Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 620

# Search results for: interval tree

##### 620 The Diameter of an Interval Graph is Twice of its Radius

Abstract:

In an interval graph G = (V,E) the distance between two vertices u, v is de£ned as the smallest number of edges in a path joining u and v. The eccentricity of a vertex v is the maximum among distances from all other vertices of V . The diameter (δ) and radius (ρ) of the graph G is respectively the maximum and minimum among all the eccentricities of G. The center of the graph G is the set C(G) of vertices with eccentricity ρ. In this context our aim is to establish the relation ρ = δ 2  for an interval graph and to determine the center of it.

Keywords: Interval graph, interval tree, radius, center.

##### 619 On Some Properties of Interval Matrices

Authors: K. Ganesan

Abstract:

By using a new set of arithmetic operations on interval numbers, we discuss some arithmetic properties of interval matrices which intern helps us to compute the powers of interval matrices and to solve the system of interval linear equations. Downloads 1804
##### 618 The Knapsack Sharing Problem: A Tree Search Exact Algorithm

Authors: Mhand Hifi, Hedi Mhalla

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the knapsack sharing problem, a variant of the well-known NP-Hard single knapsack problem. We investigate the use of a tree search for optimally solving the problem. The used method combines two complementary phases: a reduction interval search phase and a branch and bound procedure one. First, the reduction phase applies a polynomial reduction strategy; that is used for decomposing the problem into a series of knapsack problems. Second, the tree search procedure is applied in order to attain a set of optimal capacities characterizing the knapsack problems. Finally, the performance of the proposed optimal algorithm is evaluated on a set of instances of the literature and its runtime is compared to the best exact algorithm of the literature.

##### 617 Comparison of Two Interval Models for Interval-Valued Differential Evolution

Abstract:

The author previously proposed an extension of differential evolution. The proposed method extends the processes of DE to handle interval numbers as genotype values so that DE can be applied to interval-valued optimization problems. The interval DE can employ either of two interval models, the lower and upper model or the center and width model, for specifying genotype values. Ability of the interval DE in searching for solutions may depend on the model. In this paper, the author compares the two models to investigate which model contributes better for the interval DE to find better solutions. Application of the interval DE is evolutionary training of interval-valued neural networks. A result of preliminary study indicates that the CW model is better than the LU model: the interval DE with the CW model could evolve better neural networks.

##### 616 Using Interval Trees for Approximate Indexing of Instances

Authors: Khalil el Hindi

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple and effective method for approximate indexing of instances for instance based learning. The method uses an interval tree to determine a good starting search point for the nearest neighbor. The search stops when an early stopping criterion is met. The method proved to be very effective especially when only the first nearest neighbor is required.

##### 615 Spanning Tree Transformation of Connected Graphs into Single-Row Networks

Authors: S.L. Loh, S. Salleh, N.H. Sarmin

Abstract:

A spanning tree of a connected graph is a tree which consists the set of vertices and some or perhaps all of the edges from the connected graph. In this paper, a model for spanning tree transformation of connected graphs into single-row networks, namely Spanning Tree of Connected Graph Modeling (STCGM) will be introduced. Path-Growing Tree-Forming algorithm applied with Vertex-Prioritized is contained in the model to produce the spanning tree from the connected graph. Paths are produced by Path-Growing and they are combined into a spanning tree by Tree-Forming. The spanning tree that is produced from the connected graph is then transformed into single-row network using Tree Sequence Modeling (TSM). Finally, the single-row routing problem is solved using a method called Enhanced Simulated Annealing for Single-Row Routing (ESSR). Downloads 1549
##### 614 Computational Aspects of Regression Analysis of Interval Data

Authors: Michal Cerny

Abstract:

We consider linear regression models where both input data (the values of independent variables) and output data (the observations of the dependent variable) are interval-censored. We introduce a possibilistic generalization of the least squares estimator, so called OLS-set for the interval model. This set captures the impact of the loss of information on the OLS estimator caused by interval censoring and provides a tool for quantification of this effect. We study complexity-theoretic properties of the OLS-set. We also deal with restricted versions of the general interval linear regression model, in particular the crisp input – interval output model. We give an argument that natural descriptions of the OLS-set in the crisp input – interval output cannot be computed in polynomial time. Then we derive easily computable approximations for the OLS-set which can be used instead of the exact description. We illustrate the approach by an example.

##### 613 Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Deepali Virmani , Satbir Jain

Abstract:

To meet the demands of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where data are usually aggregated at a single source prior to transmitting to any distant user, there is a need to establish a tree structure inside any given event region. In this paper , a novel technique to create one such tree is proposed .This tree preserves the energy and maximizes the lifetime of event sources while they are constantly transmitting for data aggregation. The term Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree (DLMT) is used to denote this tree. DLMT features in nodes with higher energy tend to be chosen as data aggregating parents so that the time to detect the first broken tree link can be extended and less energy is involved in tree maintenance. By constructing the tree in such a way, the protocol is able to reduce the frequency of tree reconstruction, minimize the amount of data loss ,minimize the delay during data collection and preserves the energy. Downloads 1340
##### 612 Forest Growth Simulation: Tropical Rain Forest Stand Table Projection

Abstract:

The study on the tree growth for four species groups of commercial timber in Koh Kong province, Cambodia-s tropical rainforest is described. The simulation for these four groups had been successfully developed in the 5-year interval through year-60. Data were obtained from twenty permanent sample plots in the duration of thirteen years. The aim for this study was to develop stand table simulation system of tree growth by the species group. There were five steps involved in the development of the tree growth simulation: aggregate the tree species into meaningful groups by using cluster analysis; allocate the trees in the diameter classes by the species group; observe the diameter movement of the species group. The diameter growth rate, mortality rate and recruitment rate were calculated by using some mathematical formula. Simulation equation had been created by combining those parameters. Result showed the dissimilarity of the diameter growth among species groups.

Keywords: cluster analysis, diameter growth, simulation

##### 611 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

Authors: Swapnil Gupta, C. Pandu Rangan

Abstract:

A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be solved in polynomial time. Downloads 1256
##### 610 Particle Swarm Optimization with Interval-valued Genotypes and Its Application to Neuroevolution

Abstract:

The author proposes an extension of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for solving interval-valued optimization problems and applies the extended PSO to evolutionary training of neural networks (NNs) with interval weights. In the proposed PSO, values in the genotypes are not real numbers but intervals. Experimental results show that interval-valued NNs trained by the proposed method could well approximate hidden target functions despite the fact that no training data was explicitly provided.

##### 609 Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis

Abstract:

Point quad tree is considered as one of the most common data organizations to deal with spatial data & can be used to increase the efficiency for searching the point features. As the efficiency of the searching technique depends on the height of the tree, arbitrary insertion of the point features may make the tree unbalanced and lead to higher time of searching. This paper attempts to design an algorithm to make a nearly balanced quad tree. Point pattern analysis technique has been applied for this purpose which shows a significant enhancement of the performance and the results are also included in the paper for the sake of completeness. Downloads 2466
##### 608 A Fuzzy Nonlinear Regression Model for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

Authors: O. Poleshchuk, E.Komarov

Abstract:

This paper presents a regression model for interval type-2 fuzzy sets based on the least squares estimation technique. Unknown coefficients are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to determine aggregation intervals for type-1 fuzzy sets, membership functions of whose are low membership function and upper membership function of interval type-2 fuzzy set. These aggregation intervals were called weighted intervals. Low and upper membership functions of input and output interval type-2 fuzzy sets for developed regression models are considered as piecewise linear functions.

##### 607 An Attribute-Centre Based Decision Tree Classification Algorithm

Authors: Gökhan Silahtaroğlu

Abstract:

Decision tree algorithms have very important place at classification model of data mining. In literature, algorithms use entropy concept or gini index to form the tree. The shape of the classes and their closeness to each other some of the factors that affect the performance of the algorithm. In this paper we introduce a new decision tree algorithm which employs data (attribute) folding method and variation of the class variables over the branches to be created. A comparative performance analysis has been held between the proposed algorithm and C4.5.

Keywords: Classification, decision tree, split, pruning, entropy, gini.

##### 606 Improving Fault Resilience and Reconstruction of Overlay Multicast Tree Using Leaving Time of Participants

Abstract:

Network layer multicast, i.e. IP multicast, even after many years of research, development and standardization, is not deployed in large scale due to both technical (e.g. upgrading of routers) and political (e.g. policy making and negotiation) issues. Researchers looked for alternatives and proposed application/overlay multicast where multicast functions are handled by end hosts, not network layer routers. Member hosts wishing to receive multicast data form a multicast delivery tree. The intermediate hosts in the tree act as routers also, i.e. they forward data to the lower hosts in the tree. Unlike IP multicast, where a router cannot leave the tree until all members below it leave, in overlay multicast any member can leave the tree at any time thus disjoining the tree and disrupting the data dissemination. All the disrupted hosts have to rejoin the tree. This characteristic of the overlay multicast causes multicast tree unstable, data loss and rejoin overhead. In this paper, we propose that each node sets its leaving time from the tree and sends join request to a number of nodes in the tree. The nodes in the tree will reject the request if their leaving time is earlier than the requesting node otherwise they will accept the request. The node can join at one of the accepting nodes. This makes the tree more stable as the nodes will join the tree according to their leaving time, earliest leaving time node being at the leaf of the tree. Some intermediate nodes may not follow their leaving time and leave earlier than their leaving time thus disrupting the tree. For this, we propose a proactive recovery mechanism so that disrupted nodes can rejoin the tree at predetermined nodes immediately. We have shown by simulation that there is less overhead when joining the multicast tree and the recovery time of the disrupted nodes is much less than the previous works. Keywords Downloads 1235
##### 605 Solution of Interval-valued Manufacturing Inventory Models With Shortages

Abstract:

A manufacturing inventory model with shortages with carrying cost, shortage cost, setup cost and demand quantity as imprecise numbers, instead of real numbers, namely interval number is considered here. First, a brief survey of the existing works on comparing and ranking any two interval numbers on the real line is presented. A common algorithm for the optimum production quantity (Economic lot-size) per cycle of a single product (so as to minimize the total average cost) is developed which works well on interval number optimization under consideration. Finally, the designed algorithm is illustrated with numerical example.

Keywords: EOQ, Inventory, Interval Number, Demand, Production, Simulation

##### 604 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

Abstract:

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

##### 603 Improved C-Fuzzy Decision Tree for Intrusion Detection

Abstract:

As the number of networked computers grows, intrusion detection is an essential component in keeping networks secure. Various approaches for intrusion detection are currently being in use with each one has its own merits and demerits. This paper presents our work to test and improve the performance of a new class of decision tree c-fuzzy decision tree to detect intrusion. The work also includes identifying best candidate feature sub set to build the efficient c-fuzzy decision tree based Intrusion Detection System (IDS). We investigated the usefulness of c-fuzzy decision tree for developing IDS with a data partition based on horizontal fragmentation. Empirical results indicate the usefulness of our approach in developing the efficient IDS. Downloads 1405
##### 602 Visualising Energy Efficiency Landscape

Authors: Hairulliza M. Judi, Soon Y. Chee

Abstract:

This paper discusses the landscape design that could increase energy efficiency in a house. By planting trees in a house compound, the tree shades prevent direct sunlight from heating up the building, and it enables cooling off the surrounding air. The requirement for air-conditioning could be minimized and the air quality could be improved. During the life time of a tree, the saving cost from the mentioned benefits could be up to US \$ 200 for each tree. The project intends to visually describe the landscape design in a house compound that could enhance energy efficiency and consequently lead to energy saving. The house compound model was developed in three dimensions by using AutoCAD 2005, the animation was programmed by using LightWave 3D softwares i.e. Modeler and Layout to display the tree shadings in the wall. The visualization was executed on a VRML Pad platform and implemented on a web environment. Downloads 1524
##### 601 Some Results on Interval-Valued Fuzzy BG-Algebras

Authors: Arsham Borumand Saeid

Abstract:

In this note the notion of interval-valued fuzzy BG-algebras (briefly, i-v fuzzy BG-algebras), the level and strong level BG-subalgebra is introduced. Then we state and prove some theorems which determine the relationship between these notions and BG-subalgebras. The images and inverse images of i-v fuzzy BG-subalgebras are defined, and how the homomorphic images and inverse images of i-v fuzzy BG-subalgebra becomes i-v fuzzy BG-algebras are studied.

##### 600 On Simple Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed the new confidence interval for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. In practice, this situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture sciences where we know the standard deviation is proportional to the mean. As a result, the coefficient of variation of is known. We propose the new confidence interval based on the recent work of Khan  and this new confidence interval will compare with our previous work, see, e.g. Niwitpong . We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. A numerical method will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.

##### 599 Ranking DMUs by Ideal PPS in Data Envelopment Analysis

Abstract:

An original DEA model is to evaluate each DMU optimistically, but the interval DEA Model proposed in this paper has been formulated to obtain an efficiency interval consisting of Evaluations from both the optimistic and the pessimistic view points. DMUs are improved so that their lower bounds become so large as to attain the maximum Value one. The points obtained by this method are called ideal points. Ideal PPS is calculated by ideal of efficiency DMUs. The purpose of this paper is to rank DMUs by this ideal PPS. Finally we extend the efficiency interval of a DMU under variable RTS technology. Downloads 1754
##### 598 The Leaves of a Tree

Authors: Zhu Jiaming, Yu Mengna

Abstract:

In this article, models based on quantitative analysis, physical geometry and regression analysis are established, by using analytic hierarchy process analysis, fuzzy cluster analysis, fuzzy photographic and data fitting. The reasons of various leaf shapes among different species and the differences between the leaf shapes on same tree have been solved by using software, such as Eviews, VB and Matlab. We also successfully estimate the leaf mass of a tree and the correlation with the tree profile. Downloads 1433
##### 597 Balancing Neural Trees to Improve Classification Performance

Abstract:

In this paper, a neural tree (NT) classifier having a simple perceptron at each node is considered. A new concept for making a balanced tree is applied in the learning algorithm of the tree. At each node, if the perceptron classification is not accurate and unbalanced, then it is replaced by a new perceptron. This separates the training set in such a way that almost the equal number of patterns fall into each of the classes. Moreover, each perceptron is trained only for the classes which are present at respective node and ignore other classes. Splitting nodes are employed into the neural tree architecture to divide the training set when the current perceptron node repeats the same classification of the parent node. A new error function based on the depth of the tree is introduced to reduce the computational time for the training of a perceptron. Experiments are performed to check the efficiency and encouraging results are obtained in terms of accuracy and computational costs. Downloads 1069
##### 596 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

Abstract:

This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes. Downloads 1204
##### 595 Classifying and Predicting Efficiencies Using Interval DEA Grid Setting

Authors: Yiannis G. Smirlis

Abstract:

The classification and the prediction of efficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is an important issue, especially in large scale problems or when new units frequently enter the under-assessment set. In this paper, we contribute to the subject by proposing a grid structure based on interval segmentations of the range of values for the inputs and outputs. Such intervals combined, define hyper-rectangles that partition the space of the problem. This structure, exploited by Interval DEA models and a dominance relation, acts as a DEA pre-processor, enabling the classification and prediction of efficiency scores, without applying any DEA models. Downloads 521
##### 594 NOHIS-Tree: High-Dimensional Index Structure for Similarity Search

Authors: Mounira Taileb, Sami Touati

Abstract:

In Content-Based Image Retrieval systems it is important to use an efficient indexing technique in order to perform and accelerate the search in huge databases. The used indexing technique should also support the high dimensions of image features. In this paper we present the hierarchical index NOHIS-tree (Non Overlapping Hierarchical Index Structure) when we scale up to very large databases. We also present a study of the influence of clustering on search time. The performance test results show that NOHIS-tree performs better than SR-tree. Tests also show that NOHIS-tree keeps its performances in high dimensional spaces. We include the performance test that try to determine the number of clusters in NOHIS-tree to have the best search time. Downloads 1293
##### 593 Historical Landscape Affects Present Tree Density in Paddy Field

Authors: Ha T. Pham, Shuichi Miyagawa

Abstract:

Ongoing landscape transformation is one of the major causes behind disappearance of traditional landscapes, and lead to species and resource loss. Tree in paddy fields in the northeast of Thailand is one of those traditional landscapes. Using three different historical time layers, we acknowledged the severe deforestation and rapid urbanization happened in the region. Despite the general thinking of decline in tree density as consequences, the heterogeneous trend of changes in total tree density in three studied landscapes denied the hypothesis that number of trees in paddy field depend on the length of land use practice. On the other hand, due to selection of planting new trees on levees, existence of trees in paddy field now relies on their values for human use. Besides, changes in land use and landscape structure had a significant impact on decision of which tree density level is considered as suitable for the landscape.

##### 592 Digital Redesign of Interval Systems via Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Chen-Chien Hsu, Chun-Hui Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, a PSO-based approach is proposed to derive a digital controller for redesigned digital systems having an interval plant based on resemblance of the extremal gain/phase margins. By combining the interval plant and a controller as an interval system, extremal GM/PM associated with the loop transfer function can be obtained. The design problem is then formulated as an optimization problem of an aggregated error function revealing the deviation on the extremal GM/PM between the redesigned digital system and its continuous counterpart, and subsequently optimized by a proposed PSO to obtain an optimal set of parameters for the digital controller. Computer simulations have shown that frequency responses of the redesigned digital system having an interval plant bare a better resemblance to its continuous-time counter part by the incorporation of a PSO-derived digital controller in comparison to those obtained using existing open-loop discretization methods. Downloads 1077
##### 591 Decision Tree-based Feature Ranking using Manhattan Hierarchical Cluster Criterion

Abstract:

Feature selection study is gaining importance due to its contribution to save classification cost in terms of time and computation load. In search of essential features, one of the methods to search the features is via the decision tree. Decision tree act as an intermediate feature space inducer in order to choose essential features. In decision tree-based feature selection, some studies used decision tree as a feature ranker with a direct threshold measure, while others remain the decision tree but utilized pruning condition that act as a threshold mechanism to choose features. This paper proposed threshold measure using Manhattan Hierarchical Cluster distance to be utilized in feature ranking in order to choose relevant features as part of the feature selection process. The result is promising, and this method can be improved in the future by including test cases of a higher number of attributes.