LFC Design of a Deregulated Power System with TCPS Using PSO
In the LFC problem, the interconnections among some areas are the input of disturbances, and therefore, it is important to suppress the disturbances by the coordination of governor systems. In contrast, tie-line power flow control by TCPS located between two areas makes it possible to stabilize the system frequency oscillations positively through interconnection, which is also expected to provide a new ancillary service for the further power systems. Thus, a control strategy using controlling the phase angle of TCPS is proposed for provide active control facility of system frequency in this paper. Also, the optimum adjustment of PID controller's parameters in a robust way under bilateral contracted scenario following the large step load demands and disturbances with and without TCPS are investigated by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and TCPS and has simple stricture that is easy to implement and tune. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy a three-area restructured power system is considered as a test system under different operating conditions and system nonlinearities. Analysis reveals that the TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-line power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS for a wide range of plant parameter changes, area load demands and disturbances even in the presence of system nonlinearities.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1062782Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1751
 R. Raineri, S. Rios, D. Schiele, Technical and economic aspects of ancillary services markets in the electric power industry: an international comparison, Energy Policy, Vol. 34, No. 13, 2006, pp. 1540-1555.
 N .Tambey, M. Kothari, Unified power flow controller based damping controllers for damping low frequency oscillations in a power system, June 2003. http://www.ieindia.org/publish/el/0603.
 Y.H. Song, A.T. Johns, Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), UK: IEE Press; 1999.
 Y. L. Tan, Y. Wang, Nonlinear excitation and phase shifter controller for transient stability enhancement of power systems using adaptive control law, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 18, 1996, pp. 397-403.
 A. A. Hashmani, Y. Wang, T.T. Lie, Enhancement of power system transient stability using a nonlinear excitation and TCPS, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 24, 2002, pp. 201-214.
 A. Feliachi, On load frequency control in a deregulated environment, Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, 1996, pp. 437 - 441.
 D. Rerkpreedapong, A. Hasanovic, A. Feliachi, Robust load frequency control using genetic algorithms and linear matrix inequalities, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2003, pp. 855 - 861.
 F. Liu, Y. H. Song, J. Ma and Q. Lu, Optimal load frequency control in restructured power systems, IEE Proc. Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 150, No. 1, pp. 87 - 95.
 H. Bevrani, Y. Mitani, K. Tsuji, Robust decentralized AGC in a restructured power system, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 45, 2004, pp. 2297 - 2312.
 V. Donde, A. Pai and I. A. Hiskens, Simulation and optimization in a LFC system after deregulation, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2001, pp. 481-489.
 O. I. Elgerd, Electric energy system theory: An introduction, New Yourk: Mc Graw-Hill, 1971.
 H. Saadat, Power systems Analysis, Mc Graw-Hill, USA, 1999.
 N. Jaleeli, D. N. Ewart, L. H. Fink, Understanding automatic generation control, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1992, pp. 1106- 1122.
 Y.L. Kang, G.B. Shrestha, T.T. Lie, Improvement of power system dynamic performance with the magnitude and phase angle control of static phase shifter, Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 55, 2000, pp. 121-128.
 M.A. Abido, Y.L. Abdel-Magid, A tabu search based approach to power system stability enhancement via excitation and static phase shifter control, Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 52, 1999, pp. 133-143.
 F. Jiang, S.S. Choi, G. Shrestha, Power system stability enhancement using static phase shifter, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1997, pp. 207-214.
 H.F. Wang, F.J. Swift, M. Li, Analysis of thyristor-controlled phase shifter applied in damping power system oscillations, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 19, No.1, 1997, pp. 1-9.
 P. Kunder, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1994.
 E. Yesil, M. Guzelkaya, I. Eksin, Self tuning fuzzy PID type load and frequency controller, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 45, 2004, pp. 377-390.
 H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar, A. Jalili, Multi stage fuzzy PID power system automatic generation controller in the deregulated environment, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 47, 2006, pp. 2829-2845.
 J. Kennedy, R. Eberhart, Y. Shi, Swarm intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2001.
 M. Clerc, J. Kennedy, The particle swarm-explosion, stability, and convergence in a multidimensional complex space, IEEE Trans. on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2002, pp. 58-73.
 S. H. Zahiria, S. A. Seyedin, Swarm intelligence based classifiers, Journal of Franklin Institute, Vol. 344, 2007, pp. 362-376.
 H. Shayeghi, A. Jalili, H. A. Shayanfar, Multi-stage fuzzy load frequency control using PSO, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 49, 2008, pp. 2570-2580.
 H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar, O. P. Malik, Robust decentralized neural networks based LFC in a deregulated power system, Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 47, 2007, pp. 241-251.
 H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar, Robust decentralized LFC design in restructured power system. International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2006, pp. 4/1-4/25