Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Chak Kwong Lau

18 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

Abstract:

Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture, contextual Christian spirituality, Chinese arts and culture.

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17 Switching Behaviors of TiN/HfOx/Pt Based RRAM

Authors: B. B. Weng, Z. Fang, Z. X. Chen, X. P. Wang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) had received great amount of attention from various research efforts in recent years, owing to its promising performance as a next generation memory device. In this paper, samples based on TiN/HfOx/Pt stack were prepared and its electrical switching behaviors were characterized and discussed in brief.

Keywords: HfOx, resistive switching, RRAM.

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16 Vertical GAA Silicon Nanowire Transistor with Impact of Temperature on Device Parameters

Authors: N. Shen, Z. X. Chen, K.D. Buddharaju, H. M. Chua, X. Li, N. Singh, G.Q Lo, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical wire NMOS device fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. The impact of temperature on various device parameters is investigated in view of usual increase in surrounding temperature with device density.

Keywords: Gate-all-around, temperature dependence, silicon nanowire

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15 ALD HfO2 Based RRAM with Ti Capping

Authors: B. B. Weng, Z. Fang, Z. X. Chen, X. P. Wang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

HfOx based Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is one of the most widely studied material stack due to its promising performances as an emerging memory technology. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of metal capping layer by preparing sample devices with varying thickness of Ti cap and comparing their operating parameters with the help of an Agilent-B1500A analyzer.

Keywords: HfOx, resistive switching, RRAM, metal capping.

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14 Oxide Based Resistive Random Access Memory Device for High Density Non Volatile Memory Applications

Authors: Z. Fang, X. P. Wang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrated vertical RRAM device fabricated at the sidewall of contact hole structures for possible future 3-D stacking integrations. The fabricated devices exhibit polarity dependent bipolar resistive switching with small operation voltage of less than 1V for both set and reset process. A good retention of memory window ~50 times is maintained after 1000s voltage bias.

Keywords: Bipolar switching, non volatile memory, resistive random access memory, 3-D stacking.

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13 Modification of Rk Equation of State for Liquid and Vapor of Ammonia by Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Mousavian, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad

Abstract:

Cubic equations of state like Redlich–Kwong (RK)  EOS have been proved to be very reliable tools in the prediction of  phase behavior. Despite their good performance in compositional  calculations, they usually suffer from weaknesses in the predictions  of saturated liquid density. In this research, RK equation was  modified. The result of this study show that modified equation has  good agreement with experimental data.

 

Keywords: Equation of state, modification, ammonia, genetic algorithm.

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12 Switching Behaviors of HfO2/NiSix Based RRAM

Authors: Z. X. Chen, Z. Fang, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong, Y. H. Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of Ni-silicides as the bottom electrode of HfO2-based RRAM. Various silicidation conditions were used to obtain different Ni concentrations within the Ni-silicide bottom electrode, namely Ni2Si, NiSi, and NiSi2. A 10nm HfO2 switching material and 50nm TiN top electrode was then deposited and etched into 500nm by 500nm square RRAM cells. Cell performance of the Ni2Si and NiSi cells were good, while the NiSi2 cell could not switch reliably, indicating that the presence of Ni in the bottom electrode is important for good switching.

Keywords: HfO2-based, Ni-silicide, NiSi, resistive RAM (RRAM).

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11 Fabrication and Characterization of Poly-Si Vertical Nanowire Thin Film Transistor

Authors: N. Shen, T. T. Le, H. Y. Yu, Z. X. Chen, K. T. Win, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical nanowire thin film transistor with gate-all-around architecture, fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. A novel method of fabricating polysilicon vertical nanowires of diameter as small as 30 nm using wet-etch is presented. Both n-type and p-type vertical poly-silicon nanowire transistors exhibit superior electrical characteristics as compared to planar devices. On a poly-crystalline nanowire of 30 nm diameter, high Ion/Ioff ratio of 106, low drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 50 mV/V, and low sub-threshold slope SS~100mV/dec are demonstrated for a device with channel length of 100 nm.

Keywords: Nanowire (NW), Gate-all-around (GAA), polysilicon (poly-Si), thin-film transistor (TFT).

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10 CMOS-Compatible Plasmonic Nanocircuits for On-Chip Integration

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Silicon photonics is merging as a unified platform for driving photonic based telecommunications and for local photonic based interconnect but it suffers from large footprint as compared with the nanoelectronics. Plasmonics is an attractive alternative for nanophotonics. In this work, two CMOS compatible plasmonic waveguide platforms are compared. One is the horizontal metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide and the other is metal-insulator-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Various passive and active photonic devices have been experimentally demonstrated based on these two plasmonic waveguide platforms.

Keywords: Plasmonics, on-chip integration, Silicon photonics.

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9 Impact of Process Variations on the Vertical Silicon Nanowire Tunneling FET (TFET)

Authors: Z. X. Chen, T. S. Phua, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents device simulations on the vertical silicon nanowire tunneling FET (VSiNW TFET). Simulations show that a narrow nanowire and thin gate oxide is required for good performance, which is expected even for conventional MOSFETs. The gate length also needs to be more than the nanowire diameter to prevent short channel effects. An effect more unique to TFET is the need for abrupt source to channel junction, which is shown to improve the performance. The ambipolar effect suppression by reducing drain doping concentration is also explored and shown to have little or no effect on performance.

Keywords: Device simulation, MEDICI, tunneling FET (TFET), vertical silicon nanowire.

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8 Vertical Silicon Nanowire MOSFET With A Fully-Silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 Gate

Authors: Z. X. Chen, N. Singh, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents a vertical silicon nanowire n- MOSFET integrated with a CMOS-compatible fully-silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 gate. Devices with nanowire diameter of 50nm show good electrical performance (SS < 70mV/dec, DIBL < 30mV/V, Ion/Ioff > 107). Most significantly, threshold voltage tunability of about 0.2V is shown. Although threshold voltage remains low for the 50nm diameter device, it is expected to become more positive as nanowire diameter reduces.

Keywords: NiSi , fully-silicided (FUSI) gate, vertical siliconnanowire (SiNW), CMOS compatible.

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7 Integration of Resistive Switching Memory Cell with Vertical Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Xiang Li, Zhixian Chen, Zheng Fang, Aashit Kamath, Xinpeng Wang, Navab Singh, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

We integrate TiN/Ni/HfO2/Si RRAM cell with a vertical gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire transistor to achieve compact 4F2 footprint in a 1T1R configuration. The tip of the Si nanowire (source of the transistor) serves as bottom electrode of the memory cell. Fabricated devices with nanowire diameter ~ 50nm demonstrate ultra-low current/power switching; unipolar switching with 10μA/30μW SET and 20μA/30μW RESET and bipolar switching with 20nA/85nW SET and 0.2nA/0.7nW RESET. Further, the switching current is found to scale with nanowire diameter making the architecture promising for future scaling.

Keywords: RRAM, 1T1R, gate-all-around FET, nanowire FET, vertical MOSFETs

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6 CMOS-Compatible Deposited Materials for Photonic Layers Integrated above Electronic Integrated Circuit

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Silicon photonics has generated an increasing interest in recent years mainly for optical communications optical interconnects in microelectronic circuits or bio-sensing applications. The development of elementary passive and active components (including detectors and modulators), which are mainly fabricated on the silicon on insulator platform for CMOS-compatible fabrication, has reached such a performance level that the integration challenge of silicon photonics with microelectronic circuits should be addressed. Since crystalline silicon can only be grown from another silicon crystal, making it impossible to deposit in this state, the optical devices are typically limited to a single layer. An alternative approach is to integrate a photonic layer above the CMOS chip using back-end CMOS fabrication process. In this paper, various materials, including silicon nitride, amorphous silicon, and polycrystalline silicon, for this purpose are addressed.

Keywords: Silicon photonics, CMOS, Integration.

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5 Numerical Analysis on Rapid Decompression in Conventional Dry Gases using One- Dimensional Mathematical Modeling

Authors: Evgeniy Burlutskiy

Abstract:

The paper presents a one-dimensional transient mathematical model of compressible thermal multi-component gas mixture flows in pipes. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations for gas phase is solved. Thermo-physical properties of multi-component gas mixture are calculated by solving the Equation of State (EOS) model. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK-EOS) model is chosen. Gas mixture viscosity is calculated on the basis of the Lee-Gonzales-Eakin (LGE) correlation. Numerical analysis on rapid decompression in conventional dry gases is performed by using the proposed mathematical model. The model is validated on measured values of the decompression wave speed in dry natural gas mixtures. All predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental data at high and low pressure. The presented model predicts the decompression in dry natural gas mixtures much better than GASDECOM and OLGA codes, which are the most frequently-used codes in oil and gas pipeline transport service.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Rapid Gas Decompression

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4 CMOS-Compatible Silicon Nanoplasmonics for On-Chip Integration

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

Although silicon photonic devices provide a significantly larger bandwidth and dissipate a substantially less power than the electronic devices, they suffer from a large size due to the fundamental diffraction limit and the weak optical response of Si. A potential solution is to exploit Si plasmonics, which may not only miniaturize the photonic device far beyond the diffraction limit, but also enhance the optical response in Si due to the electromagnetic field confinement. In this paper, we discuss and summarize the recently developed metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide as well as various passive and active plasmonic components based on this waveguide, including coupler, bend, power splitter, ring resonator, MZI, modulator, detector, etc. All these plasmonic components are CMOS compatible and could be integrated with electronic and conventional dielectric photonic devices on the same SOI chip. More potential plasmonic devices as well as plasmonic nanocircuits with complex functionalities are also addressed.

Keywords: Silicon nanoplasmonics, Silicon nanophotonics, Onchip integration, CMOS

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3 Mathematical Modeling of Non-Isothermal Multi-Component Fluid Flow in Pipes Applying to Rapid Gas Decompression in Rich and Base Gases

Authors: Evgeniy Burlutskiy

Abstract:

The paper presents a one-dimensional transient mathematical model of compressible non-isothermal multicomponent fluid mixture flow in a pipe. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations for gas phase is solved in the model. Thermo-physical properties of multi-component gas mixture are calculated by solving the Equation of State (EOS) model. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK-EOS) model is chosen. Gas mixture viscosity is calculated on the basis of the Lee-Gonzales- Eakin (LGE) correlation. Numerical analysis of rapid gas decompression process in rich and base natural gases is made on the basis of the proposed mathematical model. The model is successfully validated on the experimental data [1]. The proposed mathematical model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data [1] in a wide range of pressure values and predicts the decompression in rich and base gas mixtures much better than analytical and mathematical models, which are available from the open source literature.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Multi-Component gas mixture flow, Rapid Gas Decompression

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2 Silicon-Waveguide Based Silicide Schottky- Barrier Infrared Detector for on-Chip Applications

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

We prove detailed analysis of a waveguide-based Schottky barrier photodetector (SBPD) where a thin silicide film is put on the top of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) channel waveguide to absorb light propagating along the waveguide. Taking both the confinement factor of light absorption and the wall scanning induced gain of the photoexcited carriers into account, an optimized silicide thickness is extracted to maximize the effective gain, thereby the responsivity. For typical lengths of the thin silicide film (10-20 Ðçm), the optimized thickness is estimated to be in the range of 1-2 nm, and only about 50-80% light power is absorbed to reach the maximum responsivity. Resonant waveguide-based SBPDs are proposed, which consist of a microloop, microdisc, or microring waveguide structure to allow light multiply propagating along the circular Si waveguide beneath the thin silicide film. Simulation results suggest that such resonant waveguide-based SBPDs have much higher repsonsivity at the resonant wavelengths as compared to the straight waveguidebased detectors. Some experimental results about Si waveguide-based SBPD are also reported.

Keywords: Infrared detector, Schottky-barrier, Silicon waveguide, Silicon photonics

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1 Numerical Analysis of Rapid Gas Decompression in Pure Nitrogen using 1D and 3D Transient Mathematical Models of Gas Flow in Pipes

Authors: Evgeniy Burlutskiy

Abstract:

The paper presents a numerical investigation on the rapid gas decompression in pure nitrogen which is made by using the one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) mathematical models of transient compressible non-isothermal fluid flow in pipes. A 1D transient mathematical model of compressible thermal multicomponent fluid mixture flow in pipes is presented. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations for gas phase is solved in the model. Thermo-physical properties of multicomponent gas mixture are calculated by solving the Equation of State (EOS) model. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK-EOS) model is chosen. This model is successfully validated on the experimental data [1] and shows a good agreement with measurements. A 3D transient mathematical model of compressible thermal single-component gas flow in pipes, which is built by using the CFD Fluent code (ANSYS), is presented in the paper. The set of unsteady Reynolds-averaged conservation equations for gas phase is solved. Thermo-physical properties of single-component gas are calculated by solving the Real Gas Equation of State (EOS) model. The simplest case of gas decompression in pure nitrogen is simulated using both 1D and 3D models. The ability of both models to simulate the process of rapid decompression with a high order of agreement with each other is tested. Both, 1D and 3D numerical results show a good agreement between each other. The numerical investigation shows that 3D CFD model is very helpful in order to validate 1D simulation results if the experimental data is absent or limited.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Rapid Gas Decompression

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