Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Nocturnal ozone

29 Occurrence of High Nocturnal Surface Ozone at a Tropical Urban Area

Authors: S. Dey, P. Sibanda, S. Gupta, A. Chakraborty

Abstract:

The occurrence of high nocturnal surface ozone over a tropical urban area (23̊ 32′16.99″ N and 87̊ 17′ 38.95″ E) is analyzed in this paper. Five incidences of nocturnal ozone maxima are recorded during the observational span of two years (June, 2013 to May, 2015). The maximum and minimum values of the surface ozone during these five occasions are 337.630 μg/m3 and 13.034 μg/m3 respectively. HYSPLIT backward trajectory analyses and wind rose diagrams support the horizontal transport of ozone from distant polluted places. Planetary boundary layer characteristics, concentration of precursor (NO2) and meteorology are found to play important role in the horizontal and vertical transport of surface ozone during nighttime.

Keywords: Nocturnal ozone, planetary boundary layer, horizontal transport, meteorology, urban area.

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28 Geostatistical Analysis and Mapping of Groundlevel Ozone in a Medium Sized Urban Area

Authors: F. J. Moral García, P. Valiente González, F. López Rodríguez

Abstract:

Ground-level tropospheric ozone is one of the air pollutants of most concern. It is mainly produced by photochemical processes involving nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the lower parts of the atmosphere. Ozone levels become particularly high in regions close to high ozone precursor emissions and during summer, when stagnant meteorological conditions with high insolation and high temperatures are common. In this work, some results of a study about urban ozone distribution patterns in the city of Badajoz, which is the largest and most industrialized city in Extremadura region (southwest Spain) are shown. Fourteen sampling campaigns, at least one per month, were carried out to measure ambient air ozone concentrations, during periods that were selected according to favourable conditions to ozone production, using an automatic portable analyzer. Later, to evaluate the ozone distribution at the city, the measured ozone data were analyzed using geostatistical techniques. Thus, first, during the exploratory analysis of data, it was revealed that they were distributed normally, which is a desirable property for the subsequent stages of the geostatistical study. Secondly, during the structural analysis of data, theoretical spherical models provided the best fit for all monthly experimental variograms. The parameters of these variograms (sill, range and nugget) revealed that the maximum distance of spatial dependence is between 302-790 m and the variable, air ozone concentration, is not evenly distributed in reduced distances. Finally, predictive ozone maps were derived for all points of the experimental study area, by use of geostatistical algorithms (kriging). High prediction accuracy was obtained in all cases as cross-validation showed. Useful information for hazard assessment was also provided when probability maps, based on kriging interpolation and kriging standard deviation, were produced.

Keywords: Kriging, map, tropospheric ozone, variogram.

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27 Regeneration of Spent Catalysts with Ozone

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chang-Yong Liu

Abstract:

This study investigates the in-situ regeneration of deactivated Pt-Pd catalyst in a laboratory-scale catalysis reactor. Different regeneration conditions are tested and the activity and characteristics of regenerated catalysts are analyzed. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiencies of C3H6 by different regenerated Pt-Pd catalysts were significantly improved from 77%, 55% and 41% to 86%, 98% and 99%, respectively. The best regeneration conditions was 52ppm ozone, 500oC, and 10min. Regeneration temperature has more influences than ozone concentration and regeneration time. With the comparisons of characteristics of deactivated catalyst and regenerated catalyst, the major poison species (carbon, metals, chloride, and sulfate) on the spent catalysts can be effectively removed by ozone regeneration. 

Keywords: Catalyst, deactivated, ozone, regeneration.

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26 An Assessment of Ozone Levels in Typical Urban Areas in the Malaysian Peninsular

Authors: Negar Banan, Mohd Talib Latif, Liew Juneng

Abstract:

Air quality studies were carried out in the towns of Putrajaya, Petaling Jaya and Nilai in the Malaysian Peninsular. In this study, the variations of Ozone (O3) concentrations over a four year period (2008-2011) were investigated using data obtained from the Malaysian Department of the Environment (DOE). This study aims to identify and describe the daily and monthly variations of O3 concentrations at the monitoring sites mentioned. The SPPS program (Statistical Package for the Social Science) was used to analyze this data in order to obtain the variations of O3 and also to clarify the relationship between the stations. The findings of the study revealed that the highest concentration of O3 occurred during the midday and afternoon (between 13:00-15:00 hrs). The comparison between stations also showed that highest O3 concentrations were recorded in Putrajaya. The comparisons of average and maximum concentrations of O3 for the three stations showed that the strongest significant correlation was recorded in the Petaling Jaya station with the value R2= 0.667. Results from this study indicate that in the urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia, the concentration of O3 depends on the concentration of NOx. Furthermore, HYSPLIT back trajectories (-72h) indicated that air-mass transport patterns can also influence the O3 concentration in the areas studied.

Keywords: Ozone, Precursors, Urban, HYSPLIT trajectory analysis.

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25 Study of Effect Different of Ozone Doses on Sugars Content in Tomatoes at Different Stages of Ripening

Authors: Milad. A. Shalluf

Abstract:

The determination of sugars in foods is very significant. Their relation in fact, can affect the chemical and sensorial quality of the matrix (e.g., sweetness, pH, total acidity, microbial stability, global acceptability) and can provide information on food to optimize several selected technological processes. Three stages of ripeness (green, yellow and red) of tomatoes (Lycopersicon Esculentum cv. Elegance) at different harvest dates were evaluated. Fruit from all harvests were exposed to different of ozone doses (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes) and clean air for 5 day at 15 °C±2 and 90-95 % relative humidity. Then, fruits were submitted for extraction and analysis after a day from the finish of exposure of each stage. The concentrations of the glucose and fructose increased in the tomatoes which were subjected to ozone treatments.

Keywords: Post-harvest Treatment, Controlled Atmosphere Storage, Ozone, Tomatoes, Glucose, Fructose

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24 Detection and Quantification of Ozone in Screen Printing Facilities

Authors: Kiurski J., Adamović S., Oros I., Krstić J., Đogo M.

Abstract:

Most often the contaminants are not taken seriously into consideration, and this behavior comes out directly from the lack of monitoring and professional reporting about pollution in the printing facilities in Serbia. The goal of planned and systematic ozone measurements in ambient air of the screen printing facilities in Novi Sad is to examine of its impact on the employees health, and to track trends in concentration. In this study, ozone concentrations were determined by using discontinuous and continuous method during the automatic and manual screen printing process. Obtained results indicates that the average concentrations of ozone measured during the automatic process were almost 3 to 28 times higher for discontinuous and 10 times higher for continuous method (1.028 ppm) compared to the values prescribed by OSHA. In the manual process, average concentrations of ozone were within prescribed values for discontinuous and almost 3 times higher for continuous method (0.299 ppm).

Keywords: indoor pollution, ozone, screen printing

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23 Ozone Decomposition over Silver-Loaded Perlite

Authors: Krassimir Genov, Vladimir Georgiev, Todor Batakliev, Dipak K. Sarker

Abstract:

The Bulgarian natural expanded mineral obtained from Bentonite AD perlite (A deposit of "The Broken Mountain" for perlite mining, near by the village of Vodenicharsko, in the municipality of Djebel), was loaded with silver (as ion form - Ag+ 2 and 5 wt% by the incipient wetness impregnation method), and as atomic silver - Ag0 using Tollen-s reagent (silver mirror reaction). Some physicochemical characterization of the samples are provided via: DC arc-AES, XRD, DR-IR and UV-VIS. The aim of this work was to obtain and test the silver-loaded catalyst for ozone decomposition. So the samples loaded with atomic silver show ca. 80% conversion of ozone 20 minutes after the reaction start. Then conversion decreases to ca. 20 % but stay stable during the prolongation of time.

Keywords: aluminum-silicates, Ag/perlite expanded glass, ozone decomposition

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22 An Investigation into Ozone Concentration at Urban and Rural Monitoring Stations in Malaysia

Authors: Negar Banan, Mohd Talib Latif

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between urban and rural ozone concentrations and quantified the extent to which ambient rural conditions and the concentrations of other pollutants can be used to predict urban ozone concentrations. The study describes the variations of ozone in weekday and weekends as well as the daily maximum recorded at selected monitoring stations. The results showed that Putrajaya station had the highest concentrations of O3 on weekend due the titration of NO during the weekday. Additionally, Jerantut had the lowest average concentration with a reading value high on Wednesdays. The comparisons of average and maximum concentrations of ozone for the three stations showed that the strongest significant correlation is recorded in Jerantut station with the value R2= 0.769. Ozone concentrations originating from a neighbouring urban site form a better predictor to the urban ozone concentrations than widespread rural ozone at some levels of temporal averaging. It is found that in urban and rural of Malaysian peninsular, the concentration of ozone depends on the concentration of NOx and seasonal meteorological factors. The HYSPLIT Model (the northeast monsoon) showed that the wind direction can also influence the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere in the studied areas.

Keywords: Ozone, Hysplit model, Weekend effect, Daily Average and Daily maximum, Malaysia

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21 Preservation of Molecular Ozone in a Clathrate Hydrate : Three-Phase (Gas + Liquid + Hydrate) Equilibrium Measurements for O3 + O2 + CO2 + H2O Systems

Authors: Kazutoshi Shishido, Sanehiro Muromachi, Ryo Ohmura

Abstract:

This paper reports the three-phase (gas + liquid + hydrate) equilibrium pressure versus temperature data for a (O3 + O2 + CO2 + H2O) system for developing the hydrate-based technology to preserve ozone, a chemically unstable substance, for various industrial, medical and consumer uses. These data cover the temperature range from 272 K to 277 K, corresponding to pressures from 1.6 MPa to 3.1 MPa, for each of the three different (O3 + O2)-to-CO2 or O2-to-CO2 molar ratios in the gas phase, which are approximately 4 : 6, 5 : 5, respectively. The mole fraction of ozone in the gas phase was ~0.03 , which are the densest ozone fraction to artificially form O3 containing hydrate ever reported in the literature. Based on these data, the formation of hydrate containing high-concentration ozone, as high as 1 mass %, will be expected.

Keywords: Clathrate hydrate, Ozone, Molecule storage, Sterilization.

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20 Efficient Compact Micro DBD Plasma Reactor for Ozone Generation for Industrial Application in Liquid and Gas Phase Systems

Authors: Kuvshinov, D., Siswanto, A., Lozano-Parada, J., Zimmerman, W. B.

Abstract:

Ozone is well known as a powerful, fast reacting oxidant. Ozone based processes produce no by-product residual as non-reacted ozone decomposes to molecular oxygen. Therefore an application of ozone is widely accepted as one of the main approaches for a Sustainable and Clean Technologies development.

There are number of technologies which require ozone to be delivered to specific points of a production network or reactors construction. Due to space constraints, high reactivity and short life time of ozone the use of ozone generators even of a bench top scale is practically limited. This requires development of mini/micro scale ozone generator which can be directly incorporated into production units.

Our report presents a feasibility study of a new micro scale rector for ozone generation (MROG). Data on MROG calibration and indigo decomposition at different operation conditions are presented.

At selected operation conditions with residence time of 0.25 s the process of ozone generation is not limited by reaction rate and the amount of ozone produced is a function of power applied. It was shown that the MROG is capable to produce ozone at voltage level starting from 3.5kV with ozone concentration of 5.28*10-6 (mol/L) at 5kV. This is in line with data presented on numerical investigation for a MROG. It was shown that in compare to a conventional ozone generator, MROG has lower power consumption at low voltages and atmospheric pressure.

The MROG construction makes it applicable for both submerged and dry systems. With a robust compact design MROG can be used as an integrated module for production lines of high complexity.

Keywords: DBD, micro reactor, ozone, plasma.

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19 Extension of Fish Shelf Life by Ozone Treatment

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi, Neda Zokaie

Abstract:

The shelf life of fish was extended using disinfection properties of ozone. For this purpose, Trout specimens were exposed to ozone in the aqueous media for two hours and their microbial growth and biochemical properties were measured over time. Microbial growth of ozone treated fish was significantly slower than control sample, resulting in lower counts of bacteria. According to the biochemical tests; ozone treatment had no negative effects on fat, protein and humidity of fish. Peroxide and TVN (Total Volatile Nitrogen) measurements showed that treatment by ozone increased the trout shelf life from 4 days to 6 days. According to the sensory analysis, no changes were observed in color or flavor of the ozone treated trout.

Keywords: Fish, Ozone, Shelf life, Trout.

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18 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov

Abstract:

In this article a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes- in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, copper, ozone decomposition, TiO2.

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17 Harmful Effect of Ambient Ozone on Growth and Productivity of Two Legume Crops Visia Faba, and Pisum sativum in Riyadh City, K.S.A.

Authors: Ibrahim A. Al-Muhaisen, Mohammad N. Al Ymemeni

Abstract:

Ozone (O3) is considered as one of the most phytotoxic pollutants with deleterious effects on living and non living components of Ecosystems. It reduces growth and yield of many crops as well as alters the physiology and crop quality. The present study described series of experiments to investigate the effects of ambient O3 at different locations with different ambient levels of O3 depending on proximity to pollutant source and ranged between 17 ppb/h in control experiment to 112 ppb/h in industrial area respectively. The ambient levels in other three locations (King Saud University botanical garden, King Fahd Rd, and Almanakh Garden) were 61,61,77 ppb/h respectively. Tow legume crops species (vicia vaba L ; and Pisum sativum) differ in their phenology and sensitivity were used. The results showed a significant negative effect to ozone on morphology, number of injured leaves, growth and productivity with a difference in the degree of response depending on the plant type. Visia Faba showed sensitivity to ozone to number and leaf area and the degree of injury leaves 3, pisum sativum show higher sensitivity for the gas for degree of injury 1,The relative growth rate and seed weight, it turns out there is no significant difference between the two plants in plant height and number of seeds.

Keywords: Ozone, Legume crops, growth and production, Resistance, Riyadh city.

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16 DIAL Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Ozone at the Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

Authors: Oleg A. Romanovskii, Vladimir D. Burlakov, Sergey I. Dolgii, Olga V. Kharchenko, Alexey A. Nevzorov, Alexey V. Nevzorov

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution. The ozone lidar operate as part of the measurement complex at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk (56.5ºN; 85.0ºE) and designed for study of the vertical ozone distribution in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Most suitable wavelengths for measurements of ozone profiles are selected. We present an algorithm for retrieval of vertical distribution of ozone with temperature and aerosol correction during DIAL lidar sounding of the atmosphere. The temperature correction of ozone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors. Results of lidar measurement at wavelengths of 299 and 341 nm agree with model estimates, which point to acceptable accuracy of ozone sounding in the 6–18 km altitude range.

Keywords: Lidar, ozone distribution, atmosphere, DIAL.

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15 Characteristics of Ozone Generated from Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

Authors: R. Osada, S. Ogata, T. Segawa

Abstract:

Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (DBD-PAs) have been developed for active flow control devices. However, it is necessary to reduce ozone produced by DBD toward practical applications using DBD-PAs. In this study, variations of ozone concentration, flow velocity, power consumption were investigated by changing exposed electrodes of DBD-PAs. Two exposed electrode prototypes were prepared: span-type with exposed electrode width of 0.1 mm, and normal-type with width of 5 mm. It was found that span-type shows lower power consumption and higher flow velocity than that of normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-6.0 kV. Ozone concentration of span-type higher than normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-8.0 kV. In addition, it was confirmed that catalyst located in downstream from the exposed electrode can reduce ozone concentration between 18 and 42% without affecting the induced flow.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, ozone diffusion, PIV measurement, power consumption.

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14 Gassy Ozone Effect on Quality Parameters of Flaxes Made from Biologically Activated Whole Wheat Grains

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Jelena Zagorska, Elina Zvezdina

Abstract:

The aim of the current research was to investigate the gassy ozone effect on quality parameters of flaxes made form whole biologically activated wheat grains. The research was accomplished on wheat grains variety

Keywords: Gassy ozone, flaxes, biologically activated grains, quality parameters, treatment.

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13 Simulation of Increased Ambient Ozone to Estimate Nutrient Content and Genetic Change in Two Thai Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas

Abstract:

This research studied the simulation of increased ambient ozone to estimate nutrient content and genetic changes in two Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1). Ozone stress conditions affected proteins and lipids. It was found that proteins decreased, but lipids increased. Srisumrong 1 cultivars were more sensitive to ozone stress than Chiang Mai 60 cultivars. The effect of ozone stress conditions on plant phenotype and genotype was analyzed using the AFLP technique for the 2 Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1).

Keywords: simulation, ambient ozone estimate, nutrient content, genetic changes , Thai soybean

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12 Investigating Ultra Violet (UV) Strength against Different Level of Altitude using New Environmental Data Management System

Authors: M. Amir Abas, M. Dahlui

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation results of UV measurement at different level of altitudes and the development of a new portable instrument for measuring UV. The rapid growth of industrial sectors in developing countries including Malaysia, brings not only income to the nation, but also causes pollution in various forms. Air pollution is one of the significant contributors to global warming by depleting the Ozone layer, which would reduce the filtration of UV rays. Long duration of exposure to high to UV rays has many devastating health effects to mankind directly or indirectly through destruction of the natural resources. This study aimed to show correlation between UV and altitudes which indirectly can help predict Ozone depletion. An instrument had been designed to measure and monitors the level of UV. The instrument comprises of two main blocks namely data logger and Graphic User Interface (GUI). Three sensors were used in the data logger to detect changes in the temperature, humidity and ultraviolet. The system has undergone experimental measurement to capture data at two different conditions; industrial area and high attitude area. The performance of the instrument showed consistency in the data captured and the results of the experiment drew a significantly high reading of UV at high altitudes.

Keywords: Ozone Layer, Monitoring, Global Warming, Measurement, Ultraviolet

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11 Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes to Mefenamic Acid Elimination

Authors: Olga Gimeno, Javier Rivas, Angel Encinas, Fernando Beltran

Abstract:

The elimimation of mefenamic acid has been carried out by photolysis, ozonation, adsorption onto activated carbon (AC) and combinations of the previous single systems (O3+AC and O3+UV). The results obtained indicate that mefenamic acid is not photo-reactive, showing a relatively low quantum yield of the order of 6 x 10-4 mol Einstein-1. Application of ozone to mefenamic aqueous solutions instantaneously eliminates the pharmaceutical, achieving simultaneously a 40% of mineralization. Addition of AC to the ozonation process does not enhance the process, moreover, mineralization is completely inhibited if compared to results obtained by single ozonation. The combination of ozone and UV radiation led to the best results in terms of mineralization (60% after 120 min).

Keywords: Photolysis, mefenamic acid, ozone, activated carbon.

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10 An Improved Prediction Model of Ozone Concentration Time Series Based On Chaotic Approach

Authors: N. Z. A. Hamid, M. S. M. Noorani

Abstract:

This study is focused on the development of prediction models of the Ozone concentration time series. Prediction model is built based on chaotic approach. Firstly, the chaotic nature of the time series is detected by means of phase space plot and the Cao method. Then, the prediction model is built and the local linear approximation method is used for the forecasting purposes. Traditional prediction of autoregressive linear model is also built. Moreover, an improvement in local linear approximation method is also performed. Prediction models are applied to the hourly Ozone time series observed at the benchmark station in Malaysia. Comparison of all models through the calculation of mean absolute error, root mean squared error and correlation coefficient shows that the one with improved prediction method is the best. Thus, chaotic approach is a good approach to be used to develop a prediction model for the Ozone concentration time series.

Keywords: Chaotic approach, phase space, Cao method, local linear approximation method.

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9 Influence of a High-Resolution Land Cover Classification on Air Quality Modelling

Authors: C. Silveira, A. Ascenso, J. Ferreira, A. I. Miranda, P. Tuccella, G. Curci

Abstract:

Poor air quality is one of the main environmental causes of premature deaths worldwide, and mainly in cities, where the majority of the population lives. It is a consequence of successive land cover (LC) and use changes, as a result of the intensification of human activities. Knowing these landscape modifications in a comprehensive spatiotemporal dimension is, therefore, essential for understanding variations in air pollutant concentrations. In this sense, the use of air quality models is very useful to simulate the physical and chemical processes that affect the dispersion and reaction of chemical species into the atmosphere. However, the modelling performance should always be evaluated since the resolution of the input datasets largely dictates the reliability of the air quality outcomes. Among these data, the updated LC is an important parameter to be considered in atmospheric models, since it takes into account the Earth’s surface changes due to natural and anthropic actions, and regulates the exchanges of fluxes (emissions, heat, moisture, etc.) between the soil and the air. This work aims to evaluate the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), when different LC classifications are used as an input. The influence of two LC classifications was tested: i) the 24-classes USGS (United States Geological Survey) LC database included by default in the model, and the ii) CLC (Corine Land Cover) and specific high-resolution LC data for Portugal, reclassified according to the new USGS nomenclature (33-classes). Two distinct WRF-Chem simulations were carried out to assess the influence of the LC on air quality over Europe and Portugal, as a case study, for the year 2015, using the nesting technique over three simulation domains (25 km2, 5 km2 and 1 km2 horizontal resolution). Based on the 33-classes LC approach, particular emphasis was attributed to Portugal, given the detail and higher LC spatial resolution (100 m x 100 m) than the CLC data (5000 m x 5000 m). As regards to the air quality, only the LC impacts on tropospheric ozone concentrations were evaluated, because ozone pollution episodes typically occur in Portugal, in particular during the spring/summer, and there are few research works relating to this pollutant with LC changes. The WRF-Chem results were validated by season and station typology using background measurements from the Portuguese air quality monitoring network. As expected, a better model performance was achieved in rural stations: moderate correlation (0.4 – 0.7), BIAS (10 – 21µg.m-3) and RMSE (20 – 30 µg.m-3), and where higher average ozone concentrations were estimated. Comparing both simulations, small differences grounded on the Leaf Area Index and air temperature values were found, although the high-resolution LC approach shows a slight enhancement in the model evaluation. This highlights the role of the LC on the exchange of atmospheric fluxes, and stresses the need to consider a high-resolution LC characterization combined with other detailed model inputs, such as the emission inventory, to improve air quality assessment.

Keywords: Land cover, tropospheric ozone, WRF-Chem, air quality assessment.

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8 Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles

Authors: R. Nayak, T. Panwar, R. Padhye

Abstract:

Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, and physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.

Keywords: Sustainable cleaning, protective textiles, eco-friendly cleaning, ozone laundering, ultrasonic cleaning.

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7 Removal of Phenylurea Herbicides from Waters by using Chemical Oxidation Treatments

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Carolina Garcia, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco J. Real

Abstract:

Four phenylurea herbicides (isoproturon, chlortoluron, diuron and linuron) were dissolved in different water matrices in order to study their chemical degradation by using UV radiation, ozone and some advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2, O3/H2O2, Fenton reagent and the photo- Fenton system). The waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater and a surface water taken from a reservoir. Elimination levels were established for each herbicide and for several global quality parameters, and a kinetic study was performed in order to determine basic kinetic parameters of each reaction between the target phenylureas and these oxidizing systems.

Keywords: Phenylurea herbicides, UV radiation; Ozone, Fenton reagent, Hydroxyl radicals, Rate constants, Quantum yields

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6 A Comparison Study of the Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Waters by Chemical Oxidation Treatments

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco J. Real, Gloria Roldan, Francisco Casas

Abstract:

The degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in some water matrices was studied by using several chemical treatments. The pharmaceuticals selected were the beta-blocker metoprolol, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory naproxen, the antibiotic amoxicillin, and the analgesic phenacetin; and their degradations were conducted by using UV radiation alone, ozone, Fenton-s reagent, Fenton-like system, photo-Fenton system, and combinations of UV radiation and ozone with H2O2, TiO2, Fe(II), and Fe(III). The water matrices, in addition to ultra-pure water, were a reservoir water, a groundwater, and two secondary effluents from two municipal WWTP. The results reveal that the presence of any second oxidant enhanced the oxidation rates, with the systems UV/TiO2 and O3/TiO2 providing the highest degradation rates. It is also observed in most of the investigated oxidation systems that the degradation rate followed the sequence: amoxicillin > naproxen > metoprolol > phenacetin. Lower rates were obtained with the pharmaceuticals dissolved in natural waters and secondary effluents due to the organic matter present which consume some amounts of the oxidant agents.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, UV radiation, ozone, advancedoxidation processes, water matrices, degradation rates

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5 Developing Cu-Mesoporous TiO2 Cooperated with Ozone Assistance and Online- Regeneration System for Acid Odor Removal in All Weather

Authors: Yuchih Lin, Chung-Liang Chang, Hong-Yi Cao, Sheng-Hsuan Hsiao

Abstract:

Cu-mesoporous TiO2 is developed for removal acid odor cooperated with ozone assistance and online- regeneration system with/without UV irradiation (all weather) in study. The results showed that Cu-mesoporous TiO2 present the desirable adsorption efficiency of acid odor without UV irradiation, due to the larger surface area, pore sizeand the additional absorption ability provided by Cu. In the photocatalysis process, the material structure also benefits Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to perform the more outstanding efficiency on degrading acid odor. Cu also postponed the recombination of electron-hole pairs excited from TiO2 to enhance photodegradation ability. Cu-mesoporous TiO2 could gain the conspicuous increase on photocatalysis ability from ozone assistance, but without any benefit on adsorption. In addition, the online regeneration procedure could process the used Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to reinstate the adsorption ability and maintain the photodegradtion performance, depended on scrubbing, desorping acid odor and reducing Cu to metal state.

Keywords: mesoporous material, photocatalyst, adsorption, regeneration usage, photocatalytic ozonation

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4 Solar Energy for Water Conditioning

Authors: J. Pawłat, H. Stryczewska

Abstract:

Shortening of natural resources will impose greater limitations of electric energy consumption in various fields including water treatment technologies. Small water treatment installations supplied with electric energy from solar sources are perfect example of zero-emission technology. Possibility of solar energy application, as one of the alternative energy resources for decontamination processes is strongly dependent on geographical location. Various examples of solar driven water purification systems are given and design of solar-water treatment installation based on ozone for the geographical conditions in Poland are presented.

Keywords: solar energy, water purification, ozone water treatment

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3 Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia

Authors: Mokhtar Kouki Inès Rekik

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the assessment of the air pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women, the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after 1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models (Poisson, negative binomial, zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle, negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models). Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability of positive number of restricted activity days.

Keywords: Bootstrapping, hurdle negbin model, overdispersion, ozone concentration, respiratory-related restricted activity days.

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2 Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds by a Sequential Treatment of Ozonation Followed by Fenton Process: Influence of the Water Matrix

Authors: Almudena Aguinaco, Olga Gimeno, Fernando J. Beltrán, Juan José P. Sagasti

Abstract:

A sequential treatment of ozonation followed by a Fenton or photo-Fenton process, using black light lamps (365 nm) in this latter case, has been applied to remove a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds and the generated by-products both in ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The scientifictechnological innovation of this study stems from the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide from the direct ozonation of pharmaceuticals, and can later be used in the application of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The compounds selected as models were sulfamethoxazol and acetaminophen. It should be remarked that the use of a second process is necessary as a result of the low mineralization yield reached by the exclusive application of ozone. Therefore, the influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms of hydrogen peroxide concentration, individual compound concentration and total organic carbon removed. Moreover, the concentration of different iron species in solution has been measured.

Keywords: Fenton, photo-Fenton, ozone, pharmaceutical compounds, hydrogen peroxide, water treatment

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1 Application of the Least Squares Method in the Adjustment of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) Regression Models

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, V. S. Filho, J. V. Ferreira Nunes, G. C. Bergamo

Abstract:

There are many situations in which human activities have significant effects on the environment. Damage to the ozone layer is one of them. The objective of this work is to use the Least Squares Method, considering the linear, exponential, logarithmic, power and polynomial models of the second degree, to analyze through the coefficient of determination (R²), which model best fits the behavior of the chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) in parts per trillion between 1992 and 2018, as well as estimates of future concentrations between 5 and 10 periods, i.e. the concentration of this pollutant in the years 2023 and 2028 in each of the adjustments. A total of 809 observations of the concentration of HCFC-142b in one of the monitoring stations of gases precursors of the deterioration of the ozone layer during the period of time studied were selected and, using these data, the statistical software Excel was used for make the scatter plots of each of the adjustment models. With the development of the present study, it was observed that the logarithmic fit was the model that best fit the data set, since besides having a significant R² its adjusted curve was compatible with the natural trend curve of the phenomenon.

Keywords: Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b), ozone (O3), least squares method, regression models.

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