Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1893

Search results for: Roof Material

1893 Roof Material Detection Based on Object-Based Approach Using WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Ebrahim Taherzadeh, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Kaveh Shahi

Abstract:

One of the most important tasks in urban remote sensing is the detection of impervious surfaces (IS), such as roofs and roads. However, detection of IS in heterogeneous areas still remains one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, detection of concrete roof using an object-based approach was proposed. A new rule-based classification was developed to detect concrete roof tile. This proposed rule-based classification was applied to WorldView-2 image and results showed that the proposed rule has good potential to predict concrete roof material from WorldView-2 images, with 85% accuracy.

Keywords: Urban remote sensing, impervious surface, Object- Based, Roof Material, Concrete tile, WorldView-2.

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1892 Evaluation of Green Roof System for Green Building Projects in Malaysia

Authors: Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi, Nurhayati Abdul Malek, Jamilah Othman

Abstract:

The implementations of green roof have been widely used in the developed countries such as Germany, United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Green roof have many benefits such as aesthetic and economic value, ecological gain which are optimization of storm water management, urban heat island mitigation and energy conservation. In term of pollution, green roof can control the air and noise pollution in urban cities. The application of green roof in Malaysian building has been studied with the previous work of green roof either in Malaysia or other Asian region as like Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and several other countries that have similar climate and environment as in Malaysia. These technologies of adapting green roof have been compared to the Green Building Index (GBI) of Malaysian buildings. The study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system having focused on i) waste & recyclable materials ii) types of plants and method of planting and iii) green roof as tool to reduce storm water runoff. The finding of these areas will be compared to the suitability in achieving good practice of the GBI in Malaysia. Results show that most of the method are based on the countries own climate and environment. This suggests that the method of using green roof must adhere to the tropical climate of Malaysia. Suggestion of this research will be viewed in term of the sustainability of the green roof. Further research can be developed to implement the best method and application in Malaysian climate especially in urban cities and township.

Keywords: Green roofs, vegetation, plants, material, stormwater.

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1891 The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate

Authors: Asmat Ismail, Muna Hanim Abdul Samad, Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.

Keywords: global warming, green roof, white painted roof, indoor temperature reduction.

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1890 Temperature Control & Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Ming Su, Mei-Shu Huang

Abstract:

To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue when we are faced with the challenge of climate change. Through literature review, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect to a degree. Because there are not enough open space and parks, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary schools are asked with priority to build green roof and important educational place to promote green roof concept. Testo175-H1 recording device was used to record the temperature and humidity differences between roof surface and interior space below roof with and without green roof in the long-term. We also use questionnaires to investigate the awareness of comfort level of green roof and sensation of teachers and students of the elementary schools. The results indicated that the temperature of roof without greening was higher than that with greening by about 2°C. But sometimes during noontime, the temperature of green roof was higher than that of non-green roof probably because of the character of the accumulation and dissipation of heat of greening. The temperature of the interior space below green roof was normally lower than that without green roof by about 1°C, showing that green roof could lower the temperature. The humidity of the green roof was higher than the one without greening also indicated that green roof retained water better. Teachers liked to combine green roof concept in the curriculum, and students wished all classes can take turns to maintain the green roof. Teachers and students whose school had integrated green roof concept in the curriculum were more willing to participate in the maintenance work of green roof. Teachers and students who may have access to and touch the green roof can be more aware of the green roof benefit. We suggest architects to increase the accessibility and visibility of green roof, such as use it as a part of the activity space. This idea can be a reference to the green roof curriculum design.

Keywords: Comfort level, elementary school, green roof, heat island effect.

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1889 Wind Fragility for Honeycomb Roof Cladding Panels Using Screw Pull-Out Capacity

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

The failure of roof cladding mostly occurs due to the failing of the connection between claddings and purlins, which is the pull-out of the screw connecting the two parts when the pull-out load, i.e. typhoon, is higher than the resistance of the connection screw. As typhoon disasters in Korea are constantly on the rise, probability risk assessment (PRA) has become a vital tool to evaluate the performance of civil structures. In this study, we attempted to determine the fragility of roof cladding with the screw connection. Experimental study was performed to evaluate the pull-out resistance of screw joints between honeycomb panels and back frames. Subsequently, by means of Monte Carlo Simulation method, probability of failure for these types of roof cladding was determined. The results that the failure of roof cladding was depends on their location on the roof, for example, the edge most panel has the highest probability of failure.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, roof cladding, screw pull-out strength, wind fragility

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1888 Application of CFD for Air Flow Analysis underneath Natural Ventilation with Forced Convection in Roof Attic

Authors: C. Nutphuang, S. Chirarattananon, V.D. Hien

Abstract:

In research on natural ventilation, and passive cooling with forced convection, is essential to know how heat flows in a solid object and the pattern of temperature distribution on their surfaces, and eventually how air flows through and convects heat from the surfaces of steel under roof. This paper presents some results from running the computational fluid dynamic program (CFD) by comparison between natural ventilation and forced convection within roof attic that is received directly from solar radiation. The CFD program for modeling air flow inside roof attic has been modified to allow as two cases. First case, the analysis under natural ventilation, is closed area in roof attic and second case, the analysis under forced convection, is opened area in roof attic. These extend of all cases to available predictions of variations such as temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate distributions in each case within roof attic. The comparison shows that this CFD program is an effective model for predicting air flow of temperature and heat transfer coefficient distribution within roof attic. The result shows that forced convection can help to reduce heat transfer through roof attic and an around area of steel core has temperature inner zone lower than natural ventilation type. The different temperature on the steel core of roof attic of two cases was 10-15 oK.

Keywords: CFD program, natural ventilation, forcedconvection, heat transfer, air flow.

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1887 Studying the Effect of Shading by Rooftop PV Panels on Dwellings’ Thermal Performance

Authors: Saad Odeh

Abstract:

Thermal performance is considered to be a key measure in building sustainability. One of the technologies used in the current building sustainable design is the rooftop solar PV power generators. The application of this type of technology has expanded vastly during the last five years in many countries. This paper studies the effect of roof shading developed by the solar PV panels on dwellings’ thermal performance. The analysis in this work is performed by using two types of packages: “AccuRate Sustainability” for rating the energy efficiency of residential building design, and “PVSYST” for the solar PV power system design. The former package is used to calculate the annual heating and cooling load, and the later package is used to evaluate the power production from the roof top PV system. The analysis correlates the electrical energy generated from the PV panels to the change in the heating and cooling load due to roof shading. Different roof orientation, roof inclination, roof insulation, as well as PV panel area are considered in this study. The analysis shows that the drop in energy efficiency due to the shaded area of the roof by PV panels is negligible compared to the energy generated by these panels.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, roof shading, thermal performance, PV panel.

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1886 Numerical Simulation of the Aerodynamic Loads acting on top of the SMART Centre for PV Applications

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. Toniato, E. Benini

Abstract:

The flow filed around a flatted-roof compound has been investigated by means of 2D and 3D numerical simulations. A constant wind velocity profile, based both on the maximum reference wind speed in the building site (peak gust speed worked out for a 50- year return period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated in order to determine the wind-induced loads on top of the roof. After determining the influence of the incoming wind directions on the induced roof loads, a 2D analysis of the most severe load condition has been performed, achieving a numerical quantification of the expected wind-induced forces on the PV panels on top of the roof.

Keywords: CFD, wind-induced loads, flow around buildings, photovoltaic system

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1885 A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia

Authors: M. F. Chow, M. F. Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.

Keywords: Engineering design, green roof, sustainable development, tropical countries.

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1884 The Study of Groundcover for Heat Reduction

Authors: Winai Mankhatitham

Abstract:

This research investigated groundcover on the roof (green roof) which can reduce the temperature and carbon monoxide. This study is divided into 3 main aspects: 1. Types of groundcover affecting heat reduction 2. The efficiency on heat reduction of 3 types of groundcover, i.e. lawn, arachis pintoi, and purslane 3. Database for designing green roof. This study has been designed as an experimental research by simulating the 3 types of groundcover in 3 trays placed in the green house for recording the temperature change for 24 hours. The results showed that the groundcover with the highest heat reduction efficiency was lawn. The dense of the lawn can protect the heat transfer to the soil. For the further study, there should be a comparative study of the thickness and the types of soil to get more information for the suitable types of groundcover and the soil for designing the energy saving green roof.

Keywords: Groundcover, Green Roof, Heat Reduction, Energy Saving.

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1883 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: Crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system.

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1882 Solar Energy Collection using a Double-layer Roof

Authors: S. Kong Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a double-layer roof in collecting solar energy as an application to the areas such as raising high-end temperature of organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The by-product of the solar roof is to reduce building air-conditioning loads. The experimental apparatus are arranged to evaluate the effects of the solar roof in absorbing solar energy. The flow channel is basically formed by an aluminum plate on top of a plywood plate. The geometric configurations in which the effects of absorbing energy is analyzed include: a bare uncovered aluminum plate, a glass-covered aluminum plate, a glass-covered/black-painted aluminum plate, a plate with variable lengths, a flow channel with stuffed material (in an attempt on enhancement of heat conduction), and a flow channel with variable slanted angles. The experimental results show that the efficiency of energy collection varies from 0.6 % to 11 % for the geometric configurations mentioned above. An additional study is carried out using CFD simulation to investigate the effects of fins on the aluminum plate. It shows that due to vastly enhanced heat conduction, the efficiency can reach ~23 % if 50 fins are installed on the aluminum plate. The study shows that a double-layer roof can efficiently absorb solar energy and substantially reduce building air-conditioning loads. On the high end of an organic Rankine cycle, a solar pond is used to replace the warm surface water of the sea as OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) is the driving energy for the ORC. The energy collected from the double-layered solar roof can be pumped into the pond and raise the pond temperature as the pond surface area is equivalently increased by nearly one-fourth of the total area of the double-layer solar roof. The effect of raising solar pond temperature is especially prominent if the double-layer solar roofs are installed in a community area.

Keywords: solar energy collection, double-layer solar roof, energy conservation, ORC, OTEC

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1881 Design of a Tube Vent to Enhance the Role of Roof Solar Collector

Authors: Eakkasak Susakunphaisan, Pichai Namprakai, Withaya Puangsombut

Abstract:

The objective of this paper was to designing a ventilation system to enhance the performance of roof solar collector (RSC) for reducing heat accumulation inside the house. The RSC has 1.8 m2 surface area made of CPAC monier roof tiles on the upper part and gypsum board on the lower part. The space between CPAC monier and gypsum board was fixed at 14 cm. Ventilation system of modified roof solar collector (modified RSC) consists of 9 tubes of 0.15m diameter and installed in the lower part of RSC. Experimental result showed that the temperature of the room, and attic temperature. The average temperature reduction of room of house used modified RSC is about 2oC. and the percentage of room temperature reduction varied between 0 to 10%. Therefore, modified RSC is an interesting option in the sense that it promotes solar energy and conserve energy.

Keywords: roof solar collector, heat accumulation

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1880 Perturbations of the EM-field Meters Reading Caused by Flat Roof Security Wall

Authors: Alfonso Bahillo, Juan Blas, Santiago Mazuelas, Patricia Fernanadez, Ruben Mateo Lorenzo, Evaristo Jose Abril

Abstract:

The wide increase and diffusion on telecommunication technologies have caused a huge spread of electromagnetic sources in most European Countries. Since the public is continuously being exposed to electromagnetic radiation the possible health effects have become the focus of population concerns. As a result, electromagnetic field monitoring stations which control field strength in commercial frequency bands are being placed on the flat roof of many buildings. However there is no guidance on where to place them. This paper presents an analysis of frequency, polarization and angles of incidence of a plane wave which impinges on a flat roof security wall and its dependence on electromagnetic field strength meters placement.

Keywords: EM field exposition, EM field strength meter, FDTD method, flat roof security wall, plane wave propagation.

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1879 Numerical Analysis of Wind Loads on a Hemicylindrical Roof Building

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Sergio Toniato, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The flow field over a three dimensional pole barn characterized by a cylindrical roof has been numerically investigated. Wind pressure and viscous loads acting on the agricultural building have been analyzed for several incoming wind directions, so as to evaluate the most critical load condition on the structure. A constant wind velocity profile, based on the maximum reference wind speed in the building site (peak gust speed worked out for 50 years return period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated. In order to contemplate also the hazard due to potential air wedging between the stored hay and the lower part of the ceiling, the effect of a partial filling of the barn has been investigated. The distribution of wind-induced loads on the structure have been determined, allowing a numerical quantification of the effect of wind direction on the induced stresses acting on a hemicylindrical roof.

Keywords: CFD, wind, building, hemicylindrical roof.

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1878 Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Flow over a Three-Dimensional Flat Roof

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, A. Castelli, E. Benini

Abstract:

The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine threedimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data. Wind tunnel measurements and numerical predictions have been compared for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions. The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a three-dimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.

Keywords: CFD, roof, building, wind

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1877 Impacts of the Courtyard with Glazed Roof on House Winter Thermal Conditions

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain' houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010. Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months. Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain' house to improve the future house design for building thermal comfort and energy efficiency

Keywords: Courtyard, house design, indoor thermal comfort, 'wind-rain' house

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1876 The Potential of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting as a Water Resource in Jordan: Featuring Two Application Case Studies

Authors: Zain M. Al-Houri, Oday K. Abu-Hadba, Khaled A. Hamdan

Abstract:

Roof top rainwater harvesting (RWH) has been carried out worldwide to provide an inexpensive source of water for many people. This research aims at evaluating the potential of roof top rain water harvesting as a resource in Jordan. For the purpose of this work, two case studies at Al-Jubiha and Shafa-Badran districts in Amman city were selected. All existing rooftops in both districts were identified by digitizing 2012 satellite images of the two districts using Google earth and ArcGIS tools. Rational method was used to estimate the potential volume of rainwater that can be harvested from the digitized rooftops. Results indicated that 1.17 and 0.526 MCM/yr can be harvested in Al-Jubiha and Shafa-Badran districts, respectively. This study should increase the attention to the importance of implementing RWH technique in Jordanian residences as a viable alternative for ensuring a continued source of non-potable water.

Keywords: Amman districts, ArcGIS, Rational method, Roof top rain water harvesting.

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1875 Diagnostics of Existing Steel Structures of Winter Sport Halls

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Jindrich Melcher, Lubomír Vítek, Petr Cikrle

Abstract:

The paper deals with the diagnostics of steel roof structure of the winter sports halls built in 1970 year. The necessity of the diagnostics has been given by the requirement to the evaluation design of this structure, which has been caused by the new situation in the field of the loadings given by the validity of the European Standards in the Czech Republic from 2010 year. Due to these changes in the normative rules, in practice existing structures are gradually subjected to the evaluation design and depending on its results to the strengthening or reconstruction, respectively. Steel roof is composed of plane truss main girders, purlins and bracings and the roof structure is supported by two arch main girders with the span of L = 84 m. The in situ diagnostics of the roof structure was oriented to the following parts: (i) determination and evaluation of the actual material properties of used steel and (ii) verification of the actual dimensions of the structural members. For the solution the nondestructive methods have been used for in situ measurement. For the indicative determination of steel strengths the modified method based on the determination of Rockwell’s hardness has been used. For the verification of the member’s dimensions (thickness of hollow sections) the ultrasound method has been used. This paper presents the results obtained using these testing methods and their evaluation, from the viewpoint of the usage for the subsequent static assessment and design evaluation of the existing structure. For the comparison, the examples of the similar evaluations realized for steel structures of the stadiums in Olomouc and Jihlava cities are briefly illustrated, too.

Keywords: Diagnostics, existing steel structure, sport hall, steel strength, indirect non-destructive methods, Rockwel’s hardness, destructive methods, actual dimensions, ultrasound method.

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1874 Air Conditioning Energy Saving by Rooftop Greenery System in Subtropical Climate in Australia

Authors: M. Anwar, M. G. Rasul, M. M. K. Khan

Abstract:

The benefits of rooftop greenery systems (such as energy savings, reduction of greenhouse gas emission for mitigating climate change and maintaining sustainable development, indoor temperature control etc.) in buildings are well recognized, however there remains very little research conducted for quantifying the benefits in subtropical climates such as in Australia. This study mainly focuses on measuring/determining temperature profile and air conditioning energy savings by implementing rooftop greenery systems in subtropical Central Queensland in Australia. An experimental set-up was installed at Rockhampton campus of Central Queensland University, where two standard shipping containers (6m x 2.4m x 2.4m) were converted into small offices, one with green roof and one without. These were used for temperature, humidity and energy consumption data collection. The study found that an energy savings of up to 11.70% and temperature difference of up to 4°C can be achieved in March in subtropical Central Queensland climate in Australia. It is expected that more energy can be saved in peak summer days (December/February) as temperature difference between green roof and non-green roof is higher in December- February.

Keywords: Extensive green roof, Rooftop greenery system, Subtropical climate, Shipping container.

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1873 Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

Authors: Yasar Bicer, Serif Yilmaz

Abstract:

In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing amount of tragacanth in the mixture. The compressive, tensile strength increases when the rate of tragacanth is up to 1%, whilst as the amount of tragacanth increases up to 1.5%, the compressive, tensile strength decreases slightly. The rate of water absorption of samples was more than 30%. From this result, it is concluded that these materials can not be used as external plaster or internal plaster material that faces to water. They can be used in internal plaster unless touching water and they can be used as cover plaster under roof and riprap material in sandwich panels. It is also found that, these materials can be cut with saw, drilled with screw and painted with any kind of paint.

Keywords: Fly ash, tragacanth, cement, composite material.

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1872 Modelling of Powered Roof Supports Work

Authors: Marcin Michalak

Abstract:

Due to the increasing efforts on saving our natural environment a change in the structure of energy resources can be observed - an increasing fraction of a renewable energy sources. In many countries traditional underground coal mining loses its significance but there are still countries, like Poland or Germany, in which the coal based technologies have the greatest fraction in a total energy production. This necessitates to make an effort to limit the costs and negative effects of underground coal mining. The longwall complex is as essential part of the underground coal mining. The safety and the effectiveness of the work is strongly dependent of the diagnostic state of powered roof supports. The building of a useful and reliable diagnostic system requires a lot of data. As the acquisition of a data of any possible operating conditions it is important to have a possibility to generate a demanded artificial working characteristics. In this paper a new approach of modelling a leg pressure in the single unit of powered roof support. The model is a result of the analysis of a typical working cycles.

Keywords: Machine modelling, underground mining, coal mining.

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1871 A Parametric Assessment of Friction Damper in Eccentric Braced Frame

Authors: J. Vaseghi, S.Navaei, B. Navayinia, F. Roshantabari

Abstract:

In This paper, the behavior of eccentric braced frame (EBF) is studied with replacing friction damper (FD) in confluence of these braces, in 5 and 10-storey steel frames. For FD system, the main step is to determine the slip load. For this reason, the performance indexes include roof displacement, base shear, dissipated energy and relative performance should be investigated. In nonlinear dynamic analysis, the response of structure to three earthquake records has been obtained and the values of roof displacement, base shear and column axial force for FD and EBF frames have been compared. The results demonstrate that use of the FD in frames, in comparison with the EBF, substantially reduces the roof displacement, column axial force and base shear. The obtained results show suitable performance of FD in higher storey structure in comparison with the EBF.

Keywords: Friction Damper (FD), Slip Load, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis, Performance Index.

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1870 Hip and Valley Support Location in Wood Framing

Authors: P. Hajyalikhani, B. Hudson, D. Boll, L. Boren, Z. Sparks, M. Ward

Abstract:

Wood Light frame construction is one of the most common types of construction methods for residential and light commercial building in North America and parts of Europe. The typical roof framing for wood framed building is sloped and consists of several structural members such as rafters, hips, and valleys which are connected to the ridge and ceiling joists. The common slopes for roofs are 3/12, 8/12, and 12/12. Wood framed residential roof failure is most commonly caused by wind damage in such buildings. In the recent study, one of the weaknesses of wood framed roofs is long unsupported structural member lengths, such as hips and valleys. The purpose of this research is to find the critical support location for long hips and valleys with different slopes. ForteWeb software is used to find the critical location. The analysis results demonstrating the maximum unbraced hip and valley length are from 8.5 to 10.25 ft. dependent on the slope and roof type.

Keywords: Light wood framed, bracing, construction, hip, valley, slope.

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1869 Modeling Strategy and Numerical Validation of the Turbulent Flow over a two-Dimensional Flat Roof

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Alberto Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The construction of a civil structure inside a urban area inevitably modifies the outdoor microclimate at the building site. Wind speed, wind direction, air pollution, driving rain, radiation and daylight are some of the main physical aspects that are subjected to the major changes. The quantitative amount of these modifications depends on the shape, size and orientation of the building and on its interaction with the surrounding environment.The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine two-dimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data.Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions.The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as a guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a twodimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.

Keywords: CFD, roof, building, wind.

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1868 Investigation of Multiple Material Gate Impact on Short Channel Effects and Reliability of Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs

Authors: Paniz Tafakori, Ali A. Orouji

Abstract:

In this paper the features of multiple material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs are presented and compared with single material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFET structures. The results indicate that the multiple material gate structures reduce short channel effects such as drain induce barrier lowering, hot electron effect and better current characteristics in comparison with single material structures

Keywords: Short-channel effects (SCEs), Dual material gate (DMG), Triple material gate (TMG), Pentamerous material gate (PMG).

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1867 The Optimal Design for Grip Force of Material Handling

Authors: V. Tawiwat, S. Sarawut

Abstract:

Applied a mouse-s roller with a gripper to increase the efficiency for a gripper can learn to a material handling without slipping. To apply a gripper, we use the optimize principle to develop material handling by use a signal for checking a roller mouse that rotate or not. In case of the roller rotates means that the material slips. A gripper will slide to material handling until the roller will not rotate. As this experiment has test material handling for comparing a grip force that uses to material handling of the 10-human with the applied gripper. We can summarize that human exert the material handling more than the applied gripper. Because of the gripper can exert more befit to material handling than human and may be a minimum force to lift a material without slipping.

Keywords: Optimize, Gripper, Mouse's Roller, Minimum Force.

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1866 Modelling for Roof Failure Analysis in an Underground Cave

Authors: M. Belén Prendes-Gero, Celestino González-Nicieza, M. Inmaculada Alvarez-Fernández

Abstract:

Roof collapse is one of the problems with a higher frequency in most of the mines of all countries, even now. There are many reasons that may cause the roof to collapse, namely the mine stress activities in the mining process, the lack of vigilance and carelessness or the complexity of the geological structure and irregular operations. This work is the result of the analysis of one accident produced in the “Mary” coal exploitation located in northern Spain. In this accident, the roof of a crossroad of excavated galleries to exploit the “Morena” Layer, 700 m deep, collapsed. In the paper, the work done by the forensic team to determine the causes of the incident, its conclusions and recommendations are collected. Initially, the available documentation (geology, geotechnics, mining, etc.) and accident area were reviewed. After that, laboratory and on-site tests were carried out to characterize the behaviour of the rock materials and the support used (metal frames and shotcrete). With this information, different hypotheses of failure were simulated to find the one that best fits reality. For this work, the software of finite differences in three dimensions, FLAC 3D, was employed. The results of the study confirmed that the detachment was originated as a consequence of one sliding in the layer wall, due to the large roof span present in the place of the accident, and probably triggered as a consequence of the existence of a protection pillar insufficient. The results allowed to establish some corrective measures avoiding future risks. For example, the dimensions of the protection zones that must be remained unexploited and their interaction with the crossing areas between galleries, or the use of more adequate supports for these conditions, in which the significant deformations may discourage the use of rigid supports such as shotcrete. At last, a grid of seismic control was proposed as a predictive system. Its efficiency was tested along the investigation period employing three control equipment that detected new incidents (although smaller) in other similar areas of the mine. These new incidents show that the use of explosives produces vibrations which are a new risk factor to analyse in a next future.

Keywords: Forensic analysis, hypothesis modelling, roof failure, seismic monitoring.

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1865 Selection of Material for Gear Used in Fuel Pump Using Graph Theory and Matrix Approach

Authors: Sahil, Rajeev Saha, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

Material selection is one of the key issues for the production of reliable and quality products in industries. A number of materials are available for a single product due to which material selection become a difficult task. The aim of this paper is to select appropriate material for gear used in fuel pump by using Graph Theory and Matrix Approach (GTMA). GTMA is a logical and systematic approach that can be used to model and analyze various engineering systems. In present work, four alternative material and their seven attributes are used to identify the best material for given product.

Keywords: Material, GTMA, MADM, digraph, decision making.

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1864 Transfer Function of Piezoelectric Material

Authors: C. Worakitjaroenphon, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, Stability, S-Domain, Transfer function

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