Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2887

Search results for: tensile properties.

2887 Effect of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Peak Aged Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy at Various Strain Rates

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur

Abstract:

Effect of 2wt% Cu addition on tensile properties and fracture behavior of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy at various strain rates were studied. The solution treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys, were aged isochronally for 1 hour at temperatures up to 300oC. The uniaxial tension test was carried out at strain rate ranging from 10-4s-1 to 10-2s-1 in order to investigate the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. Tensile strengths were found to increase with ageing temperature and the maximum being attained ageing for 1 hr at 225oC (peak aged condition). Addition of 2wt% Cu resulted in an increase in tensile properties at all strain rates. Evaluation of tensile properties at three different strain rates (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 s-1) showed that strain rates affected the tensile properties significantly. At higher strain rates the strength was better but ductility was poor. Microstructures of broken specimens showed that both the void coalescence and the interface debonding affect the fracture behavior of the alloys

Keywords: Al-Si-Mg-Ni-Cu alloy, tensile properties, strain rate, SEM.

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2886 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cortical Bone Using Sub-size Specimens and Finite Element Simulation

Authors: N. K. Sharma, J. Nayak, D. K. Sehgal, R. K. Pandey

Abstract:

Bone material is treated as heterogeneous and hierarchical in nature therefore appropriate size of bone specimen is required to analyze its tensile properties at a particular hierarchical level. Tensile properties of cortical bone are important to investigate the effect of drug treatment, disease and aging as well as for development of computational and analytical models. In the present study tensile properties of buffalo as well as goat femoral and tibiae cortical bone are analyzed using sub-size tensile specimens. Femoral cortical bone was found to be stronger in tension as compared to the tibiae cortical bone and the tensile properties obtained using sub-size specimens show close resemblance with the tensile properties of full-size cortical specimens. A two dimensional finite element (FE) modal was also applied to simulate the tensile behavior of sub-size specimens. Good agreement between experimental and FE model was obtained for sub-size tensile specimens of cortical bone.

Keywords: Cortical bone, sub-size specimen, full size specimen, finite element modeling.

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2885 Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Nonflammable Mg Alloy

Authors: Myoung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Tensile specimens of nonflammable AZ91D Mg alloy were fabricated in this study via cold chamber die-casting process. Dimensions of tensile specimens were 25mm in length, 4mm in width, and 0.8 or 3.0mm in thickness. Microstructure observation was conducted before and after tensile tests at room temperature. In the die casting process, various injection distances from 150 to 260mm were employed to obtain optimum process conditions. Distribution of Al12Mg17 phase was the key factor to determine the mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy. Specimens with 3mm of thickness showed superior mechanical properties to those with 0.8mm of thickness. Closed networking of Al12Mg17 phase along grain boundary was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy.

Keywords: Non-flammable magnesium alloy, AZ91D, die-casting, microstructure, mechanical properties.

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2884 Development of Impressive Tensile Properties of Hybrid Rolled Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: M. Veeresham

Abstract:

The microstructure, texture, phase stability, and tensile properties of annealed Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 alloy have been investigated in the present research. The alloy was severely hybrid-rolled up to 93.5% thickness reduction, subsequently rolled samples subjected to an annealing treatment at 800 °C and 1000 °C temperatures for 1 h. Consequently, the rolled condition and both annealed temperatures have a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. Furthermore, quantitative texture measurements (orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis) and microstructural examinations (analytical electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps) permitted to establish a good relationship between annealing texture and microstructure and universal testing machine (UTM) utilized for obtaining the mechanical properties. Impressive room temperature tensile properties combination with the tensile strength (1380 MPa) and (24.7%) elongation is achieved for the 800 °C heat-treated condition. The evolution of the coarse microstructure featured in the case of 1000 °C annealed temperature ascribed to the influence of high thermal energy.

Keywords: Refractory high entropy alloys, hybrid-rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties.

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2883 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: High tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology.

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2882 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed PLA under Unidirectional and Bidirectional Raster Angle: A Comparative Study

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, raster angle, tensile strength.

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2881 The Effect of Addition of Dioctyl Terephthalate and Calcite on the Tensile Properties of Organoclay/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Gürses, Z. Eroğlu, E. Şahin, K. Güneş, Ç. Doğar

Abstract:

In recent years, polymer/clay nanocomposites have generated great interest in the polymer industry as a new type of composite material because of their superior properties, which includes high heat deflection temperature, gas barrier performance, dimensional stability, enhanced mechanical properties, optical clarity and flame retardancy when compared with the pure polymer or conventional composites. The investigation of change of the tensile properties of organoclay/linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) nanocomposites with the use of Dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP) (as plasticizer) and calcite (as filler) has been aimed. The composites and organoclay synthesized were characterized using the techniques such as XRD, HRTEM and FTIR techniques. The spectroscopic results indicate that platelets of organoclay were well dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The tensile properties of the composites were compared considering the stress-strain curve drawn for each composite and pure polymer. It was observed that the composites prepared by adding the plasticizer at different ratios and a certain amount of calcite exhibited different tensile behaviors compared to pure polymer.

Keywords: Linear low density polyethylene, nanocomposite, organoclay, plasticizer.

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2880 Using Molecular Dynamics to Assess Mechanical Properties of PAN-Based Carbon Fibers Comprising Imperfect Crystals with Amorphous Structures

Authors: A. Ito, S. Okamoto

Abstract:

We constructed an atomic structure model for a PAN-based carbon fiber containing amorphous structures using molecular dynamics methods. It was found that basic physical properties such as crystallinity, Young’s modulus, and thermal conductivity of our model were nearly identical to those of real carbon fibers. We then obtained the tensile strength of a carbon fiber, which has no macro defects. We finally determined that the limitation of the tensile strength was 19 GPa.

Keywords: Amorphous, carbon fiber, molecular dynamics, tensile strength.

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2879 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties and fracture locations.

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2878 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan

Abstract:

This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concreteincreased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength.

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2877 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji

Abstract:

Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: High entropy alloys, phases, model, tensile strength.

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2876 Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate V (8.3−165.45 μm/s) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The flake spacings (λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ), electrical resistivity (ρ) and thermal properties (H, Cp, Tm) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were obtained. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but HV, σ and ρ values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity (ρ) of solidified samples were also measured. The enthalpy of fusion (H) and specific heat (Cp) for the alloy was also determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results.

Keywords: Electrical resistivity, enthalpy, microhardness, solidification, tensile stress.

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2875 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu

Abstract:

To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, mechanical behavior, nonlinear viscoelastic, tensile test, master curves.

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2874 Effect of Sewing Speed on the Physical Properties of Firefighter Sewing Threads

Authors: Adnan Mazari, Engin Akcagun, Antonin Havelka, Funda Buyuk Mazari, Pavel Kejzlar

Abstract:

This article experimentally investigates various physical properties of special fire retardant sewing threads under different sewing speeds. The aramid threads are common for sewing the fire-fighter clothing due to high strength and high melting temperature. 3 types of aramid threads with different linear densities are used for sewing at different speed of 2000 to 4000 r/min. The needle temperature is measured at different speeds of sewing and tensile properties of threads are measured before and after the sewing process respectively. The results shows that the friction and abrasion during the sewing process causes a significant loss to the tensile properties of the threads and needle temperature rises to nearly 300oC at 4000 r/min of machine speed. The Scanning electron microscope images are taken before and after the sewing process and shows no melting spots but significant damage to the yarn. It is also found that machine speed of 2000r/min is ideal for sewing firefighter clothing for higher tensile properties and production.

Keywords: Kevlar, needle temperature, Nomex, sewing.

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2873 Influence of Rolling Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cryorolled Al-Mg-Si Alloy

Authors: B. Gopi, N. Naga Krishna, K. Venkateswarlu, K. Sivaprasad

Abstract:

An effect of rolling temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of an Al-Mg-Si alloy was studied. The material was rolled up to a true strain of ~0.7 at three different temperatures viz; room temperature, liquid propanol and liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen rolled sample exhibited superior properties with a yield and tensile strength of 332 MPa and 364 MPa, respectively, with a reasonably good ductility of ~9%. The liquid nitrogen rolled sample showed around 54 MPa increase in tensile strength without much reduction in the ductility as compared to the as received T6 condition alloy. The microstructural details revealed equiaxed grains in the annealed and solutionized sample and elongated grains in the rolled samples. In addition, the cryorolled samples exhibited fine grain structure compared to the room temperature rolled samples.

Keywords: Al-Mg-Si alloy, cryorolling, tensile properties, ultra-fine grain structure.

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2872 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin

Abstract:

Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: High-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, mechanical properties, morphological properties, silicon carbide, waste silicon carbide.

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2871 Cold-pressed Kenaf and Fibreglass Hybrid Composites Laminates: Effect of Fibre Types

Authors: Z. Salleh, M. N. Berhan, Koay Mei Hyie, D. H. Isaac

Abstract:

Natural fibres have emerged as the potential reinforcement material for composites and thus gain attraction by many researchers. This is mainly due to their applicable benefits as they offer low density, low cost, renewable, biodegradability and environmentally harmless and also comparable mechanical properties with synthetic fibre composites. The properties of hybrid composites highly depends on several factors, including the interaction of fillers with the polymeric matrix, shape and size (aspect ratio), and orientation of fillers [1]. In this study, natural fibre kenaf composites and kenaf/fibreglass hybrid composites were fabricated by a combination of hand lay-up method and cold-press method. The effect of different fibre types (powder, short and long) on the tensile properties of composites is investigated. The kenaf composites with and without the addition of fibreglass were then characterized by tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy. A significant improvement in tensile strength and modulus were indicated by the introduction of long kenaf/woven fibreglass hybrid composite. However, the opposite trends are observed in kenaf powder composite. Fractographic observation shows that fibre/matrix debonding causes the fibres pull out. This phenomenon results in the fibre and matrix fracture.

Keywords: Kenaf, Fibreglass, Hybrid Composite, Tensile Strength, Tensile Modulus.

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2870 Nanocrystalline Mg-3%Al Alloy: its Synthesis and Investigation of its Tensile Behavior

Authors: A. Mallick

Abstract:

The tensile properties of Mg-3%Al nanocrystalline alloys were investigated at different test environment. Bulk nanocrystalline samples of these alloy was successfully prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by cold compaction, sintering, and hot extrusion process. The crystal size of the consolidated milled sample was calculated by X-Ray line profile analysis. The deformation mechanism and microstructural characteristic at different test condition was discussed extensively. At room temperature, relatively lower value of activation volume (AV) and higher value of strain rate sensitivity (SRS) suggests that new rate controlling mechanism accommodating plastic flow in the present nanocrystalline sample. The deformation behavior and the microstructural character of the present samples were discussed in details.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline, tensile properties, temperature effect.

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2869 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Durian Skin Fibre Filled Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Hazleen Anuar, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir, Yousuf El-Shekeil

Abstract:

Durian skin is a newly explores natural fibre potentially reinforced polyolefin for diverse applications. In this work, investigation on the effect of coupling agent, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with durian skin fibre (DSF) was conducted. The presence of 30 wt% DSF significantly reduced the tensile strength of PP-DSF composite. Interestingly, even though the same trend goes to PP-DSF with the presence of MAPP, the reduction is only about 4% relative to unreinforced PP and 18% higher than PP-DSF without MAPP (untreated composite or UTC). The used of MAPP in treated composite (TC) also increased the tensile modulus, flexural properties and degradation temperature. The enhanced mechanical properties are consistent with good interfacial interaction as evidenced under scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: Durian skin fiber, coupling agent, mechanical properties, thermogravimetry analysis.

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2868 An Evaluation of TIG Welding Parametric Influence on Tensile Strength of 5083 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Lakshman Singh, Rajeshwar Singh, Naveen Kumar Singh, Davinder Singh, Pargat Singh

Abstract:

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding is a high quality welding process used to weld the thin metals and their alloy. 5083 Aluminium alloys play an important role in engineering and metallurgy field because of excellent corrosion properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength coupled with best combination of toughness and formability.

TIG welding technique is one of the precise and fastest processes used in aerospace, ship and marine industries. TIG welding process is used to analyze the data and evaluate the influence of input parameters on tensile strength of 5083 Al-alloy specimens with dimensions of 100mm long x 15mm wide x 5mm thick. Welding current (I), gas flow rate (G) and welding speed (S) are the input parameters which effect tensile strength of 5083 Al-alloy welded joints. As welding speed increased, tensile strength increases first till optimum value and after that both decreases by increasing welding speed further. Results of the study show that maximum tensile strength of 129 MPa of weld joint are obtained at welding current of 240 Amps, gas flow rate of 7 Lt/min and welding speed of 98 mm/min. These values are the optimum values of input parameters which help to produce efficient weld joint that have good mechanical properties as a tensile strength.

Keywords: 5083 Aluminium alloy, Gas flow rate, TIG welding, Welding current, Welding speed and Tensile strength.

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2867 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Tumadhir M., Borhan

Abstract:

In this study, the thermal and mechanical properties of basalt fibre reinforced concrete were investigated. The volume fractions of basalt fibre of (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5% by total mix volume) were used. Properties such as heat transfer, compressive and splitting tensile strengths were examined. Results indicated that the strength increases with increase the fibre content till 0.3% then there is a slight reduction when 0.5% fibre used. Lower amount of heat conducted through the thickness of concrete specimens than the conventional concrete was also recorded.

Keywords: Chopped basalt fibre, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Heat transfer.

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2866 Eco-Friendly Natural Filler Based Epoxy Composites

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli

Abstract:

In this study, acrylated soybean oil (AESO) was used as modifying agent for DGEBF-type epoxy resin (ER). AESO was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt % with ER. Composites with eco-friendly natural fillers-banana bark and seashell were prepared. MNA was used as a hardener. Effect of banana peel (BP) and seashell (SSh) fillers on mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness of M-ERs were investigated. The structure epoxy resins (M-ERs) cured with MNA and sebacic acid (SAc) hardeners were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Tensile test results show that Young’s (elastic) modulus, tensile strength and hardness of SSh particles reinforced with M-ERs were higher than the M-ERs reinforced with banana bark.

Keywords: Biobased composite, epoxy resin, mechanical properties, natural fillers.

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2865 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, K. Ramji, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: E-glass-epoxy composite laminates, fiber volume fraction, e-glass fiber, mechanical properties, delamination.

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2864 Estimation of Tensile Strength for Granitic Rocks by Using Discrete Element Approach

Authors: Aliakbar Golshani, Armin Ramezanzad

Abstract:

Tensile strength which is an important parameter of the rock for engineering applications is difficult to measure directly through physical experiment (i.e. uniaxial tensile test). Therefore, indirect experimental methods such as Brazilian test have been taken into consideration and some relations have been proposed in order to obtain the tensile strength for rocks indirectly. In this research, to calculate numerically the tensile strength for granitic rocks, Particle Flow Code in three-dimension (PFC3D) software were used. First, uniaxial compression tests were simulated and the tensile strength was determined for Inada granite (from a quarry in Kasama, Ibaraki, Japan). Then, by simulating Brazilian test condition for Inada granite, the tensile strength was indirectly calculated again. Results show that the tensile strength calculated numerically agrees well with the experimental results obtained from uniaxial tensile tests on Inada granite samples.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, PFC, Tensile Strength, Brazilian Test.

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2863 Mechanical and Thermal Properties Characterisation of Vinyl Ester Matrix Nanocomposites Based On Layered Silicate

Authors: A. I. Alateyah, H. N. Dhakal, Z. Y. Zhang

Abstract:

The mechanical properties including flexural and tensile of neat vinyl ester and polymer based on layered silicate nanocomposite materials are discussed. The addition of layered silicate into the polymer matrix increased the tensile and flexural modulus up to 1 wt.% clay loading. The incorporation of more clay resulted in decreasing the mechanical properties which was traced to the existence of aggregation layers. Likewise, up to 1 wt.% clay loading, the thermal behaviour showed significant improvements and at higher clay loading the thermal pattern was reduced. The aggregation layers imparted a negative impact on the overall mechanical and thermal properties. Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy were utilised in order to characterise the interlamellar structure of nanocomposites.

Keywords: Vinyl ester, nanocomposites, layered silicate, mechanical properties, thermal analysis.

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2862 Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Micro-Silica and Locally Produced Metakaolin and Effect on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: S. U. Khan, T. Ayub, N. Shafiq

Abstract:

The properties of locally produced metakaolin (MK) as cement replacing material and the comparison of reactivity with commercially available micro-silica have been investigated. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and load-deflection behaviour under bending are the properties that have been studied. The amorphous phase of MK with micro-silica was compared through X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Further, interfacial transition zone of concrete with micro-silica and MK was observed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Three mixes of concrete were prepared. One of the mix is without cement replacement as control mix, and the remaining two mixes are 10% cement replacement with micro-silica and MK. It has been found that MK, due to its irregular structure and amorphous phase, has high reactivity with portlandite in concrete. The compressive strength at early age is higher with MK as compared to micro-silica. MK concrete showed higher splitting tensile strength and higher load carrying capacity as compared to control and micro-silica concrete at all ages respectively.

Keywords: Metakaolin, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, load deflection, interfacial transition zone.

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2861 The Effect of Alkaline Treatment on Tensile Strength and Morphological Properties of Kenaf Fibres for Yarn Production

Authors: A. Khalina, K. Shaharuddin, M. S. Wahab, M. P. Saiman, H. A. Aisyah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of alkali treatment and mechanical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibre for the development of yarn. Two different fibre sources are used for the yarn production. Kenaf fibres were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in the concentration of 3, 6, 9, and 12% prior to fibre opening process and tested for their tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Then, the selected fibres were introduced to fibre opener at three different opening processing parameters; namely, speed of roller feeder, small drum, and big drum. The diameter size, surface morphology, and fibre durability towards machine of the fibres were characterized. The results show that concentrations of NaOH used have greater effects on fibre mechanical properties. From this study, the tensile and modulus properties of the treated fibres for both types have improved significantly as compared to untreated fibres, especially at the optimum level of 6% NaOH. It is also interesting to highlight that 6% NaOH is the optimum concentration for the alkaline treatment. The untreated and treated fibres at 6% NaOH were then introduced to fibre opener, and it was found that the treated fibre produced higher fibre diameter with better surface morphology compared to the untreated fibre. Higher speed parameter during opening was found to produce higher yield of opened-kenaf fibres.

Keywords: Alkaline treatment, Kenaf fibre, Tensile strength, Yarn production.

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2860 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Jute-Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Salma Siddika, Fayeka Mansura, Mahbub Hasan

Abstract:

The term hybrid composite refers to the composite containing more than one type of fiber material as reinforcing fillers. It has become attractive structural material due to the ability of providing better combination of properties with respect to single fiber containing composite. The eco-friendly nature as well as processing advantage, light weight and low cost have enhanced the attraction and interest of natural fiber reinforced composite. The objective of present research is to study the mechanical properties of jute-coir fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene (PP) composite according to filler loading variation. In the present work composites were manufactured by using hot press machine at four levels of fiber loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %). Jute and coir fibers were utilized at a ratio of (1:1) during composite manufacturing. Tensile, flexural, impact and hardness tests were conducted for mechanical characterization. Tensile test of composite showed a decreasing trend of tensile strength and increasing trend of the Young-s modulus with increasing fiber content. During flexural, impact and hardness tests, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and hardness were found to be increased with increasing fiber loading. Based on the fiber loading used in this study, 20% fiber reinforced composite resulted the best set of mechanical properties.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties; Coir, Jute, Polypropylene, Hybrid Composite.

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2859 Ablation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Fiber/Phenolic Matrix Composites

Authors: N. Winya, S. Chankapoe, C. Kiriratnikom

Abstract:

In this study, an ablation, mechanical and thermal properties of a rocket motor insulation from phenolic/ fiber matrix composites forming a laminate with different fiber between fiberglass and locally available synthetic fibers. The phenolic/ fiber matrix composites was mechanics and thermal properties by means of tensile strength, ablation, TGA and DSC. The design of thermal insulation involves several factors.Determined the mechanical properties according to MIL-I-24768: Density >1.3 g/cm3, Tensile strength >103 MPa and Ablation <0.14 mm/s to optimization formulation of phenolic binder, fiber glass reinforcement and other ingredients were conducted after that the insulation prototype was formed and cured. It was found that the density of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 1.66 and 1.41 g/cm3 respectively. The ablative of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 0.13 and 0.06 mm/s respectively.

Keywords: Phenolic Resin, Ablation, Rocket Motor, Insulation

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2858 Numerical Simulation of CNT Incorporated Cement

Authors: B. S. Sindu, Saptarshi Sasmal, Smitha Gopinath

Abstract:

Cement, the most widely used construction material is very brittle and characterized by low tensile strength and strain capacity. Macro to nano fibers are added to cement to provide tensile strength and ductility to it. Carbon Nanotube (CNT), one of the nanofibers, has proven to be a promising reinforcing material in the cement composites because of its outstanding mechanical properties and its ability to close cracks at the nano level. The experimental investigations for CNT reinforced cement is costly, time consuming and involves huge number of trials. Mathematical modeling of CNT reinforced cement can be done effectively and efficiently to arrive at the mechanical properties and to reduce the number of trials in the experiments. Hence, an attempt is made to numerically study the effective mechanical properties of CNT reinforced cement numerically using Representative Volume Element (RVE) method. The enhancement in its mechanical properties for different percentage of CNTs is studied in detail.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Cement composites, Representative Volume Element, Numerical simulation

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