Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: ArcGIS

20 Development of an ArcGIS Toolbar for Trend Analysis of Climatic Data

Authors: Arnab Bandyopadhyay, Anubhab Pal, Subhajit Debnath

Abstract:

Climate change is a cumulative change in weather patterns over a period of time. Trend analysis using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test may help to determine the existence and magnitude of any statistically significant trend in the climatic data. Another index called Sen slope may be used to quantify the magnitude of such trends. A toolbar extension to ESRI ArcGIS named Arc Trends has been developed in this study for performing the above mentioned tasks. To study the temporal trend of meteorological parameters, 32 years (1971-2002) monthly meteorological data were collected for 133 selected stations over different agro-ecological regions of India. Both the maximum and minimum temperatures were found to be rising. A significant increasing trend in the relative humidity and a consistent significant decreasing trend in the wind speed all over the country were found. However, a general increase in rainfall was not found in recent years.

Keywords: Temporal trend, climate change, ArcGIS, Mann- Kendall test, Sen slope

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19 The Potential of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting as a Water Resource in Jordan: Featuring Two Application Case Studies

Authors: Zain M. Al-Houri, Oday K. Abu-Hadba, Khaled A. Hamdan

Abstract:

Roof top rainwater harvesting (RWH) has been carried out worldwide to provide an inexpensive source of water for many people. This research aims at evaluating the potential of roof top rain water harvesting as a resource in Jordan. For the purpose of this work, two case studies at Al-Jubiha and Shafa-Badran districts in Amman city were selected. All existing rooftops in both districts were identified by digitizing 2012 satellite images of the two districts using Google earth and ArcGIS tools. Rational method was used to estimate the potential volume of rainwater that can be harvested from the digitized rooftops. Results indicated that 1.17 and 0.526 MCM/yr can be harvested in Al-Jubiha and Shafa-Badran districts, respectively. This study should increase the attention to the importance of implementing RWH technique in Jordanian residences as a viable alternative for ensuring a continued source of non-potable water.

Keywords: Amman districts, ArcGIS, Rational method, Roof top rain water harvesting.

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18 Thailand National Biodiversity Database System with webMathematica and Google Earth

Authors: W. Katsarapong, W. Srisang, K. Jaroensutasinee, M. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

National Biodiversity Database System (NBIDS) has been developed for collecting Thai biodiversity data. The goal of this project is to provide advanced tools for querying, analyzing, modeling, and visualizing patterns of species distribution for researchers and scientists. NBIDS data record two types of datasets: biodiversity data and environmental data. Biodiversity data are specie presence data and species status. The attributes of biodiversity data can be further classified into two groups: universal and projectspecific attributes. Universal attributes are attributes that are common to all of the records, e.g. X/Y coordinates, year, and collector name. Project-specific attributes are attributes that are unique to one or a few projects, e.g., flowering stage. Environmental data include atmospheric data, hydrology data, soil data, and land cover data collecting by using GLOBE protocols. We have developed webbased tools for data entry. Google Earth KML and ArcGIS were used as tools for map visualization. webMathematica was used for simple data visualization and also for advanced data analysis and visualization, e.g., spatial interpolation, and statistical analysis. NBIDS will be used by park rangers at Khao Nan National Park, and researchers.

Keywords: GLOBE protocol, Biodiversity, Database System, ArcGIS, Google Earth and webMathematica.

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17 Building an Interactive Web-Based GIS System for Planning of Geological Survey Works

Authors: Wu Defu, Kiefer Chiam, Yang Kin Seng

Abstract:

The planning of geological survey works is an iterative process which involves planner, geologist, civil engineer and other stakeholders, who perform different roles and have different points of view. Traditionally, the team used paper maps or CAD drawings to present the proposal which is not an efficient way to present and share idea on the site investigation proposal such as sitting of borehole location or seismic survey lines. This paper focuses on how a GIS approach can be utilised to develop a webbased system to support decision making process in the planning of geological survey works and also to plan site activities carried out by Singapore Geological Office (SGO). The authors design a framework of building an interactive web-based GIS system, and develop a prototype, which enables the users to obtain rapidly existing geological information and also to plan interactively borehole locations and seismic survey lines via a web browser. This prototype system is used daily by SGO and has shown to be effective in increasing efficiency and productivity as the time taken in the planning of geological survey works is shortened. The prototype system has been developed using the ESRI ArcGIS API 3.7 for Flex which is based on the ArcGIS 10.2.1 platform.

Keywords: Engineering geology, Flex, Geological survey planning, Geoscience, GIS, Site investigation, WebGIS.

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16 Identifying Neighborhoods at Potential Risk of Food Insecurity in Rural British Columbia

Authors: Amirmohsen Behjat, Aleck Ostry, Christina Miewald, Bernie Pauly

Abstract:

Substantial research has indicated that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics’ of neighborhoods are strong determinants of food security. The aim of this study was to develop a Food Insecurity Neighborhood Index (FINI) based on the associated socioeconomic and demographic variables to identify the areas at potential risk of food insecurity in rural British Columbia (BC). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used to calculate the FINI for each rural Dissemination Area (DA) using the food security determinant variables from Canadian Census data. Using ArcGIS, the neighborhoods with the top quartile FINI values were classified as food insecure. The results of this study indicated that the most food insecure neighborhood with the highest FINI value of 99.1 was in the Bulkley-Nechako (central BC) area whereas the lowest FINI with the value of 2.97 was for a rural neighborhood in the Cowichan Valley area. In total, 98.049 (19%) of the rural population of British Columbians reside in high food insecure areas. Moreover, the distribution of food insecure neighborhoods was found to be strongly dependent on the degree of rurality in BC. In conclusion, the cluster of food insecure neighbourhoods was more pronounced in Central Coast, Mount Wadington, Peace River, Kootenay Boundary, and the Alberni-Clayoqout Regional Districts.

Keywords: Neighbourhood food insecurity index, socioeconomic and demographic determinants, principal component analysis, Canada Census, ArcGIS.

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15 Application of RS and GIS Technique for Identifying Groundwater Potential Zone in Gomukhi Nadhi Sub Basin, South India

Authors: Punitha Periyasamy, Mahalingam Sudalaimuthu, Sachikanta Nanda, Arasu Sundaram

Abstract:

India holds 17.5% of the world’s population but has only 2% of the total geographical area of the world where 27.35% of the area is categorized as wasteland due to lack of or less groundwater. So there is a demand for excessive groundwater for agricultural and non agricultural activities to balance its growth rate. With this in mind, an attempt is made to find the groundwater potential zone in Gomukhi Nadhi sub basin of Vellar River basin, TamilNadu, India covering an area of 1146.6 Sq.Km consists of 9 blocks from Peddanaickanpalayam to Virudhachalam in the sub basin. The thematic maps such as Geology, Geomorphology, Lineament, Landuse and Landcover and Drainage are prepared for the study area using IRS P6 data. The collateral data includes rainfall, water level, soil map are collected for analysis and inference. The digital elevation model (DEM) is generated using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the slope of the study area is obtained. ArcGIS 10.1 acts as a powerful spatial analysis tool to find out the ground water potential zones in the study area by means of weighted overlay analysis. Each individual parameter of the thematic maps are ranked and weighted in accordance with their influence to increase the water level in the ground. The potential zones in the study area are classified viz., Very Good, Good, Moderate, Poor with its aerial extent of 15.67, 381.06, 575.38, 174.49 Sq.Km respectively.

Keywords: ArcGIS, DEM, Groundwater, Recharge, Weighted Overlay.

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14 Landscape Pattern Evolution and Optimization Strategy in Wuhan Urban Development Zone, China

Authors: Feng Yue, Fei Dai

Abstract:

With the rapid development of urbanization process in China, its environmental protection pressure is severely tested. So, analyzing and optimizing the landscape pattern is an important measure to ease the pressure on the ecological environment. This paper takes Wuhan Urban Development Zone as the research object, and studies its landscape pattern evolution and quantitative optimization strategy. First, remote sensing image data from 1990 to 2015 were interpreted by using Erdas software. Next, the landscape pattern index of landscape level, class level, and patch level was studied based on Fragstats. Then five indicators of ecological environment based on National Environmental Protection Standard of China were selected to evaluate the impact of landscape pattern evolution on the ecological environment. Besides, the cost distance analysis of ArcGIS was applied to simulate wildlife migration thus indirectly measuring the improvement of ecological environment quality. The result shows that the area of land for construction increased 491%. But the bare land, sparse grassland, forest, farmland, water decreased 82%, 47%, 36%, 25% and 11% respectively. They were mainly converted into construction land. On landscape level, the change of landscape index all showed a downward trend. Number of patches (NP), Landscape shape index (LSI), Connection index (CONNECT), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Aggregation index (AI) separately decreased by 2778, 25.7, 0.042, 0.6, 29.2%, all of which indicated that the NP, the degree of aggregation and the landscape connectivity declined. On class level, the construction land and forest, CPLAND, TCA, AI and LSI ascended, but the Distribution Statistics Core Area (CORE_AM) decreased. As for farmland, water, sparse grassland, bare land, CPLAND, TCA and DIVISION, the Patch Density (PD) and LSI descended, yet the patch fragmentation and CORE_AM increased. On patch level, patch area, Patch perimeter, Shape index of water, farmland and bare land continued to decline. The three indexes of forest patches increased overall, sparse grassland decreased as a whole, and construction land increased. It is obvious that the urbanization greatly influenced the landscape evolution. Ecological diversity and landscape heterogeneity of ecological patches clearly dropped. The Habitat Quality Index continuously declined by 14%. Therefore, optimization strategy based on greenway network planning is raised for discussion. This paper contributes to the study of landscape pattern evolution in planning and design and to the research on spatial layout of urbanization.

Keywords: Landscape pattern, optimization strategy, ArcGIS, Erdas, landscape metrics, landscape architecture.

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13 The Digital Filing Cabinet–A GIS Based Management Solution Tool for the Land Surveyor and Engineer

Authors: A. Giraldo, A. Lapatka, A. Namyslak, S. Pilny, J. B. Miima

Abstract:

This paper explains how the New Jersey Institute of Technology surveying student team members designed and created an interactive GIS map, the purpose of which is to be useful to the land surveyor and engineer for project management. This was achieved by building a research and storage database that can be easily integrated into any land surveyor’s current operations through the use of ArcGIS 10, Arc Catalog, and AutoCAD. This GIS database allows for visual representation and information querying for multiple job sites, and simple access to uploaded data, which is geospatially referenced to each individual job site or project. It can also be utilized by engineers to determine design criteria, or to store important files. This cost-effective approach to a surveying map not only saves time, but saves physical storage space and paper resources.

Keywords: Data Storage, GIS, Land Surveying, Mapping.

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12 Development of Road Maintenance Management System Based on WebGIS

Authors: Feng Xiao, Zhou Hongyu, YuCaixia

Abstract:

Based on an analysis of the current research and application of Road maintenance, geographic information system (WebGIS) and ArcGIS Server, the platform overhead construction for Road maintenance development is studied and the key issues are presented, including the organization and design of spatial data on the basis of the geodatabase technology, middleware technology, tiles cache index technology and dynamic segmentation of WebGIS. Road maintenance geographic information platform is put forward through the researching ideas of analysis of the system design. The design and application of WebGIS system are discussed on the basis of a case study of BaNan district of Chongqing highway maintenance management .The feasibility of the theories and methods are validated through the system.

Keywords: WebGIS, Tile, Road maintenance, dynamic segmentation

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11 Mapping Soil Fertility at Different Scales to Support Sustainable Brazilian Agriculture

Authors: Rachel Bardy Prado, Vinícius de Melo Benites, José Carlos Polidoro, Carlos Eduardo Gonçalves, Alexey Naumov

Abstract:

Most agricultural crops cultivated in Brazil are highly nutrient demanding. Brazilian soils are generally acidic with low base saturation and available nutrients. Demand for fertilizer application has increased because the national agricultural sector expansion. To improve productivity without environmental impact, there is the need for the utilization of novel procedures and techniques to optimize fertilizer application. This includes the digital soil mapping and GIS application applied to mapping in different scales. This paper is based on research, realized during 2005 to 2010 by Brazilian Corporation for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA) and its partners. The purpose was to map soil fertility in national and regional scales. A soil profile data set in national scale (1:5,000,000) was constructed from the soil archives of Embrapa Soils, Rio de Janeiro and in the regional scale (1:250,000) from COMIGO Cooperative soil data set, Rio Verde, Brazil. The mapping was doing using ArcGIS 9.1 tools from ESRI.

Keywords: agricultural sustainability, fertilizer optimization, GIS, soil attributes.

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10 Flood-Induced River Disruption: Geomorphic Imprints and Topographic Effects in Kelantan River Catchment from Kemubu to Kuala Besar, Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamad Muqtada Ali Khan, Nor Ashikin Shaari, Donny Adriansyah Bin Nazaruddin, Hafzan Eva Bt Mansoor

Abstract:

Floods play a key role in landform evolution of an area. This process is likely to alter the topography of the earth’s surface. The present study area, Kota Bharu is very prone to floods extends from upstream of Kelantan River near Kemubu to the downstream area near Kuala Besar. These flood events which occur every year in the study area exhibit a strong bearing on river morphological set-up. In the present study, three satellite imageries of different time periods have been used to manifest the post-flood landform changes. The pre-processing of the images such as subset, geometric corrections and atmospheric corrections were carried-out using ENVI 4.5 followed by the analysis processes. Twenty sets of cross sections were plotted using software Erdas 9.2, ERDAS and ArcGis 10 for the all three images. The results show a significant change in the length of the cross section which suggest that the geomorphological processes play a key role in carving and shaping the river banks during the floods. 

Keywords: Flood Induced, Geomorphic imprints, Kelantan river, Malaysia.

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9 Urban Areas Management in Developing Countries: Analysis of the Urban Areas Crossed with Risk of Storm Water Drains, Aswan-Egypt

Authors: Omar Hamdy, Schichen Zhao, Hussein Abd El-Atty, Ayman Ragab, Muhammad Salem

Abstract:

One of the most risky areas in Aswan is Abouelreesh, which is suffering from flood disasters, as heavy deluge inundates urban areas causing considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the main problem was the urban sprawl towards this risky area. This paper aims to identify the urban areas located in the risk areas prone to flash floods. Analyzing this phenomenon needs a lot of data to ensure satisfactory results; however, in this case the official data and field data were limited, and therefore, free sources of satellite data were used. This paper used ArcGIS tools to obtain the storm water drains network by analyzing DEM files. Additionally, historical imagery in Google Earth was studied to determine the age of each building. The last step was to overlay the urban area layer and the storm water drains layer to identify the vulnerable areas. The results of this study would be helpful to urban planners and government officials to make the disasters risk estimation and develop primary plans to recover the risky area, especially urban areas located in torrents.

Keywords: Risk area, DEM, storm water drains, GIS.

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8 Research on Landscape Pattern Revolution of Land Use in Fuxian Lake Basin Based on RS and GIS

Authors: Jing Zhou, Li Wu

Abstract:

Based on the remote image data of land use in the four periods of 1980, 1995, 2005 and 2015, this study quantitatively analyzed the dynamic variation of landscape transfer and landscape pattern in the Fuxian Lake basin by constructing a land use dynamic variation model and using ArcGIS 10.5 and Fragstats 4.2. The results indicate that: (1) From the perspective of land use landscape transfer, the intensity of land use is slowly rising from 1980 to 2015, and the main reduction landscape type is farmland and its net amount of transfer-out is the most among all transfer-outs, which is to 788.85 hm2, the main added landscape type is construction land and its net amount of transfer-in is the most, which is to 475.23 hm2. Meanwhile, the land use landscape variation in the stage of 2005-2015 showed the most severe among three periods when compared with other two stages. (2) From the perspective of land use landscape variation, significant spatial differences are shown, the changes in the north of the basin are significantly higher than that in the south, the west coast are apparently higher than the east. (3) From the perspective of landscape pattern index, the number of plaques is on the increase in the periods of 35 years in the basin, and there is little mutual interference between landscape patterns because the plaques are relatively discrete. Cultivated land showed a trend of fragmentation but constructive land showed trend of relative concentration. The sustainable development and biodiversity in this basin are under threat for the fragmented landscape pattern and the poorer connectivity.

Keywords: Land use, landscape pattern evolution, landscape pattern index, Fuxian Lake basin.

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7 A Remote Sensing Approach for Vulnerability and Environmental Change in Apodi Valley Region, Northeast Brazil

Authors: Mukesh Singh Boori, Venerando Eustáquio Amaro

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of vulnerability and environmental change; it's causes basically show the intensity, its distribution and human-environment effect on the ecosystem in the Apodi Valley Region, This paper is identify, assess and classify vulnerability and environmental change in the Apodi valley region using a combined approach of landscape pattern and ecosystem sensitivity. Models were developed using the following five thematic layers: Geology, geomorphology, soil, vegetation and land use/cover, by means of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-based on hydro-geophysical parameters. In spite of the data problems and shortcomings, using ESRI-s ArcGIS 9.3 program, the vulnerability score, to classify, weight and combine a number of 15 separate land cover classes to create a single indicator provides a reliable measure of differences (6 classes) among regions and communities that are exposed to similar ranges of hazards. Indeed, the ongoing and active development of vulnerability concepts and methods have already produced some tools to help overcome common issues, such as acting in a context of high uncertainties, taking into account the dynamics and spatial scale of asocial-ecological system, or gathering viewpoints from different sciences to combine human and impact-based approaches. Based on this assessment, this paper proposes concrete perspectives and possibilities to benefit from existing commonalities in the construction and application of assessment tools.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Land use/cover, Ecosystem, Remotesensing, GIS.

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6 Landcover Mapping Using Lidar Data and Aerial Image and Soil Fertility Degradation Assessment for Rice Production Area in Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Eliza. E. Camaso, Guiller. B. Damian, Miguelito. F. Isip, Ronaldo T. Alberto

Abstract:

Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure   accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provides estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines-BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.

Keywords: Aerial image, land-cover, LiDAR, soil fertility degradation.

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5 Analysis of the Physical Behavior of Library Users in Reading Rooms through GIS: A Case Study of the Central Library of Tehran University

Authors: R. Pournaghi

Abstract:

Taking into account the significance of measuring the daily use of the study space in the libraries in order to develop and reorganize the space for enhancing the efficiency of the study space, the current study aimed to apply GIS in analyzing the study halls of the Central Library and Document Center of Tehran University in order to determine how study desks and chairs were used by the students. The study used a combination of survey-descriptive and system design method. In order to gather the required data, surveydescriptive method was used. For implementing and entering data into ArcGIS and analyzing the data and displaying the results on the maps of the study halls of the library, system design method was utilized. The design of the spatial database of the use of the study halls was measured through the extent of occupancy of the space by the library users and the maps of the study halls of the central library of Tehran University as the case study. The results showed that Abooreyhan hall had the highest rate of occupancy of the desks and chairs compared to the other halls. The Hall of Science and Technology, with an average occupancy rate of 0.39 for the tables represented the lowest number of users and Rashid al-Dins hall, and Science and Technology hall with an average occupancy rate (0.40) had the lowest number of users for seats. In this study, the comparison of the space occupied at different periods in the morning, evenings, afternoons, and several months was performed through GIS. This system analyzed the space relationships effectively and efficiently. The output of this study would be used by administrators and librarians to determine the exact extent of use of the equipment of the study halls and librarians can use the output map to design the space more efficiently at the library.

Keywords: Geospatial Information System, Spatial analysis, Reading Room, Academic libraries, Library’s User, Central Library of Tehran University.

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4 Rice Area Determination Using Landsat-Based Indices and Land Surface Temperature Values

Authors: Burçin Saltık, Levent Genç

Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to determine a route for identification of rice cultivation areas within Thrace and Marmara regions of Turkey using remote sensing and GIS. Landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS) imageries acquired in production season of 2013 with 181/32 Path/Row number were used. Four different seasonal images were generated utilizing original bands and different transformation techniques. All images were classified individually using supervised classification techniques and Land Use Land Cover Maps (LULC) were generated with 8 classes. Areas (ha, %) of each classes were calculated. In addition, district-based rice distribution maps were developed and results of these maps were compared with Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkSTAT; TSI)’s actual rice cultivation area records. Accuracy assessments were conducted, and most accurate map was selected depending on accuracy assessment and coherency with TSI results. Additionally, rice areas on over 4° slope values were considered as mis-classified pixels and they eliminated using slope map and GIS tools. Finally, randomized rice zones were selected to obtain maximum-minimum value ranges of each date (May, June, July, August, September images separately) NDVI, LSWI, and LST images to test whether they may be used for rice area determination via raster calculator tool of ArcGIS. The most accurate classification for rice determination was obtained from seasonal LSWI LULC map, and considering TSI data and accuracy assessment results and mis-classified pixels were eliminated from this map. According to results, 83151.5 ha of rice areas exist within study area. However, this result is higher than TSI records with an area of 12702.3 ha. Use of maximum-minimum range of rice area NDVI, LSWI, and LST was tested in Meric district. It was seen that using the value ranges obtained from July imagery, gave the closest results to TSI records, and the difference was only 206.4 ha. This difference is normal due to relatively low resolution of images. Thus, employment of images with higher spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolutions may provide more reliable results.

Keywords: Landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS), LULC, spectral indices, rice.

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3 Urban Heat Island Intensity Assessment through Comparative Study on Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Tausif A. Ishtiaque, Zarrin T. Tasin, Kazi S. Akter

Abstract:

Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.

Keywords: Land cover change, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, urban heat island.

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2 A Geographical Spatial Analysis on the Benefits of Using Wind Energy in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi, Salman Hussain

Abstract:

Wind energy is associated with many geographical factors including wind speed, climate change, surface topography, environmental impacts, and several economic factors, most notably the advancement of wind technology and energy prices. It is the fastest-growing and least economically expensive method for generating electricity. Wind energy generation is directly related to the characteristics of spatial wind. Therefore, the feasibility study for the wind energy conversion system is based on the value of the energy obtained relative to the initial investment and the cost of operation and maintenance. In Kuwait, wind energy is an appropriate choice as a source of energy generation. It can be used in groundwater extraction in agricultural areas such as Al-Abdali in the north and Al-Wafra in the south, or in fresh and brackish groundwater fields or remote and isolated locations such as border areas and projects away from conventional power electricity services, to take advantage of alternative energy, reduce pollutants, and reduce energy production costs. The study covers the State of Kuwait with an exception of metropolitan area. Climatic data were attained through the readings of eight distributed monitoring stations affiliated with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). The data were used to assess the daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual available wind energy accessible for utilization. The researchers applied the Suitability Model to analyze the study by using the ArcGIS program. It is a model of spatial analysis that compares more than one location based on grading weights to choose the most suitable one. The study criteria are: the average annual wind speed, land use, topography of land, distance from the main road networks, urban areas. According to the previous criteria, the four proposed locations to establish wind farm projects are selected based on the weights of the degree of suitability (excellent, good, average, and poor). The percentage of areas that represents the most suitable locations with an excellent rank (4) is 8% of Kuwait’s area. It is relatively distributed as follows: Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdeba, Al-Salmi (5.22%), Al-Abdali (1.22%), Umm al-Hayman (0.70%), North Wafra and Al-Shaqeeq (0.86%). The study recommends to decision-makers to consider the proposed location (No.1), (Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdaba, and Al-Salmi) as the most suitable location for future development of wind farms in Kuwait, this location is economically feasible.

Keywords: Kuwait, renewable energy, spatial analysis, wind energy.

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1 Study on Changes of Land Use impacting the Process of Urbanization, by Using Landsat Data in African Regions: A Case Study in Kigali, Rwanda

Authors: Delphine Mukaneza, Lin Qiao, Wang Pengxin, Li Yan, Chen Yingyi

Abstract:

Human activities on land use make the land-cover gradually change or transit. In this study, we examined the use of Landsat TM data to detect the land use change of Kigali between 1987 and 2009 using remote sensing techniques and analysis of data using ENVI and ArcGIS, a GIS software. Six different categories of land use were distinguished: bare soil, built up land, wetland, water, vegetation, and others. With remote sensing techniques, we analyzed land use data in 1987, 1999 and 2009, changed areas were found and a dynamic situation of land use in Kigali city was found during the 22 years studied. According to relevant Landsat data, the research focused on land use change in accordance with the role of remote sensing in the process of urbanization. The result of the work has shown the rapid increase of built up land between 1987 and 1999 and a big decrease of vegetation caused by the rebuild of the city after the 1994 genocide, while in the period of 1999 to 2009 there was a reduction in built up land and vegetation, after the authority of Kigali city established, a Master Plan where all constructions which were not in the range of the master Plan were destroyed. Rwanda's capital, Kigali City, through the expansion of the urban area, it is increasing the internal employment rate and attracts business investors and the service sector to improve their economy, which will increase the population growth and provide a better life. The overall planning of the city of Kigali considers the environment, land use, infrastructure, cultural and socio-economic factors, the economic development and population forecast, urban development, and constraints specification. To achieve the above purpose, the Government has set for the overall planning of city Kigali, different stages of the detailed description of the design, strategy and action plan that would guide Kigali planners and members of the public in the future to have more detailed regional plans and practical measures. Thus, land use change is significantly the performance of Kigali active human area, which plays an important role for the country to take certain decisions. Another area to take into account is the natural situation of Kigali city. Agriculture in the region does not occupy a dominant position, and with the population growth and socio-economic development, the construction area will gradually rise and speed up the process of urbanization. Thus, as a developing country, Rwanda's population continues to grow and there is low rate of utilization of land, where urbanization remains low. As mentioned earlier, the 1994 genocide massacres, population growth and urbanization processes, have been the factors driving the dramatic changes in land use. The focus on further research would be on analysis of Rwanda’s natural resources, social and economic factors that could be, the driving force of land use change.

Keywords: Land use change, urbanization, Kigali City, Landsat.

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