxide dismutase activity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2057
35 Binding of miR398 to mRNA of Chaperone and Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Plants

Authors: Assyl Bari, Olga Berillo, Saltanat Orazova, Anatoliy Ivashchenko

Abstract:

Among all microRNAs (miRNAs) in 12 plant species investigated in this study, only miR398 targeted the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS). The nucleotide sequences of miRNA binding sites were located in the mRNA protein-coding sequence (CDS) and were highly homologous. These binding sites in CCS mRNA encoded a conservative GDLGTL hexapeptide. The binding sites for miR398 in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA encoded GDLGN pentapeptide. The conservative miR398 binding site located in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 2 mRNA encoded the GDLGNI hexapeptide. The miR398 binding site in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 3 mRNA encoded the GDLGNI or GDLGNV hexapeptide. Gene expression of the entire superoxide dismutase family in the studied plant species was regulated only by miR398. All members of the miR398 family, i.e. miR398a,b,c were connected to one site for each CuZnSOD and chaperone mRNA.

Keywords: MicroRNA, mRNA, plant, superoxide dismutase.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1678
34 The Antidiabetic Properties of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: T. Wresdiyati, S. Sa’diah, A. Winarto

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that can be indicated by the high level of blood glucose. The objective of this study was to observe the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed on the profile of pancreatic superoxide dismutase and β-cells in the alloxan- experimental diabetic rats. The Swietenia mahagoni seed was obtained from Leuwiliang-Bogor, Indonesia. Extraction of Swietenia mahagoni was done by using ethanol with maceration methods. A total of 25 male Sprague dawley rats were divided into five groups; (a) negative control group, (b) positive control group (DM), (c) DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, (d) DM group that was treated with acarbose, and (e) non-DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract. The DM groups were induced by alloxan (110 mg/kgBW). The extract was orally administrated to diabetic rats 500 mg/kg/BW/day for 28 days. The extract showed hypoglycemic effect, increased body weight, increased the content of superoxide dismutase in the pancreatic tissue, and delayed the rate of β-cells damage of experimental diabetic rats. These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed could be proposed as a potential anti-diabetic agent.

Keywords: β-cell, diabetes mellitus, superoxide dismutase, Swietenia mahagoni.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1220
33 Antioxidant Biosensor Using Microbe

Authors: Dyah Iswantini, Trivadila, Novik Nurhidayat, Waras Nurcholis

Abstract:

The antioxidant compounds are needed for the food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals industry. For this purpose, an appropriate method is required to measure the antioxidant properties in various types of samples. Spectrophotometric method usually used has some weaknesses, including the high price, long sample preparation time, and less sensitivity. Among the alternative methods developed to overcome these weaknesses is antioxidant biosensor based on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Therefore, this study was carried out to measure the SOD activity originating from Deinococcus radiodurans and to determine its kinetics properties. Carbon paste electrode modified with ferrocene and immobilized SOD exhibited anode and cathode current peak at potential of +400 and +300mv respectively, in both pure SOD and SOD of D. radiodurans. This indicated that the current generated was from superoxide catalytic dismutation reaction by SOD. Optimum conditions for SOD activity was at pH 9 and temperature of 27.50C for D. radiodurans SOD, and pH 11 and temperature of 200C for pure SOD. Dismutation reaction kinetics of superoxide catalyzed by SOD followed the Lineweaver-Burk kinetics with D. radiodurans SOD KMapp value was smaller than pure SOD. The result showed that D. radiodurans SOD had higher enzyme-substrate affinity and specificity than pure SOD. It concluded that D. radiodurans SOD had a great potential as biological recognition component for antioxidant biosensor.

Keywords: Antioxidant biosensor, Deinococcus radiodurans, enzyme kinetic, superoxide dismutase (SOD).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1928
32 Some Biochemical Changes Followed Experimental Gastric Ulceration

Authors: A. H. El-Far, R. R. Gindi, H. A. Abd El-Maksoud, Mohamed Ragaa Ragab Hassanien

Abstract:

Gastric ulceration is a discontinuity in gastric mucosa, usually occurs due to imbalance between the gastric mucosal protective factors, that is called gastric mucosal barrier, and the aggressive factors, to which the mucosa is exposed. This study was carried out on sixty male Sprague-Dowely rats (12- 16 weeks old) allocated into two groups. The first control group and the second Gastric lesion group which induced by oral administration of a single daily dose of aspirin at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive-days (6% aspirin solution will be prepared and each rat will be given 5 ml of that solution/kg body weight). Blood is collected 1, 2 and 3 weeks after induction of gastric ulceration. Significant increase in serum copper, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 all over the period of experiment. Significant decrease in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) activities, serum (calcium, phosphorus, glucose and insulin) levels. Non-significant changes in serum sodium and potassium levels are obtained.

Keywords: Aspirin, Gastric Ulcer, Prostaglandin E2, Superoxide dismutase

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1420
31 Effect of Crude oil Intoxication on Antioxidant and Marker Enzymes of Tissue Damage in Liver of Rat

Authors: K. Mahmoud, T. Shalahmetova, Sh. Deraz

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to examine the dose-response relationships between antioxidant parameters and liver contaminant levels of Kazakhstan light crude oil (KLCO) in albino rats. The animals were repeatedly exposed, by intraperitoneal injection, to low dosages (0.5–1.5 ml/kg) of KLCO. Rats exposed to these doses levels did not show any apparent symptoms of intoxication. Serum aminotransferases increased significantly (p<0.05) while after 8-d recovered to control level. hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased after 1 and 3-d except with 0.5 ml while with increased exposure time it deceased insignificantly after 5-d and significantly after 8-d. Dose and time-dependent increases were observed in the levels of hepatic glutathione-S-transeferase (GST) and conjugated diene (CD) while malondialdehyde (MDA) was evolved after 8 with the dose of 1.5 ml. the data obtained indicate impaired liver function in the rats intoxicated with KLCO as manifested by elevated liver enzymes.

Keywords: Crude oil; superoxide dismutase, glutathione-Stranseferase, malondialdehyde, conjugated diene, aminotransferases.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760
30 Effects and Mechanization of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Particulate and Microbe Removal from Ballast Water

Authors: Zhijun Ren, Zhang Lin, Zhao Ye, Zuo Xiangyu, Mei Dongxing

Abstract:

As a pretreatment process of ballast water treatment, the performance of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technology for the removal of particulates and microorganisms was studied. The results showed that HGMS process could effectively remove suspended particles larger than 5 µm and had ability to resist impact load. Microorganism could also be effectively removed by HGMS process, and the removal effect increased with increasing magnetic field strength. The maximum removal rates for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were 4016.1% and 9675.3% higher, respectively, than without the magnetic field. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the microbes decreased by 32.2% when the magnetic field strength was 15.4 mT for 72 min. The microstructure of the stainless steel wool was investigated, and the results showed that particle removal by HGMS has common function by the magnetic force of the high-strength, high-gradient magnetic field on weakly magnetic particles in the water, and on the stainless steel wool.

Keywords: HGMS, particulates, superoxide dismutase activity, steel wool magnetic medium.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 671
29 Effect of Drought Stress and Selenium Spraying on Superoxide Dismotase Activity of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars

Authors: A.R. Pazoki, A. H. Shirani Rad, D. Habibi, F. Paknejad, S. Kobraee, N. Hadayat

Abstract:

In the other to Study of drought stress and Selenium spraying effect on superoxide dismotase (SOD) activity of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in Shahr-e-Rey region, an experiment carried out in Split factorial design in the basis of randomized complete blocks with 4 replications in 2006. Irrigation in two levels: Normal irrigation and irrigation with drought stress when the soil electrical conductivity reached to 60 as main factor and rapeseed cultivars in 3 levels Zarfam, Okapi, Opera and selenium spraying at the beginning of flowering stage in 3 levels: 0, 16 and 21 g/ha as sub factor. The results showed that the simple and interaction effect of irrigation, selenium and cultivars on SOD activity had significant difference. In this case Zarfam cultivar with 2010 u.mg-1 protein and Opera with 1454 u.mg-1 protein produced maximum and minimum amounts of SOD activitiy. Interaction effect of irrigation and variety showed that, normal irrigation in Opera with 1115 u.mg-1 protein and drought stress in Zarfam with 2784 u.mg-1 protein conducted to and minimum and maximum amounts of SOD activity. Interaction effect of irrigation, cultivar and selenium on SOD indicated that drought stress condition and 21 gr/ha selenium spraying in Zarfam variety with 3146 u.mg-1 protein gained to highest activities of SOD.

Keywords: Drought stress, Rapeseed, Selenium, Superoxide dismutase.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
28 Changes of in vitro Cytokine Production induced by δ-Lactams

Authors: Y. Baba hamed, A. Medjdoub, H. Merzouk, M. Narce

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effects of δ-lactam 1 and its 4-chlorophenyl derivative 2, on the proliferative responses of human lymphocytes and Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. The possible protective role of vitamin E on intracellular stress oxidative induced by these compounds was also investigated. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using differential centrifugation on a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured with mitogen concanavalin A, vitamin E (10 μM) and with different concentrations of the compounds 1 and 2 (0.1 to 10 μM). Proliferation (MTT assay), IL-2, INFγ and IL-4 (Elisa kits), intracellular superoxide anion were determined. 1 and 2 were immunostimulant and increased cytokine secretion with a shift away from Th1 response to Th2. These properties were however accompanied by an increase in intracellular oxidative stress. The presence of vitamin E exhibited protective effects by reducing δ- lactam-induced superoxide anion generation in lymphocytes.

Keywords: Cytokines, δ-Lactams, In vitro Lymphocyte Proliferation, Superoxide Anion

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3645
27 Oxidantantioxidant Status in Calves Supplemented with Green Tea Extract

Authors: Ibrahim I. Elshahawy

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.

Keywords: Green tea extract, antioxidants, oxidants, calves.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 749
26 Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Cadmium Chloride Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Irradiated Rats

Authors: Nashwa Kamel Ibrahim

Abstract:

Kombucha Tea Ferment (KT), was given to male albino rats, (1ml/Kg of body weight), via gavages, during 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of 3.5 mg/Kg body weight CdCl2 and/or whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy, and during 4 weeks after each treatment. Hepatic and nephritic pathological changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and creatinine and urea contents with significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney tissues expressed by significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents associated to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were recorded. KT administration results in recovery of all the pathological changes. It could be concluded that KT might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage induced by exposure to cadmium and/ or γ-irradiation.

Keywords: Cadmium, Kombucha, radiation, rats

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1854
25 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in Adult Mice and Their Progeny

Authors: H. Bouaziz, N. Soudania, M. Essafia, I. Ben Amara, A. Hakim, K. Jamoussi, Km. Zeghal, N. Zeghal

Abstract:

In this investigation, we have evaluated the effects of arsenic trioxide on hepatic function in pregnant and lactating Swiss albino mice and their suckling pups. Experiments were carried out on female mice given 175 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Our results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride in As2O3 treated mice and their pups. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity suggested the presence of cholestasis. Transaminase activities as well as lactate deshydrogenase activity in plasma, known as biomarkers of hepatocellular injury, were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with As2O3. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and in glutathione.

Keywords: Antioxidant status, arsenic trioxide, hepatotoxicity, mice, oxidative stress.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2139
24 Induction of Hsp70 and Antioxidant Status in Porcine Granulosa Cells in Response to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Exposure in vitro

Authors: Marcela Capcarova, Adriana Kolesarova, Marina Medvedova, Peter Petruska, Alexander V. Sirotkin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant status (TAS) and accumulation of Hsp70 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells after deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) exposure in vitro. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with DON/ZEA administrations as follows: group A (10/10 ng/mL), group B (100/100 ng/mL), group C (1000/1000 ng/mL), and the control group without any additions for 24h. In this study mycotoxins developed stress reaction of porcine ovarian granulosa cells and increased accumulation of Hsp70 what resulted in increasing activities of SOD and GPx in groups with lower doses of mycotoxins. High dose of DON and ZEA had opposite effect on GPx activity than the lower doses. Slight increase in TAS of porcine granulosa cells was observed after mycotoxins exposure. These results contribute towards the understanding of cellular stress and its response.

Keywords: Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, antioxidants, Hsp70, granulosa cells.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2269
23 Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Drought Stress of Chickpea Genotypes

Authors: E. Ceyhan, A. Kahraman, M. Önder, M.K. Ateş, S. Karadaş, R. Topak, M.A. Avcı

Abstract:

The experimental design was 4 x 5 factorial with three replications in fully controlled research greenhouse in Department of Soil Sciences and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk in the year of 2009. Determination of tolerant chickpea genotypes to drought was made in the research. Additionally, sophisticated effects of drought on plant growth and development, biochemical and physical properties or physical defense mechanisms were presented. According to the results, the primary genotypes were Ilgın YP (0.0063 g/gh) for leaf water capacity, 22235 70.44(%) for relative water content, 22159 (82.47%) for real water content, 22159 (5.03 mg/l) for chlorophyll a+b, Ilgın YP (125.89 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for peroxidase, Yunak YP (769.67 unit/ mg protein-1) for superoxide dismutase, Seydişehir YP (16.74 μg.TA-1) for proline, Gökçe (80.01 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for catalase. Consequently, all the genotypes increased their enzyme activity depending on the increasing of drought stress consider with the effects of drought stress on leaf enzyme activity. Chickpea genotypes are increasing enzyme activity against to drought stress.

Keywords: Chickpea, drought, enzyme, tolerance to drought

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1633
22 Effect of Ginger and L-Carnitine on the Reproductive Performance of Male Rats

Authors: Ismail I. Abo-Ghanema, El-Nasharty M.A., El-Far A. H., Hanan A.Ghonium

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated the effects of ginger and L-carnitine on the reproductive performance of male rats with respect to semen parameters, male sex hormones and the testicular antioxidant system. A total of sixty mature male albino rats were divided into four groups of fifteen rats. The control group received saline, whereas the other three groups received ginger (100 mg kg-1 d- 1.), L-carnitine (150 mg kg-1 d-1.) or a combination of both ginger (100 mg kg-1 d-1.) and L-carnitine (150 mg kg-1 d-1.) via a stomach tube daily for one month. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, and their sperm characteristics (count, motility and viability), antioxidant enzyme factors levels (reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity) and sex hormone levels (testosterone, Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were analysed. Our results showed that the three experimental treatments improved sperm parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity and testosterone hormone levels; the most pronounced positive effects were observed in the group that received a combination of both ginger and L-carnitine. Therefore, the administration of a combination of ginger and L-carnitine may be beneficial for improving male sexual performance.

Keywords: Ginger, L-Carnitine, Spermatogenesis, Rats.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3241
21 Antioxidant Responses to Different Exposure Regimes of Kazakhstan Light Crude Oil in Livers of Male Albino Rats

Authors: K. Mahmoud, T. Shalahmetova, B. Umbayev, Sh. Deraz

Abstract:

Biochemical investigations were carried out to assess the effect of different exposure regimes of Kazakhstan crude oil (KCO) on hepatic antioxidant defense system in albino rats. Contaminants were delivered under two different dosing regimes, with all treatments receiving the same total contaminant load by the end of the exposure period. Rats in regime A injected with KCO once at a dose of 6 ml/kg bw while in regime B injected multiply at a dose of 1.5 ml/kg bw on day 1, 3, 5 and 8. Antioxidant biomarkers were measured in hepatic tissue after 1, 3, 5 and 8 days. Significant induction was observed in serum aminotransferases (ALT, AST) (p<0.01) and hepatic Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (p<0.05) in the two exposure regimes, with the majority of significant induction occurring in regime A. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased 1-d after injection (p<0.01) but the increase was reduced time dependently thereafter while after 8-d induced again (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly induced after 3 and 5-d (p<0.05) in regime A while in regime B was not changed significantly (p>0.05) at short time after exposure. However, there was significant increase after 8-d (p<0.01). Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced pathologic changes from inflammatory cells infiltration to hemorrhage and necrosis of hepatocytes. Acute exposure to crude oil adversely affect hepatic cell so human must avoid such exposure.

Keywords: Kazakhstan crude oil, Antioxidant biomarkers, Histological examination, Dose regime, Rats

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1785
20 Antioxidative Potential of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum americanum L. Leaves: An in vitro and in vivo Evaluation

Authors: B. T. Aluko, O. I. Oloyede

Abstract:

Ocimum americanum L (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is native to tropical Africa. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract was carefully investigated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, total phenol, total flavonoids and flavonols content of the extract were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and scavenged the radicals in a concentration dependent manner. This was done in comparison with the standard antioxidants such as BHT and Vitamin C. Also, the induction of oxidative damage with paracetamol (2000 mg/kg) resulted in the elevation of lipid peroxides and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in the liver and kidney of rats. However, the pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of O. americanum leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of lipid peroxides and restored the levels of antioxidant parameters in these organs. These findings suggest that the leaves of O. americanum have potent antioxidant properties which may be responsible for its acclaimed folkloric uses.

Keywords: Antioxidants, free radicals, Ocimum americanum, scavenging activity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2110
19 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14 and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5 and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Bonny Light crude oil, Radicle, Mitochondria ATPases.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2013
18 Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohamed F. Ahmed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabha

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days), group 3: treated with L‐ carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐ carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐ glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the parameters mentioned above as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of kidney asscociated with gentamicin induced‐nephrotoxicity. 

Keywords: Gentamicin, kidney disease, L‐carnitine, nephrotoxicity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1389
17 Adaptive Responses of Carum copticum to in vitro Salt Stress

Authors: R. Razavizadeh, F. Adabavazeh, M. Rezaee Chermahini

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid areas that limits the plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, the salt stress effects on protein, reducing sugar, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities of Carum copticum L. under in vitro conditions were studied. Seeds of C. copticum were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and calli were cultured in MS medium containing 1 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4 μM benzyl amino purine and different levels of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM). After NaCl treatment for 28 days, the proline and reducing sugar contents of shoots, roots and calli increased significantly in relation to the severity of the salt stress. The highest amount of proline and carbohydrate were observed at 150 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The reducing sugar accumulation in shoots was the highest as compared to roots, whereas, proline contents did not show any significant difference in roots and shoots under salt stress. The results showed significant reduction of protein contents in seedlings and calli. Based on these results, proteins extracted from the shoots, roots and calli of C. copticum treated with 150 mM NaCl showed the lowest contents. The positive relationships were observed between activity of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in stress levels. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly under salt concentrations in comparison to the control. These results suggest that the accumulation of proline and sugars, and activation of antioxidant enzymes play adaptive roles in the adaptation of seedlings and callus of C. copticum to saline conditions.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Carum copticum, organic solutes, salt stress.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 754
16 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Hamada A. Ahmed, Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha

Abstract:

The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. 120 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: Herbal additives, basil, chamomile, broiler, growth performance, antioxidant.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3022
15 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: Berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 425
14 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Black Tea Extract and Quercetin in Atherosclerotic Rats

Authors: Wahyu Widowati, Hana Ratnawati, Tjandrawati Mozefis, Dwiyati Pujimulyani, Yelliantty Yelliantty

Abstract:

Background: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with complex and multifactorial process including atherogenic lipoprotein, oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), endothelial dysfunction, plaque stability, vascular inflammation, thrombotic and fibrinolytic disorder, exercises and genetic factor Epidemiological studies have shown tea consumption inversely associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The research objectives: to elucidate hypolipidemic, antioxidant effects, as well as ability to improve coronary artery’s histopathologyof black tea extract (BTE) and quercetin in atherosclerotic rats. Methods: The antioxidant activity was determined by using Superoxide Dismutase activity (SOD) of serum and lipid peroxidation product (Malondialdehyde) of plasma and lipid profile including cholesterol total, LDL, triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) of atherosclerotic rats. Inducing atherosclerotic, rats were given cholesterol and cholic acid in feed during ten weeks until rats indicated atherosclerotic symptom with narrowed artery and foamy cells in the artery’s wall. After rats suffered atherosclerotic, the high cholesterol feed and cholic acid were stopped and rats were given BTE 450; 300; 150 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily, quercetin 15; 10; 5 mg/kg BW daily, compared to rats were given vitamin E 60 mg/kg/BW; simvastatin 2.7 mg/kg BW, probucol 30 mg/kg BW daily for 21 days (first treatment) and 42 days (second treatment), negative control (normal feed), positive control (atherosclerotic rats). Results: BTE and quercetin could lower cholesterol total, triglyceride, LDL MDA and increase HDL, SOD were comparable with simvastatin, probucol both for 21 days and 42 days treatment, as well to improve coronary arteries histopathology. Conclusions: BTE andquercetin have hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, as well as improve coronary arteries histopathology in atherosclerotic rats.

Keywords: Black tea, quercetin, atherosclerosis, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, cardiovascular disease.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2545
13 Wound Healing Effect of Ocimum sanctum Leaves Extract in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Manish Kumar Gautam, Raj Kumar Goel

Abstract:

Delayed wound healing in diabetes is primarily associated with hyperglycemia, over-expression of inflammatory marker, oxidative stress and delayed collagen synthesis. This unmanaged wound is producing high economic burden on the society. Thus research is required to develop new and effective treatment strategies to deal with this emerging issue. Our present study incorporates the evaluation of wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (OSE) in streptozotocin (45mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats with concurrent wound ulcer. The animals showing diabetes (Blood glucose level >140 and <250 mg/dL) will be selected for wound healing study using standard dead space wound model. Wounds were created by implanting two polypropylene tubes (0.5 x 2.5 cm2 each), one on either side in the lumbar region on the dorsal surface of each rat. On the 10th postwounding day, the animals were sacrificed and granulation tissue formed on the implanted tubes was carefully dissected out and study the status of antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase, SOD and Glutathione, GSH) free radicals (Lipid peroxidation, LPO and nitric oxide, NO) acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, MPO) connective tissue determinants, hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid, which play a major role in wound healing and diabetes. Besides the anti-diabetic parameters (estimation of serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol), the above parameters for wound healing were studied both in normal, untreated and OSE treated diabetic rats. The effects of extract on above parameters will be compared with known standard antioxidant (Vitamin E) and anti-diabetic (Glybenclamide) drugs. OSE 400 mg/kg substantiated by significantly decreased serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol. OSE also decrease granulation tissue free radicals (LPO, 58.1% and NO, 52.7%) and myeloperoxidase (MPO, 63.3%), and enhanced antioxidants (GSH, 116.4% and SOD, 201.1%)

Keywords: Wound healing, diabetes, Ocimum sanctum, Antioxidant, Free radical, Myeloperoxidase

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2999
12 Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats

Authors: F. Alaa Ali, S. A. Sherein Abdelgayed, S. Osama. EL-Tawil, M. Adel Bakeer

Abstract:

Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to investigate the underlying mechanism of tartrazine through assessment oxidative stress (Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Total protein and Urea). Liver and kidneys tissue were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The obtained values were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparison test. Biochemical analysis revealed that tartrazine induced significant increase in serum ALT, AST, total protein, urea level compared to control group. Tartrazine showed significant decrease in liver GSH and SOD where their values when compared to control group. Tartrazine induced increase in liver MDA compared to control group. Histopathology of the liver showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration in hepatic parenchyma, the portal area showed sever changes sever in hepatoportal blood vessels and in the bile ducts. The kidneys showed degenerated tubules at the cortex together with mononuclear leucocytes inflammatory cells infiltration. There is perivascular edema with inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the congested and hyalinized vascular wall of blood vessel. The present study indicates that the subchronic effects of tartrazine have a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys together with induction of oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Therefore, people should avoid the hazards of consuming tartrazine.

Keywords: Albino rats, tartrazine, toxicity, pathology

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1769
11 The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Marek Halenár, Hana Greifová, Alica Mackovich, Faridullah Hashim, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Keywords: Bulls, cryopreservation, curcumin, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, spermatozoa.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1350
10 Thermal Method for Testing Small Chemisorbents Samples on the Base of Potassium Superoxide

Authors: Pavel V. Balabanov, Daria A. Liubimova, Aleksandr P. Savenkov

Abstract:

The increase of technogenic and natural accidents, accompanied by air pollution, for example, by combustion products, leads to the necessity of respiratory protection. This work is devoted to the development of a calorimetric method and a device which allows investigating quickly the kinetics of carbon dioxide sorption by chemisorbents on the base of potassium superoxide in order to assess the protective properties of respiratory protective closed circuit apparatus. The features of the traditional approach for determining the sorption properties in a thin layer of chemisorbent are described, as well as methods and devices, which can be used for the sorption kinetics study. The authors developed an approach (as opposed to the traditional approach) based on the power measurement of internal heat sources in the chemisorbent layer. The emergence of the heat sources is a result of exothermic reaction of carbon dioxide sorption. This approach eliminates the necessity of chemical analysis of samples and can significantly reduce the time and material expenses during chemisorbents testing. Error of determining the volume fraction of adsorbed carbon dioxide by the developed method does not exceed 12%. Taking into account the efficiency of the method, we consider that it is a good alternative to traditional methods of chemical analysis under the assessment of the protection sorbents quality.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide chemisorption, exothermic reaction, internal heat sources, respiratory protective apparatus.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1505
9 Antioxidative, Anticholinesterase and Anti-Neuroinflammatory Properties of Malaysian Brown and Green Seaweeds

Authors: Siti Aisya Gany, Swee Ching Tan, Sook Yee Gan

Abstract:

Diminished antioxidant defense or increased production of reactive oxygen species in the biological system can result in oxidative stress which may lead to various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglial activation also contributes to the progression of AD by producing several proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been reported to be possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. In addition, the cholinergic hypothesis postulates that memory impairment in patient with AD is also associated with the deficit of cholinergic function in the brain. Although a number of drugs have been approved for the treatment of AD, most of these synthetic drugs have diverse side effects and yield relatively modest benefits. Marine algae have great potential in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications as they are valuable sources of bioactive properties such as anticoagulation, antimicrobial, antioxidative, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Hence, this study aimed to provide an overview of the properties of Malaysian seaweeds (Padina australis, Sargassum polycystum and Caulerpa racemosa) in inhibiting oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and cholinesterase enzymes. These seaweeds significantly exhibited potent DPPH and moderate superoxide anion radical scavenging ability (P<0.05). Hexane and methanol extracts of S. polycystum exhibited the most potent radical scavenging ability with IC50 values of 0.157±0.004mg/ml and 0.849±0.02mg/ml for DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Hexane extract of C. racemosa gave the strongest superoxide radical inhibitory effect (IC50 of 0.386±0.01mg/ml). Most seaweed extracts significantly inhibited the production of cytokine (IL-6, IL-1 β, TNFα) and NO in a concentration-dependent manner without causing significant cytotoxicity to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia cells (P<0.05). All extracts suppressed cytokine and NO level by more than 50% at the concentration of 0.4mg/ml. In addition, C. racemosa and S. polycystum also showed anti-acetylcholinesterase activities with the IC50 values ranging from 0.086-0.115 mg/ml. Moreover, C. racemosa and P. australis were also found to be active against butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values ranging from 0.118- 0.287 mg/ml.

Keywords: Anticholinesterase, antioxidative, neuroinflammation, seaweeds.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2559
8 Speciation of Iron (III) Oxide Nanoparticles and Other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene

Authors: Michael P. Herring, Lavrent Khachatryan, Barry Dellinger

Abstract:

Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1--MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by gfactors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77 K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe (IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe (IV) --- O2•- were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.

Keywords: Cryogenic trapping, EPFRs, dendrimer, Fe2O3 doped silica, soot.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1910
7 Impact of Altered Behavioral Condition on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Different Biochemical Parameters

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A. V. Chandewar

Abstract:

Aim- Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of altered behavioral condition like depression on various oxidative stress markers and biochemical parameters in rats. Methods- Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation; the rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test relative to control. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid per oxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supers oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, and blood glucose were determined. Results- There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after long term isolation. Biochemical parameters were significantly altered after social isolation. Conclusion- Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Depression, Glucose, LPO, Oxidative stress.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1674