Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: R. Chan

80 Idealization of Licca-chan and Barbie: Comparison of Two Dolls across the Pacific

Authors: Miho Tsukamoto

Abstract:

Since the initial creation of the Barbie doll in 1959, it became a symbol of US society. Likewise, the Licca-chan, a Japanese doll created in 1967, also became a Japanese symbolic doll of Japanese society. Prior to the introduction of Licca-chan, Barbie was already marketed in Japan but their sales were dismal. Licca-chan (an actual name: Kayama Licca) is a plastic doll with a variety of sizes ranging from 21.0 cm to 29.0 cm which many Japanese girls dream of having. For over 35 years, the manufacturer, Takara Co., Ltd. has sold over 48 million dolls and has produced doll houses, accessories, clothes, and Licca-chan video games for the Nintendo DS. Many First-generation Licca-chan consumers still are enamored with Licca-chan, and go to Licca-chan House, in an amusement park with their daughters. These people are called Licca-chan maniacs, as they enjoy touring the Licca-chan’s factory in Tohoku or purchase various Licca-chan accessories. After the successful launch of Licca-chan into the Japanese market, a mixed-like doll from the US and Japan, a doll, JeNny, was later sold in the same Japanese market by Takara Co., Ltd. in 1982. Comparison of these cultural iconic dolls, Barbie and Licca-chan, are analyzed in this paper. In fact, these dolls have concepts of girls’ dreams. By using concepts of mythology of Jean Baudrillard, these dolls can be represented idealized images of figures in the products for consumers, but at the same time, consumers can see products with different perspectives, which can cause controversy.

Keywords: Barbie, Dolls, JeNny, Idealization, Licca-chan.

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79 An Implicit Region-Based Deformable Model with Local Segmentation Applied to Weld Defects Extraction

Authors: Y. Boutiche, N. Ramou, M. Ben Gharsallah

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to present and discuss a model that allows a local segmentation by using statistical information of a given image. It is based on Chan-Vese model, curve evolution, partial differential equations and binary level sets method. The proposed model uses the piecewise constant approximation of Chan-Vese model to compute Signed Pressure Force (SPF) function, this one attracts the curve to the true object(s)-s boundaries. The implemented model is used to extract weld defects from weld radiographic images in the aim to calculate the perimeter and surfaces of those weld defects; encouraged resultants are obtained on synthetic and real radiographic images.

Keywords: Active contour, Chan-Vese Model, local segmentation, weld radiographic images.

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78 Qualitative Survey on Managing Building Maintenance Projects

Authors: Edmond W.M. Lam, Albert P.C. Chan, Daniel W.M. Chan

Abstract:

Buildings are one of the valuable assets to provide people with shelters for work, leisure and rest. After years of attacks by weather, buildings will deteriorate which need proper maintenance in order to fulfill the requirements and satisfaction of the users. Poorly managed buildings not just give a negative image to the city itself, but also pose potential risk hazards to the health and safety of the general public. As a result, the management of maintenance projects has played an important role in cities like Hong Kong where the problem of urban decay has drawn much attention. However, most research has focused on managing new construction, and little research effort has been put on maintenance projects. Given the short duration and more diversified nature of work, repair and maintenance works are found to be more difficult to monitor and regulate when compared with new works. Project participants may face with problems in running maintenance projects which should be investigated so that proper strategies can be established. This paper aims to provide a thorough analysis on the problems of running maintenance projects. A review of literature on the characteristics of building maintenance projects was firstly conducted, which forms a solid basis for the empirical study. Results on the problems and difficulties of running maintenance projects from the viewpoints of industry practitioners will also be delivered with a view to formulating effective strategies for managing maintenance projects successfully.

Keywords: characteristics, problems, building maintenance, Hong Kong

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77 Design and Implementation of Cricket-based Location Tracking System

Authors: Byung Ki Kim, Ho Min Jung, Jae-Bong Yoo, Wan Yeon Lee, Chan Young Park, Young Woong Ko

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel approach to location system under indoor environment. The key idea of our work is accurate distance estimation with cricket-based location system using A* algorithm. We also use magnetic sensor for detecting obstacles in indoor environment. Finally, we suggest how this system can be used in various applications such as asset tracking and monitoring.

Keywords: Cricket, Indoor Location Tracking, Mobile Robot, Localization.

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76 Design and Instrumentation of a Benchmark Multivariable Nonlinear Control Laboratory

Authors: S. H. Teh, S. Malawaraarachci, W. P. Chan, A. Nassirharand

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the design and instrumentation of a new benchmark multivariable nonlinear control laboratory. The mathematical model of this system may be used to test the applicability and performance of various nonlinear control procedures. The system is a two degree-of-freedom robotic arm with soft and hard (discontinuous) nonlinear terms. Two novel mechanisms are designed to allow the implementation of adjustable Coulomb friction and backlash.

Keywords: Nonlinear control, describing functions, AdjustableCoulomb friction, Adjustable backlash.

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75 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

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74 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau

Abstract:

Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: Graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence.

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73 Application of a Dual Satellite Geolocation System on Locating Sweeping Interference

Authors: M. H. Chan

Abstract:

This paper describes an application of a dual satellite geolocation (DSG) system on identifying and locating the unknown source of uplink sweeping interference. The geolocation system integrates the method of joint time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) with ephemeris correction technique which successfully demonstrated high accuracy in interference source location. The factors affecting the location error were also discussed.

Keywords: Dual satellite geolocation system, DGS, geolocation, TDOA/FDOA, and sweeping interference

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72 Experimental Study of Thermal Environment in a Room with Mixing Ventilation

Authors: Dong-Mei Pan, Liang XIA, Ming-Yin Chan

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental study on a sleeping thermal manikin in a room equipped with a mixing ventilation system. In the experimental work, heat loss from the sleeping thermal manikin was measured under different conditions. The supply air temperature was in a range of 17°C to 27°C. Apart from the heat loss of the sleeping thermal manikin, the velocity distributions and temperature distributions were also measured in the experiments for subsequent analysis.

Keywords: Sleeping Environment, Mixing Ventilation System

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71 Thermo-chemical Characteristics of Powder Fabricated by Oxidation of Spent PWR Fuel

Authors: Geun-Il Park, Jae-Won Lee, Dou-Youn Lee, Jung-Won Lee, Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Thermochemcial characteristics of powder fabricated using oxidation treatment of spent PWR fuel and SIMFUEL were evaluated for recycling of spent fuel such as DUPIC process. Especially, the influence of spent fuel burn-ups on the powder fabrication characteristics was experimentally evaluated, ranging from 27,300 to 65,000 MWd/tU. Densities of powder manufactured from an oxidation, OREOX and the milling processes at the same process conditions were compared as a function of the fuel burn-ups respectively. Also, based on chemical analysis results, homogeneity of fissile elements in oxidized powder was confirmed.

Keywords: Spent PWR fuel, DUPIC, Oxidation, OREOX, Powder, Chemical analysis

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70 Finding More Non-Supersingular Elliptic Curves for Pairing-Based Cryptosystems

Authors: Pu Duan, Shi Cui, Choong Wah Chan

Abstract:

Finding suitable non-supersingular elliptic curves for pairing-based cryptosystems becomes an important issue for the modern public-key cryptography after the proposition of id-based encryption scheme and short signature scheme. In previous work different algorithms have been proposed for finding such elliptic curves when embedding degree k ∈ {3, 4, 6} and cofactor h ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. In this paper a new method is presented to find more non-supersingular elliptic curves for pairing-based cryptosystems with general embedding degree k and large values of cofactor h. In addition, some effective parameters of these non-supersingular elliptic curves are provided in this paper.

Keywords: Family of group order, kth root of unity, non-supersingular elliptic curves polynomial field.

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69 Extension of the Client-Centric Approach under Small Buffer Space

Authors: Hsiang-Fu Yu, Yu-Chan Hsu, Chun Fang, Hao-Yun Yang

Abstract:

Periodic broadcast is a cost-effective solution for large-scale distribution of popular videos because this approach guarantees constant worst service latency, regardless of the number of video requests. An essential periodic broadcast method is the client-centric approach (CCA), which allows clients to use smaller receiving bandwidth to download broadcast data. An enhanced version, namely CCA++, was proposed to yield a shorter waiting time. This work further improves CCA++ in reducing client buffer requirements. The new scheme decreases the buffer requirements by as much as 52% when compared to CCA++. This study also provides an analytical evaluation to demonstrate the performance advantage, as compared with particular schemes.

Keywords: Periodic broadcast, client-centric approach, buffer space, multimedia communications.

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68 Context Modeling and Reasoning Approach in Context-Aware Middleware for URC System

Authors: Chung-Seong Hong, Hyung-Sun Kim, Joonmyun Cho, Hyun Kyu Cho, Hyun-Chan Lee

Abstract:

To realize the vision of ubiquitous computing, it is important to develop a context-aware infrastructure which can help ubiquitous agents, services, and devices become aware of their contexts because such computational entities need to adapt themselves to changing situations. A context-aware infrastructure manages the context model representing contextual information and provides appropriate information. In this paper, we introduce Context-Aware Middleware for URC System (hereafter CAMUS) as a context-aware infrastructure for a network-based intelligent robot system and discuss the ontology-based context modeling and reasoning approach which is used in that infrastructure.

Keywords: CAMUS, Context-Aware, Context Model, Ontology.

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67 Image Segmentation Using the K-means Algorithm for Texture Features

Authors: Wan-Ting Lin, Chuen-Horng Lin, Tsung-Ho Wu, Yung-Kuan Chan

Abstract:

This study aims to segment objects using the K-means algorithm for texture features. Firstly, the algorithm transforms color images into gray images. This paper describes a novel technique for the extraction of texture features in an image. Then, in a group of similar features, objects and backgrounds are differentiated by using the K-means algorithm. Finally, this paper proposes a new object segmentation algorithm using the morphological technique. The experiments described include the segmentation of single and multiple objects featured in this paper. The region of an object can be accurately segmented out. The results can help to perform image retrieval and analyze features of an object, as are shown in this paper.

Keywords: k-mean, multiple objects, segmentation, texturefeatures.

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66 Automated Knowledge Engineering

Authors: Sandeep Chandana, Rene V. Mayorga, Christine W. Chan

Abstract:

This article outlines conceptualization and implementation of an intelligent system capable of extracting knowledge from databases. Use of hybridized features of both the Rough and Fuzzy Set theory render the developed system flexibility in dealing with discreet as well as continuous datasets. A raw data set provided to the system, is initially transformed in a computer legible format followed by pruning of the data set. The refined data set is then processed through various Rough Set operators which enable discovery of parameter relationships and interdependencies. The discovered knowledge is automatically transformed into a rule base expressed in Fuzzy terms. Two exemplary cancer repository datasets (for Breast and Lung Cancer) have been used to test and implement the proposed framework.

Keywords: Knowledge Extraction, Fuzzy Sets, Rough Sets, Neuro–Fuzzy Systems, Databases

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65 A Review of Survey Methodology Employedin IT Outsourcing

Authors: B. Terzioglu, E.S.K. Chan

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on methodological aspects of the information technology outsourcing (ITO) surveys, in an attempt to improve the data quality and reporting in survey research. It is based on a review of thirty articles on ITO surveys and focuses on two commonly explored dimensions of ITO, namely what are outsourced and why should there be ITO. This study highlights weaknesses in ITO surveys including lack of a clear definition of population, lack of information regarding the sampling method used, not citing the response rate, no information pertaining to pilot testing of survey instrument and absence of information on internal validity in the use or reporting of surveys. This study represents an attempt with a limited scope to point to shortfalls in the use survey methodology in ITO, and thus raise awareness among researchers in enhancing the reliability of survey findings.

Keywords: ITO, information technology outsourcing, survey methodology

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64 Modeling of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission for Automobiles

Authors: Y. Q. Chen, P. K. Wong, Z. C. Xie, H. W. Wu, K. U. Chan, J., L. Huang

Abstract:

It is believed that continuously variable transmission (CVT) will dominate the automotive transmissions in the future. The most popular design is Van Doorne-s CVT with single metal pushing V-belt. However, it is only applicable to low power passenger cars because its major limitation is low torque capacity. Therefore, this research studies a novel dual-belt CVT system to overcome the limitation of traditional single-belt CVT, such that it can be applicable to the heavy-duty vehicles. This paper presents the mathematical model of the design and its experimental verification. Experimental and simulated results show that the model developed is valid and the proposed dual-belt CVT can really overcome the traditional limitation of single-belt Van Doorne-s CVT.

Keywords: Analytical model, CVT, Dual belts, Torque capacity.

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63 Investigation of the Tattooed Skin by OCT

Authors: Young Geun Kim, Tae Woo Lee, Changmin Yeo, Jung min Yoo, Yeo Jin Kang, Tack-Joong Kim, Byungjo Jung, Ji Hun Cha, Chan Hoi Hur, Dong-Sup Kim, Ki Jung Park, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The intention of this lessons is to assess the probability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biometric recognition. The OCT is the foundation on an optical signal acquisition and processing method and has the micrometer-resolution. In this study, we used the porcine skin for verifying the abovementioned means. The porcine tissue was sound acknowledged for structural and immunohistochemical similarity with human skin, so it could be suitable for pre-clinical trial as investigational specimen. For this reason, it was tattooed by the tattoo machine with the tattoo-pigment. We detected the pattern of the tattooed skin by the OCT according to needle speed. The result was consistent with the histology images. This result showed that the OCT was effective to examine the tattooed skin section noninvasively. It might be available to identify morphological changes inside the skin.

Keywords: mechanical skin damage, optical coherence tomography, tattooed skin

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62 Electrolytic Dissolutions of UO2 and SIMFUEL in Carbonate Solutions at Several pHs

Authors: Kwang-Wook Kim, Geun-Il Park, Eil-Hee Lee, Kune-Woo Lee, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Electrolytic dissolution characteristics of UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes were studied at several potentials in carbonate solutions of a high concentration at several pHs. The electrolytic uranium dissolution was much affected by a corrosion product of UO2CO3 generated at the electrode during the dissolution in carbonate solution. The corrosion product distorted the voltammogram at UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes in the potential region of oxygen evolution and increased the overpotential of oxygen evolution at the electrode. The effective dissolution in a carbonate solution could be obtained at an applied potential such as +4 V (vs SSE) or more which had an overpotential of oxygen evolution high enough to rupture the corrosion product on the electrode surface.

Keywords: Anodic, Electrolytic, Dissolution, SIMFUEL, Uranium dioxide, Carbonate

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61 Self-Assembling Hypernetworks for Cognitive Learning of Linguistic Memory

Authors: Byoung-Tak Zhang, Chan-Hoon Park

Abstract:

Hypernetworks are a generalized graph structure representing higher-order interactions between variables. We present a method for self-organizing hypernetworks to learn an associative memory of sentences and to recall the sentences from this memory. This learning method is inspired by the “mental chemistry" model of cognition and the “molecular self-assembly" technology in biochemistry. Simulation experiments are performed on a corpus of natural-language dialogues of approximately 300K sentences collected from TV drama captions. We report on the sentence completion performance as a function of the order of word-interaction and the size of the learning corpus, and discuss the plausibility of this architecture as a cognitive model of language learning and memory.

Keywords: Linguistic recall memory, sentence completion task, self-organizing hypernetworks, cognitive learning and memory.

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60 The Path to Wellbeing: The Role of Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Psychological Strain

Authors: Thomas Kalliath, Parveen Kalliath, Christopher C. A. Chan, Geetha Thachil

Abstract:

Although considerable amount of research has attested to the link between work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) and psychological strain and wellbeing, there is a paucity of research investigating the phenomenon in the context of social workers. Moreover, very little is known about the impact of WFC and FWC in developing countries. The present study investigated the mediating effect of psychological strain on the relationship between WFC and FWC with wellbeing of social workers in India. Our findings show that WFC and FWC are influential antecedents of wellbeing; their influence is both direct on psychological strain, and indirect on wellbeing transmitted through psychological strain. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: Family-to-work conflict, psychological strain, wellbeing, work-to-family conflict.

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59 Improving Multi-storey Building Sensor Network with an External Hub

Authors: Malka N. Halgamuge, Toong-Khuan Chan, Priyan Mendis

Abstract:

Monitoring and automatic control of building environment is a crucial application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in which maximizing network lifetime is a key challenge. Previous research into the performance of a network in a building environment has been concerned with radio propagation within a single floor. We investigate the link quality distribution to obtain full coverage of signal strength in a four-storey building environment, experimentally. Our results indicate that the transitional region is of particular concern in wireless sensor network since it accommodates high variance unreliable links. The transitional region in a multi-storey building is mainly due to the presence of reinforced concrete slabs at each storey and the fac┬©ade which obstructs the radio signal and introduces an additional absorption term to the path loss.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, building monitoring

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58 The Use of Information for Inventory Decision in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: H. L. Chan, T. M. Choi, C. L. Hui, S. F. Ng

Abstract:

In this study, we explore the use of information for inventory decision in the healthcare organization (HO). We consider the scenario when the HO can make use of the information collected from some correlated products to enhance its inventory planning. Motivated by our real world observations that HOs adopt RFID and bar-coding system for information collection purpose, we examine the effectiveness of these systems for inventory planning with Bayesian information updating. We derive the optimal ordering decision and study the issue of Pareto improvement in the supply chain. Our analysis demonstrates that RFID system will outperform the bar-coding system when the RFID system installation cost and the tag cost reduce to a level that is comparable with that of the barcoding system. We also show how an appropriately set wholesale pricing contract can achieve Pareto improvement in the HO supply chain.

Keywords: Efficient consumer response program, healthcare, inventory management, RFID system, bar-coding system.

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57 Particle Image Velocimetry for Measuring Water Flow Velocity

Authors: King Kuok Kuok, Po Chan Chiu

Abstract:

Floods are natural phenomena, which may turn into disasters causing widespread damage, health problems and even deaths. Nowadays, floods had become more serious and more frequent due to climatic changes. During flooding, discharge measurement still can be taken by standing on the bridge across the river using portable measurement instrument. However, it is too dangerous to get near to the river especially during high flood. Therefore, this study employs Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) as a tool to measure the surface flow velocity. PIV is a image processing technique to track the movement of water from one point to another. The PIV codes are developed using Matlab. In this study, 18 ping pong balls were scattered over the surface of the drain and images were taken with a digital SLR camera. The images obtained were analyzed using the PIV code. Results show that PIV is able to produce the flow velocity through analyzing the series of images captured.

Keywords: Particle Image Velocimetry, flow velocity, surface flow.

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56 Interactive PTZ Camera Control System Using Wii Remote and Infrared Sensor Bar

Authors: A. H. W. Goh, Y. S. Yong, C. H. Chan, S. J. Then, L. P. Chu, S. W. Chau, H. W. Hon

Abstract:

This paper proposes an alternative control mechanism for an interactive Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) camera control system. Instead of using a mouse or a joystick, the proposed mechanism utilizes a Nintendo Wii remote and infrared (IR) sensor bar. The Wii remote has buttons that allows the user to control the movement of a PTZ camera through Bluetooth connectivity. In addition, the Wii remote has a built-in motion sensor that allows the user to give control signals to the PTZ camera through pitch and roll movement. A stationary IR sensor bar, placed at some distance away opposite the Wii remote, enables the detection of yaw movement. In addition, the Wii remote-s built-in IR camera has the ability to detect its spatial position, and thus generates a control signal when the user moves the Wii remote. Some experiments are carried out and their performances are compared with an industry-standard PTZ joystick.

Keywords: Bluetooth, Infrared, Pan/Tilt/Zoom, PTZ Camera, Visual Surveillance, Wii Remote

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55 Protein Residue Contact Prediction using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Chan Weng Howe, Mohd Saberi Mohamad

Abstract:

Protein residue contact map is a compact representation of secondary structure of protein. Due to the information hold in the contact map, attentions from researchers in related field were drawn and plenty of works have been done throughout the past decade. Artificial intelligence approaches have been widely adapted in related works such as neural networks, genetic programming, and Hidden Markov model as well as support vector machine. However, the performance of the prediction was not generalized which probably depends on the data used to train and generate the prediction model. This situation shown the importance of the features or information used in affecting the prediction performance. In this research, support vector machine was used to predict protein residue contact map on different combination of features in order to show and analyze the effectiveness of the features.

Keywords: contact map, protein residue contact, support vector machine, protein structure prediction

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54 A Simple Constellation Precoding Technique over MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Fuh-Hsin Hwang, Tsui-Tsai Lin, Chih-Wen Chan, Cheng-Yuan Chang

Abstract:

This paper studies the design of a simple constellation precoding for a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system over Rayleigh fading channels where OFDM is used to keep the diversity replicas orthogonal and reduce ISI effects. A multi-user environment with K synchronous co-channel users is considered. The proposed scheme provides a bandwidth efficient transmission for individual users by increasing the system throughput. In comparison with the existing coded MIMO-OFDM schemes, the precoding technique is designed under the consideration of its low implementation complexity while providing a comparable error performance to the existing schemes. Analytic and simulation results have been presented to show the distinguished error performance.

Keywords: coded modulation, diversity technique, OFDM, MIMO, constellation precoding

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53 E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students

Authors: J. Lam, R. Chan

Abstract:

The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questions was distributed in mid 2012 and 608 valid responds were received. The analysis results showed that the students found e-learning helpful to their study. They preferred interactive functions and mobile features. Blended learning mode, both face-to-face learning mode integrated with online learning and face-to-face learning mode supplemented with online resources, were preferred by the students. The results of experiences of Hong Kong students in e-learning provided a contemporary reference to the e-learning practitioners to understand the e-learning situation in Asia.

Keywords: E-learning, blended learning, learning experience, learning management system.

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52 A Micro-Watt Second Order Filter for a Chopper Stabilized MEMS Pressure Sensor Interface

Authors: Arup K. George, Wai Pan Chan, Zhi Hui Kong, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

This paper describes a low-power second-order filter for a continuous-time chopper stabilized capacitive sensor interface, integrated with a fully differential post-CMOS surface-micromachined MEMS pressure sensor. The circuit uses a single-ended folded-cascode operational amplifier and two GM-C filters connected in cascade. The circuit is realized in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and offers differential to single-ended conversion. The novelty of the scheme is the cascade of two GM-C filters to achieve a second-order filter while minimizing power dissipation. The simulated filter cutoff frequency is 1.14 kHz at common-mode voltage 1.65 V, operating from a 3.3 V supply while dissipating 172μW of power. The filter achieves an operating range of 1V for an output load of 1MOhm and 10pF.

Keywords: Chopper Stabilization, MEMS, Pressure Sensors, Low Pass Filter

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51 A Review of Quality Relationship between IT Processes, IT Products and IT Services

Authors: Whee Yen Wong, Chan Wai Lee, Kim Yeow Tshai

Abstract:

Producing IT products/services required carefully designed. IT development process is intangible and labour intensive. Making optimal use of available resources, both soft (knowledge, skill-set etc.) and hard (computer system, ancillary equipment etc.), is vital if IT development is to achieve sensible economical advantages. Apart from the norm of Project Life Cycle and System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), there is an urgent need to establish a general yet widely acceptable guideline on the most effective and efficient way to precede an IT project in the broader view of Product Life Cycle. The current paper proposes such a framework with two major areas of concern: (1) an integration of IT Products and IT Services within an existing IT Process architecture and; (2) how IT Product and IT Services are built into the framework of Product Life Cycle, Project Life Cycle and SDLC.

Keywords: Mapping of Quality Relationship, IT Processes/IT Products/IT Services, Product Life Cycle, System Development Life Cycle.

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